Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Euchaetidae ( Family )
            Paraeuchaeta ( Genus )
Paraeuchaeta regalis  (Grice & Hulsemann, 1968)   (F,M)
Syn.: Euchaeta regalis Grice & Hulsemann, 1968 (tab.2, p.329, Descr.F, figs.F, non M); Park, 1978 (p.253, figs.F,M); Ward & Wood, 1988 (p.48, tab.1);
No Euchaeta regalis : Grice & Hülsemann, 1968 (p.331, fig.M)
Bradford & al., 1983 (p.51, figs.F,M, Rem.); Park, 1994 (p.321); 1995 (p.50, Rem.F,M, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.880, 925, figs.F)
Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1995, 29. [p.150, Fig.40].
Female: a, forehead (left side); b, urosome (left); c, d, genital somite (left, right, respectively); e, outer lobe of Mx1.
Nota: Sililar in habitus including forehead and urosome to P. calva and can be distinguished from it only by carefully comparing the features of genital somite in lateral view.
Anterior and posterior lobes of genital flange separated by deep notch. Posterior lobe produced into a large conical process pointing usually straight downward. Posterior section of genital somite as measured from distal end of genital flange about 1.8-1.9 times length of flange (as opposed to 1.4-1.8 times length of flange as found in P. calva.
Cephalosomal appendages including Mx1, outer lobe of which has 5 long and 3 minute setae, and swimming legs practically identical to those of P. calva.

Male: f, forehead (left); g, last pedigerous and genital somites (left); h, distal exopodal segments of 5th leg (lateral, tilted clockwise).

Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarctic Res. Ser. Washington, 1978, 27. [p.254, Fig.99]. As Euchaeta regalis.
Female: A, forehead (lateral); B, C, D, distal end of metasome and genital segment (left side, right side, and ventral, respectively); E, F, posterior part of metasome and urosome (dorsal and left side, respectively); G, P1; H, P2. P1-2: legs (anterior).

Nota from Bradford & al. (1983, p.52):
- P1 exopod female: Aa minute; Bb = 4/5 BC; Cc > CD.
- P2 exopod female: Aa = Ab; Bb = 1/3 BC; Cc = 2/3 CD; Dd = 1/4 CD. (see code of lengths outer spines in the Genus' figure, or in Paraeuchaeta sp. A).

Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarctic Res. Ser. Washington, 1978, 27. [p.255, Fig.100]. As Euchaeta regalis.
Male: forehead (lateral); B, last metasomal and genital segments (left side); C, P1; D, P2; E, P5; F, G, H, distal part of exopod of left P5 (medial, and lateral of different specimens, respectively). P1, 2, 5: legs (anterior).

Nota from Bradford & al.(1983, p.52):
- P1 exopod male: Aa minute; Bb = 1/3 BC; Cc = 2/3 CD.
- P2 exopod male: Aa = 1/2 AB; Bb = 1/3 BC; Cc = 1/2 CD; Dd = 1/4 CD. (see code of lengths outer spines in the Genus' figure, or in Paraeuchaeta sp. A).

Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice & K. Hulsemann in Pacif. Sci., 1968, 22 (3). [p.328, Figs.34-40]. As Euchaeta regalis.
Female (from SE Pacific): 34-35, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 36, forehead (lateral); 37, posterior end of thorax and urosome (dorsal); 38, idem (right lateral view); 39, P1; 40, P2.

Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresParaeuchaeta regalis Female:
1 - See key to species Groups and independent species of Paraeuchaeta (p.30): malayensis species Group.
2 - Outer spine of 2nd exopodal segment (or the 2nd of the first 2 exopodal segments forming a proximal, compound segment) of P1 normally developed.
3 - Outer lobe of Mx1 with 5 long setae in addition to some very small setae proximally (Fig.40-e).
4 - Laterally, genital prominence high with emarginate genital flanges (Fig.40-c).
5 - Laterally, genital somite with long posterior ventral wall; genital flange strongly emarginate (Fig.40-c).
6 - Laterally, posterior lobe of genital flange directed ventrad (Fig.40-c).

Compl. Ref.:
Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, Appendix); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 4, 7: common deep water species, figs.1, 2, Appendix 1, biogeography, Rem. p.167); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event)
NZ: 6

Distribution map of Paraeuchaeta regalis by geographical zones
Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Distribution map 3issued from : T. Park in Biology of the Antarctic Seas VII. Antarctic Res. Ser., 1978, 27 (4). [p.256, Fig.101].
Occurrence of Euchaeta ( = Paraeuchaeta ) regalis.
Closed circles: stations where the species was found; A.C: Antarctic Convergence.
Species Paraeuchaeta regalis - Distribution map 4Issued from : E.T. Park & F.D. Ferrari in A selection from Smithsonian at the Poles Contributions to International Polar year. I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller, eds., Publs. by Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington DC., 2009. [p.167, Fig.2].
Distribution of selected pelagic calanoids Paraeuchaeta regalis of the Southern Ocean and the closest relative in the subarctic region of the Arctic Ocean.
Antarct. (SW & SE Pacif.), South Georgia, sub-Antarct. (S & SW Atlant., Indian, SE Pacif. SE), SE Atlant., S Pacif., off Juan Fernandez Is. (rare), Galapagos-Ecuador.
N: 6
(3) F: 9,6-8,8; M: 8,8-8; (20) F: 9,58-8; M: 8,41-7,66; (100) F: 9,41-8,5; {F: 8,00-9,60; M: 7,66-8,80}
Rem.: Meso-bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-1000+ m.
Bradford & al. (1983, p.53), according to Grice & Hulsemann (19868, fig.40) the 2nd spine of P2 exopodal segment 2 reaches the base of the following spine, which is longer than that described by Park (1978).
After Park (1995, p.50) P. regalis is found in subantarctic waters and P. calva is found widely north to the Subantarctic.
Park (1995, p.50) found this species in the southeastern Atlantic between 31°S and 36°S and the Pacific between 39°S and 50°S.
Tutasi & al. (2011) point oiut the occurrence of this species in the Pacific eastern equatorial waters (probably for the first time).
Last update : 15/09/2015
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 19, 2021]

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