Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Euchaetidae ( Family )
            Paraeuchaeta ( Genus )
Paraeuchaeta birostrata  Brodsky, 1950   (F,M)
Syn.: Pareuchaeta birostrata Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.213, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1958 (p.359, figs.F,M); Minoda, 1958 (p.253, Table 1, 2, abundance); uruhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Oyashio region, Table 6); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.245); 1968 (p.228, figs.F,M); Omori, 1969 (p.5, Table 1); Minoda, 1971 (p.26); Heptner, 1971 (p.79, figs.F); Zvereva, 1976 a (p.70, fig.F); Hattori, 1991 (tab.1, Appendix); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.42);
Euchaeta birostrata : Morris, 1970 (p.2300)
Ref.:
Bradford & al., 1983 (p.20); Park, 1994 (p.320); 1995 (p.55, Rem.F, M, figs.F,M)
Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1995, 29. [p.158, Fig.48].
Female: a, forehead (left side); b, urosome (left); c, d, genital somite (left, right, respectively); e, outer lobe of Mx1; f, P1 (anterior); g, P2 (anterior).
Nota: Similar in habitus including forehead and urosome to P. californica but distinguishable from it.
Laterally, rostrum relatively small; its anterior margin biginning some distance from suprafrontal sensilla and strongly hollow; its posterior margin more or less straight.
Genital somite with a dorsal hump just posterior to middle. Ventral margin of genital flange nearly straight or slightly emarginate and nearly parallel to posterior ventral wall of somite or its anterior end only slightly tilted downward. Posterior edge of genital field not protruding. Posterior margin of genital prominence, extending up to genital flange, about as long as posterior ventral wall of somite and sloping about 50° with respect to posterior ventral wall of somite. Anterior margin of prominence somewhat bulging. A low ridge close to anterior base of prominence on left side of somite.
2nd yrosomal somite with a dorsal hump about 1/3 length of somite from proximal end.
Cephalosomal appendages including Mx1 similar to those of P. californica.
Swimming legs simolar to those of P. californica except that in P1 exopod, outer margin of 2nd segment not strongly curved and outer spine reaching close to base of dfollowing outer spine.In P2 exopod, incision separating 2nd marginal lobe of 3rd segment far short of reaching level of preceding incision; outer spine on this marginal lobe far short of reaching base of following outer spine and a little longer than outer spine of 2nd segment.

Male: h, forehead (left); i, P1 (anterior); j, P2 (anterior); k, distal exopodal segments of left 5th leg (anterior, tilted counterclockwise); l, idem (lateral, tilted clockwise); m, idem (medial, tilted clockwise).


Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1958, VI (3). [p.360, Fig.77]. As Pareuchaeta birostrata.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral right side); c, genital somite (ventral); d, last thoracic segment and genital somite (lateral left side); e, exopod of P2.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 46:21:19:3:11 = 100. A1 extends just beyond the end of the cephalothorax.

Male: f, forehead (lateral right side); g, P5; h, terminal segments of left P5; i, 3rd segment of exopod of left P5. Nota: The proportional lengths of the first four urosome segments as 20:35:29:20 = 100.


Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1958, VI (3). [p.360, Fig.77]. As Pareuchaeta birostrata.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral right side); c, genital somite (ventral); d, last thoracic segment and genital somite (lateral left side); e, exopod of P2.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 46:21:19:3:11 = 100

Male: f, forehead (lateral); g, P5; h, terminal segments of left P5; i, 3rd segment of exopod of left P5. Nota: The proportional lengths of the first four segments are 20:35:29:20.


Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1968, XVI (4). [p.229, Fig.6]. As Pareuchaeta birostrata.
Male: A, habitus (dorsal); B, forehead (lateral); C, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral left side); D, Mx1; E, exopod of P1; F, P2; G, terminal segments of left P5; H, the same from another side.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 19:32:23:15:3:8 = 100. Prosome and urosome are in the proportional lengths as 71 to 29.


Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.214, Fig.127]. As Pareuchaeta birostrata.
Female (from NW Pacif.): habitus (lateral left side); forehead (lateral); S2, exopod of P2; urosome (dorsal and lateral left side); Gf, complex genital (ventral).

Male: S5Le, distal segments of left P5.


Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : M.V. Heptner in Trudy. Inst. Okeanol., 1971, 92. [p.80, Fig.2]. As Pareuchaeta birostrata.
Female (from Kuril-Kamchatka Trench).
Nota: Formula of the exopod of P2 spines on the last two segments, successively : Aa > AB (Aa = AB + 2/3 Bb); Bb < Bc (Bb ≈ 2/3 BC); Cc ≥ CD. [cf. legend in drawings of Heptner, 1971, for Pareuchaeta rubra]

Male: ld = serrated lamella of left exopod of P5.


Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresParaeuchaeta birostrata Female:
1 - See key to species Groups and independent species of Paraeuchaeta (p.30): malayensis species Group..
2 - Outer spine of 2nd exopodal segment (or the 2nd of the first 2 exopodal segments forming a proximal, compound segment) of P1 normally developed (Fig.48-f).
3 - Outer lobe of Mx1 with 7 large distal setae extending laterad and 2 medium-sized, densely plumose proximal setae extending proximad along lateral side of appendage (Fig.48-e).
4 - Genital segment without conspicuous conical processes on left side at anterior base of genital prominence (Fig.48-c).
5 - Laterally, rostrum spiniform (Fig.48-a).
6 - Laterally, posterior ventral wall of genital somite very long (Fig.48-c).
7 - Laterally, rostrum small with hollow anterior margin (Fig.48-a).

Compl. Ref.:
Yamaguchi & Ikeda, 2002 a (p.1); Yamaguchi & al., 2002 (p.1007, tab.1); Yamaguchi & al., 2004 (p.480, tab.2, 3); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.1791, Table 2); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 8, biogeography); Homma & Yamaguchi, 2010 (p.965, Table 2); Homma & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, 3, abundance); Abe & al., 2012 (p.100, temporal & vertical changes)
NZ: 4

Distribution map of Paraeuchaeta birostrata by geographical zones
Species Paraeuchaeta birostrata - Distribution map 2
Chart of 1996
Loc:
Japan (Suruga Bay, Sagami Bay, off Sanriku), off E Hokkaido, Station H, off SE Kuril Is., Okhotsk Sea, Kuril Is., Bering Sea (Aleutian Basin), Station Knot, Bering Sea, S Aleutian Basin, S Aleutian Is., Pacif. (central subarct.), off Vancouver Is., off California, [ Chile, Drake Passage (in Yamanaka, 1976, p.170) ]
N: 22
Lg.:
(3) F: 8,4-7; M: 7,4-6,6; (22) F: 8-7,2; M: 6,4; (23) F: 8,8-7,15; M: 7-6,25; (70) F: 8,7-8,1; (63) F: 8,65-7,73; M: 6,9-6,28; (99) F: 8,13-7,39; M: 6,39; (208) F: 8,7; M: 7,26; {F: 7,00-8,80; M: 6,25-7,40}
Rem.: meso- bathypelagic.
For Tanaka (1958, p.120) the species closely resembles E. californica Esterly
The presence of this species south of Chile needs confirmation.
After Park (1995, p.56) this species in the samples was one of the most common euchaetid along the coast of the northern Pacific including the American side between 29°N and 35°N, south of the Aleutian Islands from 155°W westward, and the Pacific side of the Kuril Islands and Japan between 47°N and 34°N.
Last update : 16/12/2016
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2022. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed September 29, 2022]

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