Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Clausocalanidae ( Family )
            Drepanopus ( Genus )
Drepanopus forcipatus  Giesbrecht, 1888   (F,M)
Syn.: Drepanopus pectinatus : Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.201, figs.F,M:); T. Scott, 1914 (p.8, figs.F,M); Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (p.156, Rem., distribution charts); Ramirez, 1966 (p.11, figs.F); Pallares, 1968 b (p.27, figs.F,M); Arcos, 1975 (Pl.3, figs.F,M)
Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.402, 450, 573); Vervoort, 1957 (p.40); Fagetti, 1962 (p.16); Ramirez, 1969 (p.55, figs.M, Rem.); Arcos, 1975 (p.13, figs.F,M. Indicated by error as D. pectinatus ); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.628, figs.F, M); Bayly, 1982 (p.165, Rem.); Hulsemann, 1985 a ( Rev., p.909, figs.F,M, Rem.); 1991 a (p.107, figs. Juv.,M); 1991 b (p.199, figs. juv.:1-5, F,M); Razouls, 1994 (p.56, figs.F,M); Mazzocchi & al., 1995 (p.166, figs.F,M, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.878, 915, figs.F,M); Bucklin & al., 2003 (p.335, tab.2, figs.1, 4, Biomol); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 1, Appendix 1, biogeography from Southern Ocean); Xavier & al., 2020 (p.21, fig., Rem.).
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from: M.G. Mazzocchi, G. Zagami, A. Ianora, L. Guglielmo & J. Hure in Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellan. Copepods. L. Guglielmo & A. Ianora (Eds.), 1995. [p.167, Fig.3.29.1].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, urosome (lateral right side).
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 41:19:13:11:16 = 100. P5 with bulbous base, terminal spine bent distally and ornated with 30 or more small teeth.

Male: C, habitus (dorsal); D, P5.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 9:37:18:14:10:12 = 100. A1 with 3 conspicuous patches of long spinules at base. A2 with a row of curved spines at the base of its inner side. Left P5 bears 2 distinct patches of spines on the inner margin of the exopod 1.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from: M.G. Mazzocchi, G. Zagami, A. Ianora, L. Guglielmo & J. Hure in Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellan. Copepods. L. Guglielmo & A. Ianora (Eds.), 1995. [p.168, Fig.3.29.2].
Female (SEM preparation): A, habitus (lateral left side); B, idem (dorsal); C, urosome (dorsal); D, eggs being spawned from the genital aperture; E, P5.
Bars: A, B, C 0.100 mm; D 0.050 mm; E 0.010 mm.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.56, Lam. IX, fig.63 ].
Male (from off Mar del Plata): 63, P5.
Scale bar in mm: 0.05.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.50, Lam. VIII, fig.56 ].
Male (from off Mar del Plata): 56, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bar in mm: 0.1.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Bol. Inst. Biol. Mar., Mar del Plata, 1966, 11. [Lam.II, Figs.9-16]
As Drepanopus pectinatus. Female (from off Mar del Plata): 9, habitus (dorsal); 10, posterior part cephalothorax with P5 and urosome (lateral left side); 11, A1; 12, P1; 13, P2; 14, exopod of P3; 15, P5; 16, P5 (side-face).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.915, Figs.14, 16-19].
Female: 14, 16, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 17, right A2; 18, right Md (mandible blade); 19, md (bitting edge, enlarged).
Scale bars: 0.5 mm (Figs. 14, 16); 0.2 mm (Figs.17, 18); 0.1 mm (Fig.19).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.918, Figs.23, 24, 27-29].
Female: 23, P5 (ventral view); 24, right P5 (lateral view); 27, terminal spine of left P2; 28, genital segment with spermatophore (lateral); 29, idem (ventral).
Scale bars: 0.2 mm (Figs.23, 24, 28, 29); 0.1 mm (Fig.27).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.912, Figs.2-4, 6].
Male: 2, habitus (lateral); 3, right A2; 4, right A2 (enlarggement of basis); 6, P5 (anterior view).
Scale bars: 0.5 mm (Fig.2); 0.2 mm (Figs.3, 6).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.914, Figs.7, 8, 10, 12].
Male: 7, right A1; 8, left A1 (segments 18-22); 10, habitus (dorsal); 12, right Md (mandible blade).
Scale bars: 0.5 mm (Fig10); 0.2 mm (Figs.7, 8); 0.1 mm (Fig.12).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.916, Table III].
Total length and prosome:urosome length ratio in adult females. n = 30 individuals.
sta. WS 42: 54°42'S, 36°47'W; sta. WH 301: 54°48'S, 35°37'W.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.917, Table V].
Various ratios between selected dimensions in genital segment of adult females. n = 30 individuals.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.913, Table I].
Total length and prosome:urosome length ratio in adult males. n = 30 individuals.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : D.F.R. Arcos in Gayana, Zool., 1975, 32. [Lam.III, Figs.22-27]. As Drepanopus pectinatus.
Female (from Bahia de Concepcion, Chile): 22, P5; 23, P4; 24, P3; 25, P2.

Male: 26, forehead (dorsal); 27, P5.


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 36, Figs.37, 38]. As Drepanopus pectinatus.
Female: 37, habitus (lateral); 38, urosome (ventral).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Fig.27]. As Drepanopus pectinatus.
Female: 27, P1 (anterior surface).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Fig.28]. As Drepanopus pectinatus
Female: 23, A2 (anterior view); 24, Md; 25, Mx1 (posterior view)


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Fig.30]. As Drepanopus pectinatus.
Female: 30, P5 (posterior surface).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 36, Fig.36]. As Drepanopus pectinatus.
Male:


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Fig.29]. As Drepanopus pectinatus.
Male: 29, P5 (posterior view).


Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Ann. Inst. Océanogr., 1994, NS. 70 (1). [p.57, Pl. 20].
P5 female comparison between D. pectinatus (3), and D. forcipatus (6).

Compl. Ref.:
C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.200); Björnberg, 1973 (p.317, 385, carte); Arcos, 1976 (p.85, Rem.: p.91, Table II); Schnack & al., 1985 (p.256, fig.4); Dearborn & al., 1986 (p.1, predation by benthic star); Ferrari & Dearborn, 1989 (p.1315, predator); Ward, 1989 (p.141, distribution, tab.2); North & Ward, 1990 (p.299, predation by larval fish); Atkinson & al., 1990 (tab.1); Santos & Ramirez, 1991 (p.79, 80, 82, 83); Øresland & Ward, 1993 (p.73, Rem.: p.77, predation by Euchaeta); Atkinson, 1994 (p.551, feeding selectivity); Fernandez Araoz, 1991 (p.575); Santos & Ramirez, 1995 (p.133, Tabl. I, fig.2, 3); Ward & al., 1995 (p.195, abundance, biomass, vertical distribution); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, Appendix); Cripps & Atkinson, 2000 (p.31, Rem: Fatty acid); Sabatini & al., 2001 (p.245, figs.6, 7, 8); Ward & al., 2002 (p.2183, tab.2); Marrari & al., 2004 (p.667, tab.1); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.485, tab.1); Berasategui & al., 2006 (p.485: fig.2); Ward & al., 2006 (p.83: tab.4); Biancalana & al., 2007 (p.83, Tab.2, 3); Ward & al., 2007 (p.1871, Table 2, fig.6, abundance); Ward & al., 2008 (p.241, Tabls, Appendix II ); Sabatini, 2008 (p.981, life history); Muelbert & al., 2008 (p.1662, Table 1); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, fig.2, 4, Table 2, cluster analysis); Antacli & al., 2010 (p.71, Table 1, 2, Figs.3, 6); Guglielmo & al., 2012 (p.1301, Table 3); Ward & al., 2012 (p.78, Table B1, abundance); Sabatini & al., 2012 (p. 33, Table 3, abundance vs stations transect); Spinelli & al., 2012 (p.39, potential prey for fish); Aguirre & al., 2012 (p.341, Table I: abundance vs season, figs.4, 7); Hidalgo & al., 2012 (p.134, Table 2, 3, figs.6, 8, occurrence vs hydrology); Pino-Pinuer & al., 2014 (p.83, Table 1, fig.3, 4, abundance variation vs time); Fierro Gonzalvez, 2014 (p.1, Tab. 3, 4, 5, occurrence, abundance); Antacli & al., 2014 (p.17, occurrence vs community structure); Antacli & al., 2018 (p.295, feeding, reproduction); Acha & al., 2020 (p.1, Table 3: occurrence % vs ecoregions, Table 5: indicator ecoregions).
NZ: 4

Distribution map of Drepanopus forcipatus by geographical zones
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 3
Chart of 1996
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 4issued from : K. Hulsemann in J. Plankton Res., 1985, 7 (6). [p.921, table VII].
Distributional records of D. forcipatus (1985).
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 5Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.200, Fig.3].
Abundance and biomass (g dry mass/m3) profiles for the shelf station (54°48'S, 38°15'W) in January 1990.
Values on the horizontal axes at the base represent abundance and the one above biomass. Solid line = midday haul; hatched line = midnight haul.
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 6Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.198, Fig.1, A (modified C.R.)].
Temperature profile for the shelf station at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°48'S, 38°15'W) in January 1990.
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 7Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.202, Fig.4, A].
Abundance (10/m3) and biomass (g dry mass/m3) profiles at the oceanic station from the shelf break in water 4000 m deep off Bird Island, South Georgia (53°04'S, 39°51'W) in January 1990.
Values on the horizontal axes at the base of each profile represent abundance and the one above biomass. Solid line = midday haul; hatched line = midnight haul.
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 8Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.198, Fig.1, B (modified C.R.)].
Profile temperature-depth at the oceanic stations from the shelf break in water 4000 m deep off Bird Island, South Georgia, in January 1990.
Species Drepanopus forcipatus - Distribution map 9Issued from : G.A. Aguirre, F.L. Capitanio, G.A. Lovrich & G.B. Esnal in Mar. Biol. Res., 2012, 8. [p.349, Fig. 7 E, F].
Abundance (ind/m3) distribution of Drepanopus forcipatus during March 2006 and June 2006 in the Beagle Channel.
In this area the surface water temperature ranges from 4.2-4.3°C in August to 8.9-9.8°C in Juanary, while the salinity ranges from 26.7 psu in November-December to 31.3 psu during July.
According to Klöser (1996) the Channel between the Isla Navarino and the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego has the character of a semi- enclosed water body.
Loc:
Antarct. (N Peninsula, Scotia Sea, South Georgia), Beagle Channel, Magallones region, sub-Antarct. (S South America, Falklands, N South Georgia, Chile (S, Concepcion off Santiago), Ushuaia, Magellan Strait ), Patagonian Shelf, Peninsula Valdés, off Mar del Plata, off Cape San Antonio, Uruguay (continental shelf)
N: 53
Lg.:
(36) F: 1,78-1,39; M: 1,35-1,12; (47) F: 1,9-1,5; M: 1,48-1,22; (115) F: 2,74-1,84; M: 1,94-1,66; (202) F: 1,5-1,9; M: 1,22-1,49; (861) F: 1,79-1,84; M: 1,46-1,48; {F: 1,39-2,74; M: 1,12-1,94}
Rem.: Neritic, littoral.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-250 m.
The curve of the P5 female permits to easily distinguish this species from D. pectinatus.For Hulsemann (1985, p.920) D. forcipatus and D. pectinatus have different and separate geographical ranges. D. forcipatus is restricted to Atlantic and Pacific coastal and shelf areas along southern South America, including the falklands, and around South Georgia. Lee (1966) reported the species from two stations in the southern Drake Passage (Bransfield Strait). If specimens of Drepanopus did occur at these localities, Hulsemann suspects that they belong to a population separate and distinct from D. forcipatus. The 200 m isobath marks the edge of the continental and islands shelves. It narrowly hugs the Pacific coast of South America, but moves far offshore on the Atlantic side of the continent thereby embracing the Falkland Islands. it is also very close to South Georgia and to the islands in the Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica. The seaward limit to the distribution of the species coincides with the extent of the shelf although concentrations of these copepods are highest near the coast. Grindley and Lane (1979) and De Decker (1984) expressly mentioned the absence of any species of Drepanopus from zooplankton collected around Marion and Prince Edwards Islands. Samples from the immediate neighborhood of Bouvet Island in 1980 did not show Drepanopus; the coast is formed by steep rocky and icy cliffs, and the surrounding waters are oceanic. In the Indian austral ocean the Antarctic and Subtropical convergences coalesce just north of Crozet and Kerguelen islands into a single convergence zone, effectively eliminating the sub-Antarctic region (see in Ganberoni & al., 1982). These islands, and Heard Island, lie therefore entirely in the Antarctic region. Consequently, this applies as well to the near-shore fauna, of which D. pectinatus is a prominent representative. In contrast, the major area by far of the range of D. forcipatus is situated in sub-Antarctic water, namely around southern South America from 30°S on the Pacific to 36° S on the Atlantic side, and around the Falkland Islands. A considerably smaller area is occupied by the species south of the Antarctic Convergence, at South Georgia. The Antarctic polar frontal zone is thus dividing the area of distribution of D. forcipatus. Hulsemann suggests it represents an effective barrier at the present time (1985) to mixing of the two populations of a species that is, moreover, tied to nearshore, often freshened, surface water; statistically significant differences that have been found in certain mean length ratios in the genital segment of D. forcipatus females between populations from the Patagonian shelf and from South Georgia may be indicators that the populations of the two areas are morphologically and, by implication, genetically distinct.
The patterns of distribution of the species (populations) discussed are readily assignable to provinces within three zoogeographic regions as distinguished by Briggs (1974). D. pctinatus is an endemic of the Kerguelen Province in the sub-Antarctic Region. Its absence from Prince Edward and Marion Islands supports Brigg's supposition that these islands constitute a separate province. The range of D. forcipatus comprises the Magellan Province in the Southern South America Region but extends considerably farther north along the west coast of the continent. The population of D. forcipatus in waters around South Georgia belongs to the South Georgia Province in the Antarctic Region.
Last update : 14/06/2022
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