Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Euchaetidae ( Family )
            Paraeuchaeta ( Genus )
Paraeuchaeta glacialis  (Hansen, 1887)   (F,M)
Syn.: Euchaeta glacialis Hansen, 1887; Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.40, figs.F,M); Wolfenden, 1904 (p.134, figs.F); Damas & Koefoed, 1907 (p.398, tab.II, III); With, 1915 (p.169, figs.F,M, juv., as Euchaete glacialis); Vervoort, 1957 (p.77); Shih & al., 1971 (p.39, 204); Buchanan & Sekerak, 1982 (p.41, Table 2: vertical distribution); Huntley & al., 1983 (p.143, Table 2); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.5); Sameoyo, 1984 (p.213, Table 1, fig.3); Richter, 1994 (tab.4.1a); Mauchline, 1999 (n°182, p.9, figs.F,M); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); G. Harding, 2004 (p.50, figs.F,M); Hsiao & al., 2010 (p.179, Table III, trace metal concentration); Hsiao & Fang, 2013 (p.175, Table 2: Hg bioaccumulation);
Euchaeta norvegica : Sars, 1900 (p.58, figs.F,M);
Pareuchaeta glacialis : Rose, 1933 a (p.119, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.75, figs.19, 20, Rem.); 1939 (p.53, Rem.); 1940 (p.30); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.23); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.208, figs.F,M); Østvedt, 1955 (p.15: Table 3, p.69); M.W. Johnson, 1963 (p.89, Table 1, 2); Harding, 1966 (p.17, 65, 66); Maclellan D.C., 1967 (p.101, 102: occurrence); Dunbar & Harding, 1968 (p.319, 320); Vidal, 1971 a (p.16, 25, figs.F,M); Kosobokova, 1989 (p.27); Mumm, 1993 (tab.1, fig.2); Vinogradov & al., 1994 (tab.1); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.42); Auel, 1999 (tab.2); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2000 (p.2029, tab.2); d'Elbée, 2001(tabl. 1); Auel & Hagen, 2002 (p.1013, tab.2, 3); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2010 (p.991, Table 2); 2011 a (p.1231, Table 2: abundance, biomass); Sampei & al., 2012 (p.90, Table 1, 2, abundance in sediment trap);
Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.496, 501, 507); Grice, 1962 a (p.101); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.23); Park, 1994 (p.319); 1995 (p.81, Rem.F, M, figs.F,M); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (Rem. p.120; p.119: figs.M)
Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1995, 29. [p.188, Fig.78].
Female: a, forehead (left side); b, urosome (left); c, d, e, genital somite (left, right, ventral, respectively); f, caudal rami (ventral); g, outer lobe of Mx1; h, P1 (anterior); i, P2 (anterior).
Nota: Distal end of prosome more or less triangular. Genital flange well developed, deeply bilobed, each lobe more or less toothlike pointing downward; posterior lobe slightly larger; dorsally as well as ventrally, genital somite highly bulging at middle, more orb less symmetrical. Appendicular caudal seta thinner than any of 4 principal marginal caudal, setae and slightly longer than 5th marginal caudal seta; 4th marginal caudal seta about 2.5 times length of 5th. A1, A2, Md, Mx2 and Mxp similar to those of P. malayensis; Mx1 also similar except that its outer lobe with 8 setae, of which the proximalmost is smaller than the others. 1st exopodal segment of P1 not separated from 2nd.

Male: j, forehead (left); k, last pedigerous and genital somites (left); l, P1 (anterior); m, P2 (anterior); n, distal exopodal segments of left 5th leg (medial, tilted clockwise); o, idem (anterior).
Nota: All cephalosomal appendages similar to those of P. malayensis. Appendicular caudal seta geniculated, thinner and shorter than adjoining marginal caudal setae.


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.208, Fig.120]. As Pareuchaeta glacialis.
Female (from central part Arctic): forehead (lateral); S2, exopod of P2; last thoracic esgment and urosome (dorsal); genital segment (lateral left side); Gf, genital complex.

Male: S5Le, distal segments of left P5; S5Le, dentate plate of left P5.


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 3 of morphological figures issued from : Sars G.O. in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway, with short descriptions and figures of all species. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Publ. by The Bergen Museum. 1903. [Pl. XXVII]. As Euchaeta glacialis.
Female & Male.


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mauchline in ICES Ident. Leafl. Plankton, 1999, N°182. [p.3, Fig.2: 20a]. As Euchaeta glacialis.
Female (Northeast Atlantic): 20a, genital double-somite (left side).


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mauchline in ICES Ident. Leafl. Plankton, 1999, N°182. [p.4, Fig.3: 20b]. As Euchaeta glacialis.
Male (Northeast Atlantic): 20b, terminal two segments, exopodal segments of left P5.


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, Copepoda I, 1915, III, 4. [p.170, Text-fig. 47, a-c, d-e]. As Euchaete glacialis.
Female (from 65°27'N, 27°10'W): a-c, left lateral corner in three specimens (most setae missing); d-e, right P1 (anterior and posterior view).


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, Copepoda I, 1915, III, 4. [Pl. VI, Fig.5, a-b]. As Euchaete glacialis.
Female:a, lamina labialis and serrula 6-dentata; b, labial lobe (ventral view).


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, Copepoda I, 1915, III, 4. [p.170, Text-fig. 47, f-g]. As Euchaete glacialis.
Male: f, left lateral corner and genital segment; g, left P5 (endopod, internal view).


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, Copepoda I, 1915, III, 4. [Pl. VI, Fig.5, c-d]. As Euchaete glacialis.
Male: c, left Mx1; d, left P5 (2nd and 3rd exopodal segments).


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 10 of morphological figures
Paraeuchaeta glacialis Female:
1 - See key to species Groups and independent species of Paraeuchaeta (p.30).
2 - Appendicular caudal setae smoothly curved at proximal end and not geniculated, not extending laterad far beyond lateral side of caudal rami before curving backward (Fig.78-b, f).


Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : M.S. Kos in Field guide for plankton. Zool Institute USSR Acad., Vol. II, 1976. After Sars, 1903 (1, 5, 6), and Brodsky, 1950 other figures).
Female: 1, habitus (lateral); 2, last thoracic segment and abdomen (dorsal); 3, genital segment (lateral); 4, genital aperture; 5, exopodite of P2
Male: 6, habitus (lateral); 7, P5; 8, left P5 (2nd and 3rd exopodal segments).

Compl. Ref.:
Groendahl & Hernroth, 1986 (tab.1); Kosobokova & al., 1998 (tab.2); Auel & Hagen, 2005 (p.1272, Table 2); Hopcroft & al., 2005 (p.198, table 2); Hop & al., 2006 (p.182, Table 4); Kosobokova & al., 2007 (p.919, Tab.3, 6, fig.2); Darnis & al., 2008 (p.994, Table 1); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 8, biogeography); Laakmann & al., 2009 (p.741, fig.2, vertical distribution, lipid analysis); Sampei & al. , 2009 (p.1894, in moored trap); Kosobokova & Hopcroft, 2010 (p.96, Table 1, fig.7); Bucklin & al., 2010 (p.40, Table 1, Biol mol.); Kosobokova & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, figs.4, 6, Rem.: Arctic Basins); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2011 (p.2359, Table 3, abundance, biomass %); Pomerleau & al., 2011 (p.1779, Table V, VI); Forest & al., 2011 (p.11418); 2012 (p.1301, figs.7, 8); Matsuno & al., 2012 (Table 1, 2, fig.4); Laakmann & al., 2012 (p.535, Table 1, fig.2, Rem.: mol. Biol.); Smoot & Hopcroft, 2016 (p.1, fig.3, 7, abundance vs water mass, vertical distribution); El Arraj & al., 2017 (p.272, table 2, spatial distribution);
NZ: 4 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Paraeuchaeta glacialis by geographical zones
Species Paraeuchaeta glacialis - Distribution map 2Issued from : S. Laakmann, M. Kochzius & H. Auel in Deep-Sea Res. I, 2009, 56. [p.745, Fig.2 a].
Vertical distribution abundance of copepodite stages C3 to C6 of Paraeuchaeta spp.
For P. barbata copepodite stages C1 to C6 are included. +: No occurrence; solid line depicts bottom profile (right axis); station 853 over the Yermak Plateau (81°22'N, 6°52'E) is separated from the other stations on the transect; other stations between East Greenland Current, the Fram Strait and the West Spitsbergen Current, into south return Atlantic Current (77°46'N-79°36'N, 6°20'E-7°29'W).
Deep-sea copepods collected from August 20 to September 16, 2006.
Loc:
Arct. (Baffin Sea, Canadian abyssal plain, Canada Basin, Fletcher's Ice Is., Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, Amundsen Gulf, Nansen Basin, Amundsen Basin, Makarov Basin, Lomonosov Ridge, Laptev Sea, Kara Sea, Barents Sea, Franz Josef Land), Norwegian Sea, Norway, North Sea, Ungava Bay, Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord, Scoresby Sund Fjord, Ameralik & Godthaab fjords (W Greenland), W Baffin Bay, Greenland Sea, Fram Strait, Kongsfjorden, Iceland, Faroe Is., off SE Newfoundland, S Bay of Biscay (in d'Elbée, 2001), off Moroccan coast (in El Arraj & al., 2017)
N: 60
Lg.:
(3) F: 11-9,8; M: 7,8; (7) F: 10,4; M: 6,21; (22) F: 11-10; M: 8-7,2; (65) F: ± 10; M: ± 8; (377) F: 9,15; (1001) F: 9,40-10,06; {F: 9,15-11,00; M: 6,21-8,00}

The mean female size is 10.090 mm (n = 9; SD = 0.6338), and the mean male size is 7.442 mm (n = 5; SD = 0.7628). The size ratio (male : female) is about ± 0.73.
Rem.: epi- bathypelagic.
Contrary to the opinion of Giesbrecht & Schmeil (1898, p.40) and of Sars (1900, p.58), the species was maintained by Sars (1903, p.42).
Park (1995, p.82) found this species in large numbers in the Norwegian Sea and Denmark Strait, also found in two deep tows in the North Atlantic (one at 47°N, 43°W and another at 46°N, 46°W)
The observation of this species in the southeastern of the Bay of Biscay requires confirmation, like on the Maroccan coast.
Last update : 28/10/2022
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