Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Clausocalanidae ( Family )
            Clausocalanus ( Genus )
Clausocalanus mastigophorus  (Claus, 1863)   (F,M)
Syn.: Calanus mastigophorus Claus, 1863 (p.173, figs.F,M); Thompson, 1888 d (p.139);
Clausocalanus arcuicornis major : Sewell, 1929 (p.92, figs.F); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.116, figs.F,M); ? Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.19, Rem); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.22, Rem.);
C. arcuicornis : Farran, 1936 a (part., p.82, fig.2a); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.116, pl.19); Tanaka, 1960 (part., pl.10, figs.5, 6);
C. arcuicornis sp.1 : Fleminger, 1964 a, 1967 a (tab. I)
Ref.:
Frost & Fleminger, 1968 (p.29, figs.F,M, Rem.); Carli & Crisafi, 1969 (p.277, figs.F); Razouls, 1972 (p.94, Annexe: p.30, 33, figs.F, Rem.); Marques, 1974 (p.14, figs.F); Chen & Zhang, 1974 (p.103); Williams & Wallace, 1975 (p.177, fig.F); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.7, 8, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.628, figs.F,M, Rem.); Alvarez-Marques, 1981 (p.157, figs.F, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.119, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.776, Pl.90,93: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.878, 916, figs.F,M); Bucklin & al., 2003 (p.335, tab.2, fig.1, Biomol); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.79, Pl. 48, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.620, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull; Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1968, 12. [Pl.9, p.118-119; Pl.10, p.120-121; Pl. 11, p.122-123].

Female: 1 a, habitus (right lateral view); 1 b, idem (dorsal view); 1 a-b taken from same specimen; 2 a, b, frontal region (right lateral); 2 c-e, rostrum (right lateral); 2 f, rostrum (anteroventral); 2 g, B2 of P2; 2 h, B2 of P3; 2 i, j, P5; 2 a-c taken from one specimen; 2 b,e from a second specimen; 2 d,f from different specimens; 2 g-h from a fifth; 2 i and j from sixth and seventh specimens, respectively. 3 a, urosome with spermatophore attached (right lateral); 3 b-d, Th.4-5 (posterior part) and genital segment (right lateral); 3 e, genital segment (ventral view); 3 a-e from different specimens.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull; Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [Pl.12, p.124-125; Pl.13, p.126-127].

Male: 1 a, habitus (right lateral view); 1 b, idem (dorsal view); 1 c, frontal region (right lateral); 1 d, urosome (dorsal view, armature of caudal rami incomplete); 1 e, B2 of P2; 1 f, B2 of P3; taken from different specimens; 2 a, Th.4-5 (posterior part) with P5, and urosome (right lateral); 2 b, urosome 4 (posterior part), Ur.5, and caudal rami (dorsal view); 2 d, right P5; taken from fifferent specimens.
Nota: 2nd segment of P5 more than 4.4 times as long as wide. Urosomal segment 2 less than 1.35 times as long as 2nd segment of P5. Prosome more than 6.45 times as long as urosomal segment 2. Two distal segments of right P5 usually well developed.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Thèse Doc. ès Sciences, Univ. P & M. Curie, Paris , Tome annexe, 1972, Fig.30 (unpublished).
Female (from Banyuls): A, habitus (left lateral side); B, rostrum (lateral view); C, basipod 2 of P2; D, basipod 2 of P3; D, P5.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Thèse Doc. ès Sciences, Univ. P & M. Curie, Paris , Tome annexe, 1972, Fig.31 (unpublished).
Female (from Banyuls): A, B, C, rostrum from different specimens (lateral view); D, anal segment and furcal rami.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1929, X. [p.92, Fig.36]. As Clausocalanus arcuicornis forma major.
Female (from Nankauri Harbour): a, genital segment (ventral); b, P1; c, P2; d, P3; e, P4; f, P5.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.30, Table 2a].
Clausocalanus mastigophorus females: Measurements and ratios *.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.31, Table 2b].
Clausocalanus mastigophorus males: Measurements and ratios *.
r = sample range; m = sample mean; n = number of specimens measured; s = sample standard deviation.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.111, P1.5].
Female: a, A1; b, A2; c, Mxp.
Total length of all setae on A2 and Mxp not shown.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.103, P1.6].
Female: a, Md (mandibular palp); b, Md (cutting edge of mandibular gnathobase); c, Mx1; d, Mxp.
Total length of all setae on these appendages not shown.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.115, P1.7].
Male: a, A1; b, fused segments 20-21 of A1; c, A2.
Total length of all setae on A2 not shown.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.117, P1.8].
Male: a, Md (mandibular palp); b, Mx1; c, Mx2; d, Mxp.
Total length of all setae on mouthparts not shown.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.27, Fig.10].
Urosomal segment 2:segment 2 of P5 length ratio (ordinate) plotted against urosomal segment 2 length tabscissa) for males of Clausocalanus mastigophorus and C. lividus.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.18, Fig.1].
Female caudal ramus length-to-width ratio (ordinate) plotted against caudal ramus length (abscissa) for Clausocalanus mastigophorus and C. lividus.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.121, Pl.10, c-e, f].
Female: c-e, rostrum (right lateral); f, rostrum (anteroventral).


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.127, Pl.13, a, c, d].
Male: a, posterior part of last thoracic segments and urosome (right lateral); c, P5 (right lateral); d, right P5 (anterior).;


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.125, Pl.12, e, f].
Male: e, basipodite 2 of P2; f, basipodite 2 of P3.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.123, Pl.11, e, d].
Female: d, posterior part of last thoracic segment and genital segment (right lateral); e, genital segment (ventral; see legend of structure of seminal receptacle in C. arcuicornis).


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.34].
Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): A, habitus (lateral); B, rostrum (lateral); C, basipod 2 of P2; D, basipod 2 of P3; E, P5.


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.34].
Female: A-C, various forms of rostum; D, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal).


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Table XXX] (unpublished).
Sizes and ratios in Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): Lt= Bodyl length; C= Cephalolome length; P= prosome length; U= urosome length; U1= 1st urosomal segment; U2= 2nd urosomal length; U3= 3rd urosomal segment; F= caudal ramus length; n= number of specimens; moyenne= mean; Cv= coefficient of variation (percentage).


Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from F. Alvarez-Marques in Rev. Fac. Cienc. Univ. Oviedo (Ser. Biologia), (1979-80), 20-21, 1981. [p.161, Pl. I, Figs.1-2].
Female (from Gijon, NW Spain): 1, urosome and spermatheca (lateral); 2, P5.

Compl. Ref.:
Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Park, 1970 (p.475); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Binet & al., 1972 (p.768); Björnberg, 1973 (p.310, 385); S. Razouls, 1972 b (p.2-, respiration); 1974 (147, oxygen rate); Arashkevich, 1975 (p.351, fig.3, digestion time); Timonin, 1976 (p.79, vertical distribution); Peterson & Miller, 1976 (p.14, Table 1, 3, abundance vs interannual variations); Timonin & Voronina, 1977 (p.289, fig.6); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Peterson & Miller, 1977 (p.717, Table 1, seasonal occurrence); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Scotto di Carlo & Ianora, 1983 (p.150); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1042); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.27); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, 1985 (p.303, occurrence/abundance in E Mediterranean Sea, Rem.: p.310); Greze & al., 1985 (p.7); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Pancucci-Papadopoulou & al., 1990 (p.199); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1991 (p.270); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.72); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.100); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p109); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.23); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou & al., 2000 (tab.I); Fragopoulu & al., 2001 (p.49, tab.1); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Hwang & al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Hsieh & al. 2004 (p.397, tab. 1); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, tab.1, fig.6); Lo & al., 2004 (p.468, tab.2); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Peralba & Mazzocchi, 2004 (p.645, figs.3,6); Vukanic & Vukanic, 2004 (p.9, tab. 2,3); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.42, Rem., chart); Hooff & Peterson 2006 (p.2610); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.24); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.844: Tab.1); Rossi, 2008 (p.90: Tableau XII); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs. stations); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical, Fig.4, 6, 7, Tabe 4); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.425); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, 481: indicator species, Appendix I); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.317, Table 2, indicator of seasonal change); Selifonova, 2011 a (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, fig.6, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Isari & al., 2011 (p.51, Table 2, abundance vs distribution); Mazzocchi & al., 2012 (p.135, annual abundance 1984-2006); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Takahashi M. & al., 2012 (p.393, Table 2, water type index); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Tseng & al., 2013 a (p.1, Table 3, 4, abundance); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Mazzocchi & al., 2014 (p.64, Table 4, 5, abundance); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence).
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Clausocalanus mastigophorus by geographical zones
Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Distribution map 3issued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1968, 12. [p.32, Chart 1, a].
Occurrence of C. mastigophorus in samples examined; closed circles represent samples examined; open circles represent samples in which adults were found; bars through open circles represent samples from which specimens were removed for measurements.
Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Distribution map 4issued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1968, 12. [p.33, Chart 1, b].
Occurrence of C. mastigophorus in samples examined; closed circles represent samples examined; open circles represent samples in which adults were found; bars through open circles represent samples from which specimens were removed for measurements.
Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Distribution map 5issued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.42].
Chart of occurrence in Brazilian waters (sampling between 22°-23° S).
Nota: sampling only 1 specimen.
Species Clausocalanus mastigophorus - Distribution map 6Issued from S. Razouls in XXIII rd Congress of Athens, 3-11 November 1972. [p.2]. Oxygen consumed by individual (adult) in the Banyuls Bay and equivalent carbon asked.
(1) Hydrological season in the stability period: Eté = Summer: 18-20 °C; Hiver = Winter: 13-10°C.
Espèces = species; Saison = Season; Lg céph.= cephalothoracic length; an = individual. Juveniles : copepodites IV and V.
Loc:
South Africa, ? Namibia, Angola (Baia Farta), Congo, Ivorian shelf, Atlant. (SE NW), Morocco- Mauritania, Brazil (S, off Rio de Janeiro, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé), Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, G. of Mexico, Florida, Gulf Stream (41° N,58° W), Bay of Biscay, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, Banyuls, Toulon Harbour, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, G. of Napoli, Strait of Messina, Malta, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Lebanon Basin, Thracian Sea, Black Sea), Indian, Natal, Indonesia (SW Celebes), Australia (North West Cape), Pacif. (equatorial and temperate), China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (S, E, SW, W, Tapong Bay, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon, NE), Japan, off Washington coast, Oregon (off Newport); California, G. of California, La paz (Mexico), Galapagos-Ecuador, SW Australia, Chile
N: 94 ?
Lg.:
(29) F: 1,17; (30) F: 1,84-1,23; M: 1,15-1,05; F: 1,58-1,37; M: 1,27; (202) F: 1,23-1,84: M: 1,05-1,45; (335) F: 1,77-1,53; (784) F: 1,937-1,396; (866) M: 1,1-1,5; (1138) 1,28-1,55; {F: 1,170-1,9370; M: 1,050-1,500}

The mean female size is 1.517 mm (n = 13; SD = 0.2633) and the mean male size is 1.224 mm (n = 7; SD = 0.1874). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.80 (n = 3; SD = 0.0734).
Rem.: epipelagic. For Frost & Fleminger (1968, p.34) females of C. mastigophorus differ from the other Group I females in the form of the seminal receptacle in lateral view. In addition, C. mastigophorus is distinguished from lividus and ingens by the shape of the frontal region of the anterior portion of body including the cephalosome and fused thoracic segment bearing P1 (C-T1) and the form of the rostrum in lateral view. C. mastigophorus is distinguished from laticeps by the shape of the frontal region of the C-T1 in lateral and dorsal view, the Prosome/Urosome length ratio, the length-width ratio of the caudal ramus, and the shape and spacing of basipodite 2 spiniform processes 2 and 3 of P3. Males of C. mastigophorus and lividus can be separated by the Prosome/Urosome, Prosome/Urosomal segment 2, Urosomal segment 2/ 2nd segment of P5, and Urosomal segment 2/3rd segment of P5 length ratios. C. laticeps male is distinct from mastigophorus in the Prosome/Urosomal segment 2 length ratio, the length-width ratio of the caudal ramus, and the form of basipodite 2 spiniform processes 2 and 3 of P3.
See in annex (in Razouls, 1972, p.30-32) the comparisons between the females of this species and Clausocalanus lividus, notably the variability of the rostrum (figs.31 and 33).
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is a fine-filter feeder.
After Benedetti & al. (2018, p.1, Fig.2) this species belonging to the functional group 5 corresponding to small sac-spawning detritivorous.
Last update : 13/11/2020
    to add or edit your remark
  
By Mariluz Fernandez de Puelles 2017-11-15 11:01:43    ( Citation of this remark )
It was found a female of 1.7 mm in the Southwest of the Hierro Island (Canary Archipelago;Latitude = 27º45.87 N; Longitude = 018º10.80 W), in April 2014 at mid day and at the epipelagic strata (0-200 m depth)

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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed June 25, 2021]

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