Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Eucalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Eucalanidae ( Family )
            Subeucalanus ( Genus )
Subeucalanus crassus  (Giesbrecht, 1888)   (F,M)
Syn.: Eucalanus crassus Giesbrecht, 1888; 1892 (p.132, 151, 772, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.22, Rem.); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.233, 242); Cleve, 1904 a (p.189); Esterly, 1905 (p.134, figs.F); Pearson, 1906 (p.7, Rem.); Carl, 1907 (p.16); Farran, 1908 b (p.22); A. Scott, 1909 (p.19); Sewell, 1912 (p.353, 357: Rem.F,M); 1914 a (p.202); With, 1915 (p.53, figs.F); Pesta, 1920 (p.498); Sars, 1925 (p.22); Rose, 1925 (p.151); Farran, 1926 (p.231); Sewell, 1929 (p.50); Farran, 1929 (p.207, 220); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.204); Rose, 1933 a (p.68, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1935 (p.149, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.78); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.23, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.96, figs.F,M); Wilson, 1942 a (p.184); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.110); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.9); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Vervoort, 1946 (p.112, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.46); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.208); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.111); Rose, 1956 (p.459); Tanaka, 1956 (p.269); Kott, 1957 (p.6, 9, 16); Yamazi, 1958 (p.147, Rem.); Marques, 1959 (p.206); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.7, 15); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.107, figs.F,M); Fagetti, 1962 (p.9); Grice & Hart, 1962 (p.287, table 3); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.91, figs.M, Rem.); Ahlstrom & Thrailkill, 1963 (p.57, Table 5, abundance); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.27); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.15, Rem ); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.35, figs.F,M); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution vs mixing Oyashio/Kuroshio region, Table 10); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.19, Table III); Mazza, 1966 (p.69); 1967 (p.70, figs.juv., F,M, p.321, fig.64); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.75); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.13); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.36, figs.F,M); Marques, 1968 a (p.396); Delalo, 1968 (p.137); Koga, 1968 (p.17, fig.: egg); Itoh, 1970 a (p.: tab.1); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.75, figs.F,M); Casanova, 1970 (p.30, fig.2); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Binet & al., 1972 (p.71); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Lefèvre-Lehoërff, 1972 (p.1681); Björnberg, 1972 (p.11, figs. Rem.N); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table II, vertical distribution %); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.327, 334); Fleminger, 1973 (p.978, 979, 983, 999, fig.F); Björnberg, 1973 (p.298, 386); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Nival & al., 1974 (p.231, respiration & excretion); Patel, 1975 (p.659); Vives & al., 1975 (tab.II, III, IV); Marques, 1976 (p.987); Greenwood, 1976 (p.11, figs.F); Sale P.F. & al., 1976 (p.59, table 3); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, Station "S"); Tranter, 1977 (p.596); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Binet, 1979 (p.401, fig.2); Goswami & Goswami, 1979 (p.103, figs.); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.4, figs.F,M); Dessier, 1979 (p.201); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Sreekumaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493, fig.2 cont.); Marques, 1982 (p.752); Paffenhöfer & al., 1982 (p.193, feeding); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); Smith S.L., 1982 (p.1347, Table 5, grazing); Strickler, 1982 (Rem: p.159, behavior); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Gaudy & Boucker, 1983 (p.37, fig.1); De Decker, 1984 (p.315, 346: chart); Strickler, 1984 (p.187, feeding behavior); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1043); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Sazhina, 1985 (p.32, figs.N); Brenning, 1985 a (p.24, Table 2); Longhurst, 1985 (tab.2); Greze & al., 1985 (p.9); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Michel & al., 1986 (p.35); 1986 a (p.75); Diouf & Diallo, 1987 (p.260); Baessa de Aguiar, 1988 (1990) (p.180, figs.F, Rem.F); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.57); Williams D. & al., 1988 (p.580); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 563, Table 1); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Dai & al., 1991 (tab.1); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.106); Rosales & Sepulveda, 1992 (p.38); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23, 26: Rem.); Kim & al., 1993 (p.269); Gajbhiye & Abidi, 1993 (p.137); Hays & al., 1994 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.69); Southward & al., 1995 (p.127, fig.2, 9, distribution vs time); Ramaiah & al., 1996 (p.3); Siokou-Frangou, 1997 (tab.1); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Ramaiah & Nair, 1997 (tab.1); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.789, Pl.100,101: F,M); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.20, 99); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.349); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1, 2); Hwang & al., 1998 (tab.II); Wong & al, 1998 (tab.2); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.8, 30); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Smith S. & al., 1998 (p.2369, Table 6, moonsoon effects); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1999 (p.284, tab.1); Dolganova & al., 1999 (p.13, tab.1); Corten, 1999 (p.191, Table 1, fig.3); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Dalal & Goswami, 2001 (p.22, fig.2); d'Elbée, 2001 (tabl.1); Holmes, 2001 (p.40); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Zerouali & Melhaoui, 2002 (p.91, Tableau I); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.1692); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Osore & al., 2003 (p.69); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.486, tab.2, 3, abundance); Wang & Zuo, 2004 (p.1, Table 2, dominance, origin); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4); Zenetos & al., 2005 (p.63, Rem.: p.82, casual occurrence); Rezai & al., 2005 (p.157, Table 2: spatial & temporal variations); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Brugnano & al., 2010 (p.312, Table 3); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.34, Rem. N); Zakaria & al., 2007 (p.52, Rem.: p.58, Table 1, vs Salinity); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, fig.4, Table 2, cluster analysis); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2); Alvarez-Fernandez & al., 2012 (p.21, Rem.: Table 1); Zaafa & al., 2014 (p.67, Table I, occurrence):
? Eucalanus oculanus Marukawa, 1921 (p.11, figs. ?juv.F, ?juv.M); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.105, figs.F, M = juv.); Koppelmann & Weikert, 2007 (p.266: tab.3); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); Goetze & Ohman, 2010 (p.2117: Rem.); Naz & al., 2012 (p.61, Table 4, relative abundance); Kobari & al., 2013 (p.78, Table 2); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition)
? Eucalanus setiger Brady, 1883 (p.39, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.132); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.30); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.22)
Ref.:
Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.87, 88, figs.F,M, fig. 100); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.878, 912, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.165, figs.F,M, Rem.); Goetze, 2003 (p.2322 & suiv.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.117: figs.F,M); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.108, figs.F,M, Rem.);Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.876, figs.F,M, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.125, figs.F, M); Goetze & Ohman, 2010 (p.2110, Table 1, A1, Fig.5, molecular study, biogeography)
Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.89, Fig.48].
Female (from Fleminger, 1973): A, habitus (dorsal and lateral pattern of integumental organs (black point = sites occuring at 100% frequency, o = 80-99% frequency, x = 10-79% frequency, triangle are sites which are also visible in lateral view but which are assigned to dorsal sets); Female from Tasman Sea: B, habitus (dorsal); C, urosome (dorsal); D, idem (lateral left side); E, Md (mandibular palp).

Male (from Fleminger, 1973): F, habitus (dorsal); G, P5


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.985, Fig.9]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal), a', idem (lateral right side).
Dorsal and lateral pattern of integumental organs (black point = sites occuring at 100% frequency, o = 80-99% frequency, x = 10-79% frequency, triangle are sites which are also visible in lateral view but which are assigned to dorsal sets);


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.968, Fig.1, c (p.969)]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: c, genital segment (lateral right side).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.8]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Female (from Canarias Is.): 1, urosome (ventral); 2, A2; 3, inner lobe of Mx1.

Male: 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, P5.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J.G. Greenwood in Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 1976, 87. [p.15, Fig.15]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Female (from Moreton Bay, E Australia): d, forehead (dorsal); e, posterior metasome and urosome (dorsal); f, Md; g, endopod of P3; h, Mx2.

Male: a, Md (mandibular palp); b, P5; c, habitus (dorsal).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.105, Fig.31, After Marukawa, 1921] . Probably juvenil forms.
Female: posterior part of thorax and urosome (dorsal.

Male: habitus (dorsal); forehead (lateral); S5, P5.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Atlantide Report., 1963, 7. [p.99, Fig.4, d]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Male (from off Liberia): d, P5.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.35, Figs.20, 26-28]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: 20, urosome (ventral); 26, forehead (ventral); 27, idem (lateral); 28, anterior part cephalothorax (dorsal).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.11, Fig.17]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: 17, A2 (posterior view).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.11, Figs.15, 21]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: 15, Md (cutting edge); 21, Md (mandibular palp)


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.11, Figs.8, 10]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: 8, inner lobe 1 (posterior view); 10, basipod 2 of Mx1.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.11, Figs.29, 33, 35]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: 29, P1 (basipod 2 and endopod (anterior view); 33, P2 (posterior view); 35, P2 ( outer margin of exopod; anterior view).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.35, Fig.4]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Male: 4, habitus (dorsal).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.11, Fig.22]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Male: 22, Md (mandibular palp).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.11, Fig.38]; As Eucalanus crassus.
Male: 38, P5.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (2nd edit., 1964). [Pl.9, Figs.7-11]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Female: 7, Md; 10, habitus (dorsal).
Nota: Body hairy. Genital segment much broader than its length, and onion-shaped, between it and the anal segment with 1 segment. Anal segment fused with the caudal rami. left 2nd terminal seta of the caudal ramus is slightly longer than that of the right. The proximal 2 segments of the exopodite of A2 fused; 1st segment of endopodite is about 2 times as long as its broad, and shorter than the 2nd. Endopodite of Md reaches the distal margin of the 2nd segment of basipodite; 12st segment of endopodite with 2 setae, and the 2nd with 4 setae. 2nd lobe of Mx1 absent; 3rd lobe with 3 setae; 2nd segment of basipodite with 5 inner marginal setae.

Male (Juvenile): 8, Mx1; 9, left P5; 11, habitus (dorsal).
Nota: The right leg of P5 is absent. Body length about 3 mm.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.134, Fig.8]. As Eucalanus crassus.
Female (from San Diego region): a, P4; b-c, forehead (lateral and dorsal, respectively); d, urosome (ventral).


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.207, Fig.81].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, Md (mandibular palp); d, g, urosome (lateral and dorsal, respectively); e, forehead (lateral); f, Md (gnathobase); h, P2.

Body length after drawing: F = 2.969 mm.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.109, Fig.60].
Female (from Indonesian Seas): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, last thoracic segments and urosome (lateral right side); d, A2; e, Mx1; f, P1 (exopod incomplete); g, P2.
Nota: A2 first 2 segments of exopod fused; endopod segment 1 shorter than endopod segment 2, about twice length of wide. Endopod of Md reaches distal end of basis, endopod segment 1 with 2 setae, endopod segment 2 with 4 setae. 2nd lobe on inner margin of Mx2 absent, 3rd lobe with 3 setae, basis with 4 setae. Segments 1 and 2 of endopod of Mxp with 3 setae. Urosome segment 1 onion-shape, much wider than long; urosme segment 2 short. Caudal rami and its 2nd seta slightly asymmetrical.


Species Subeucalanus crassus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.110, Fig.61].
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, cephalon (lateral); c, last thoracic segment with P5 and urosome (lateral right side); d, same (dorsal); e, cephalon (ventral); f, A2; g, Md (palp); h, P2 (endopod missing); i, P5.
Nota: Urosome symmetrical, 4-segmented. Right leg of P5 absent; left leg 4-segmented, distal segment ending in long and curved spine.

Compl. Ref.:
Hsieh & Chiu, 1998 (tab.2); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.109); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Weikert & al., 2001 (p.227, tab.4, Rem.); Hernandez-Trujillo & Suarez-Morales, 2002 (p.748, tab.1); Hwang & al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Bode & al., 2003 (p.85, Table 1, abundance); Hsiao al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Hsieh & al. 2004 (p.397, tab. 1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, fig.6); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); CPR, 2004 (p.62, fig.186); Kazmi, 2004 (p.229); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.162: tab.1); Prusova & Smith, 2005 (p.76); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (Tab.2, 4, Rem.); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.24); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.103: tab.1); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.844: Tab.I, p.848: Tab. IV); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.153, Table 2, occurrence vs geographic distribution); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); Escribano & al., 2009 (p.1083, Table 1, figs.6, 7, 10); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Eloire & al., 2010 (p.657, Table II, temporal variability); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Zenetos & al., 2010 (p.397); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.425); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 1, 3, fig.8, abundance distribution vs La Niña event, Rem. p.797, fig.11); Kâ & Hwang, 2011 (p.155, Table 3: occurrence %); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.317, Table 2, indicator of seasonal change); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, table 2, indicator); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Teuber & al., 2013 (p.28, Table 1, respiration rates); Tachibana & al., 2013 (p.545, Table 1, seasonal change 2006-2008); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Rakhesh & al., 2013 (p.7, Table 1, abundance vs stations); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, 5, fig.11, seasonal variation); Anjusha & al., 2013 (p.40, Table 3, abundance & feeding behavior); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions) ; Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1, 3); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Marques-Rojas & Zoppi de Roa, 2017 (p.495, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group)
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Subeucalanus crassus by geographical zones
Species Subeucalanus crassus - Distribution map 3Issued from : E. Goetze & M.D. Ohman in Deep-Sea Res. II, 2010, 57. [p.2117, Fig.5].
Biogeographic distribution records for Subeucalanus crassus (Atl) and Subeucalanus crassus (Pac), two distinct genetic lineages within the nominal species Subeucalanus crassus s.l. .
Subeucalanus crassus was decribed by Fleminger (1973) as a subtropical-tropical, circumglobal species in eutrophic or broadly neritic waters.
Current sampling of new genetic lineages is inadequate the geographic distribution of these distinct taxa.
Solid and open circles mark sampling locations of specimens whose species identity was verified to be S. crassus (Atl) or S. crassus (Pac), respectively, by DNA sequencing of 165 rRNA.
Note: The 'positive\" records plotted from Lang (1965) are a subset of her original material.
Species Subeucalanus crassus - Distribution map 4Issued from : A.J. Southward, S.J. Hawkins & M.T. Burrows in J. therm. Biol., 1995, 20 (1/2). [p.140, Fig.9].Changes in geographical distribution of the warm water copepod Eucalanus (= Subeucalanus) crassus (C & D).
Contours at 1, 10 and 100 individuals per 750 m3.

Nota: The figure gives an example of a latitudinal retreat of one of the warm water species between 1969 and 1979, by comparison with a cold water species as the trachymedusan Aglantha digitalis during the same period, both based on extensive sampling over the entrance of the English Channel and approaches (A. Southward, unpublish. data). The warm water species had retreated south and the cold water plankton had moved into the northern side of the western Channel to replace it.
Species Subeucalanus crassus - Distribution map 5Issued from : P. Tutasi, S. Palma & M. Caceres in Scienc. Mar., 2011, 75 (4). [p. 798, Fig.8 a]
Geographic distribution of Subeucalanus crassus in September and October 2001, associated with the weak La Niña event of 2001.
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), Namibia, Angola, Baia Farta, Congo, off E Sao Tomé Is., off Lagos, Ivorian shelf, Casamance, Dakar, off S Cape Verde Is., Cape Verde Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, Cap Ghir (Morocco), Canary Is., off Madeira, Portugal, off E Azores, Coruña, Bay of Biscay, Brazil, off Rio de Janeiro, Barbados Is., Caribbean Colombia, Bahia de Mochima (Venezuela), Yucatan (Ascension Bay), G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), off E Cape Cod, G. of St. Lawrence, off E Nova Scotia, W Ireland, off SW Ireland, W English, off W Tangier, E Medit. (W Egyptian coast, Alexandria, Lebanon Basin), Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Karachi coast, Somalia, Madagascar, Rodrigues Is., Sri Lanka, India (Saurashtra coast, W, Bombay, Madras, Burhabalanga estuary, Lawson's Bay, Madras, Gulf of Mannar, Godavari region, Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is., S Burma, W Malay Peninsula (Andaman Sea), Australia (W, North West Cape), Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Ambon Bay, Flores Sea, S Celebes Sea (Manado Bay), Philippines, Viet-Nam (Cauda Bay), Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Xiamen Harbour), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (S, E, SW, W, NW, N, NE, Mienhua Canyon), Okinawa, S Korea, Japan Sea, Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tokyo Bay, Kuroshio region, Bikini Is., Aleutian Is., California, W Baja California, Gulf of California, off W Guatemala, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, SE, Great Barrier, Moreton Bay), New Zealand, Hawaï, off Galapagos, Ecuador, off Peru, Chile ( N, off Valparaiso, Concepcion)
N: 279
Lg.:
(7) F: 4-3,7; (14) F: 3,85-3,3; M: 3,25-3,1; (28) F: 3,6-2,65; M: 2,9-2,88; (35) F: 3,48-2,8; M: 3,1-2,9; (38) F: 3,6-3,4; M: 3,5-3,4; (47) F: 3,3-2,9; M: 2,9; (54) F: 3,32-2,46; M: 2,4; (91) F: 3-3,7; (104) F: 4,6; M: 2,6; (125) F: 3,73-3,17; M: 3,49-3,13; (142) F: 3; (150) F: 3,55-3,1; M: 3,15; (180) F: 2,1-2,95; (196) F: 3,9 [8,9 !]-3,05; (199) F: 3,34-2,74; M: 2,89; (207) F: 3,38-3,19; M: 2,93-2,9; (290) F: 3,25-3,7; M: 3,25-3,4; (332) F: 3,1-2,59; M: 3,14-2,78; (333) F: 3,42-3,2; M: 3,08-2,91; (432) F: 3,45-3,1; (449) F: 3,3-2,9; M: 2,9; (530) F: 3; M: 2,5; (795) F: 3; M: 2,5; (991) F: 2,46-3,7; M: 2,4-3,1; (1122) F: 3,25-3,3; M: 2,61; {F: 2,10-4,60; M: 2,40-3,50}
Rem.: epipelagic, sometimes meso-bathypelagic. Sargasso Sea: 0-2000 m. In vertical tow 4000-3000 m (Harding, 1974, Rem.: possible contaminant species from higher up the water column).).
Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.88) observes the body of the Southwest Pacific specimens were covered with very small spinules although Farran (1929) noted that his specimen had a smooth integument.
For Goetze & Ohman (2010, p.2117) E. oculanus Marukawa, 1921 in Japanese waters may correspond to Subeucalanus sp. Goetze & Ohman, and not synonym of S. crassus.
See Subeucalanus sp. Goetze & Ohman (2010).
For Itoh (1970 a, fig.2, from co-ordonates) the Itoh's index value of the mandibular gnathobase = 185.
After Benedetti & al. (2018, p.1, Fig.2) this species belonging to the functional group 3 corresponding to large filter feeding herbivorous.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 03/05/2019
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