Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Euchaetidae ( Family )
            Paraeuchaeta ( Genus )
Paraeuchaeta tuberculata  A. Scott, 1909   (F,M)
Syn.: Paraeuchaeta tonsa (F): A. Scott, 1909 (p.72, figs.F); Sewell, 1947 (p.131, figs.M);
Euchaeta scaphula Fontaine, 1967 (p.209, figs.F); Morris, 1970 (p.2300, 2306: Rem.);
Pareuchaeta scaphula : Tanaka & Omori, 1968 (p.252, figs.F); Hattori, 1991 (tab.1, Appendix);
Pareuchaeta tonsa : Tanaka, 1958 (p.365, figs.F,M);
Pareuchaeta tuberculata : Shih & Young, 1995 (p.70)
Ref.:
A. Scott, 1909 (p.76, Descr.M, figs.M); Sewell, 1929 (p.168); 1948 (p.552); Fontaine, 1967 (p. 211: Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.23); Park, 1994 (p.320, 326, 328, biogéo); 1995 (p.75, Rem.F,M, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.803, Pl.105,113: F,M)
Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1995, 29. [p.182, Fig.72].
Female: a, forehead (left side); b, urosome (left); c, genital somite (left); d, Mx1 (first inner lobe omitted), posterior; e, P1 (anterior); f, P2 (anterior).
Similar in habitus including forehead and urosome to P. tonsa and P. pseudotonsa but readily distinguishable from them by lateral sapect of genital somite, viz, genital prominence pointing almost straight downwarde, with proximal portion of its anterior margin nearly perpendicular to ventral wall of somite, and its posterior margin more slanted than its anterior margin. Posterior edge of genital field produced distally into a small but well-defined conical process.
Cephalosomal appendages as in P. tonsa except that basis of Mx1 with a very smallouter seta in addition to 4 large setae.
Swimming legs similar to those of P. tonsa but outer spine of 1st exopodal segment of P1 wery small and 2nd outer spine of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 extending beyond base of following outer spine.

Male: g, forehead (left); h, P5 (viewed from left); i, distal exopodal segments of left 5th leg (anterior, tilted counterclockwise); j, idem (lateral); k, idem (medial, tilted counterclockwise); l, serrated lamella of left 5th leg exopod (anterior, tilted counterclockwise).


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in The John Murray Expedition, 1933-34, Scientific Reports, VIII (1), 1947. [p.128, Fig.29, D, H-I]. As Paraeuchaeta tonsa.
Male (from central Arabian Sea): D, anal segment (lateral); H, P5; I, clasping organ of left P5.


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate XXI, Figs.1-8].
Male (from Banda Sea): 1, forehead (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral); 3, last thoracic and genital segments (dorsal); 4, idem (left side); 5, P1 (exopodite only); 6, outer margin of exopodite of P2; 7, part of terminal spine (exopodite of P3); 8, P5 (part of left leg).


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate XIV, Figs.8-15]. As Paraeuchaeta tonsa.
Female (from Indonesia-Malaysia): 8, habitus (dorsal); 9, forehead (lateral); 10, last thoracic and genital segments (left side); 11, A1; 12, Mx2 ( part of one of the distal hairs); 13, P1; 14, P2; 15, part of terminal spine of exopodite of P3.


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : S. Ohtsuka & R. Huys in Hydrobiologia, 2001, 453/454. [p.452, Fig.7, D].
Male (from Japan): D, terminal exopodal segment of left P5.


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Fontaine in Crustaceana, 1967, 12 (2). [p.198, Fig.3, F]. As Euchaeta scaphula.
Female (from N Pacific): F, genital segment (ventral).

Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Fontaine in Crustaceana, 1967, 12 (2). [p.198, Fig.3, A-C]. As
Female: comparison of genital segments (lateral) from P. tonsa (A), P. pseudotonsa (B) and P. tuberculata (as Euchaeta scaphula) (C).

Nota: Genital swelling more globose than in P. tonsa and P. pseudotonsa.


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Fontaine in Crustaceana, 1967, 12 (2). [p.207, Fig.9, A-C, B-D]. As Euchaeta scaphula.
Male: B, habitus (lateral); D, left P5.
Comparison with the male of P. pseudotonsa ( A, habitus (lateral); C, left P5).Nota: Teeth of serrated lamella of 2nd exopod segment of left P5 larger than in P. pseudotonsa.


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Fontaine in Crustaceana, 1967, 12 (2). [p.197, Fig.2, A-C].
Dorsal views of females: A, P. tonsa (Giesbrecht),; B, P. pseudotonsa (Fontaine, 1967); C, P. tuberculata (as Euchaeta scaphula).

Nota: General shape similar to that of P. tonsa and P. pseudotonsa but tooth on each side of last thoracic segment less pronounced than in either of those two species.


Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Plate 10 of morphological figuresParaeuchaeta tuberculata Female:
1 - See key to species Groups and independent species of Paraeuchaeta (p.30).
2 - Laterally, genital field facing ventrad, without large tubercular outgrowth behind genital orifice (Fig.72-c).
3 - Genital somite without tibercular outgrowth on dorsal side (Fig.72-c).
4 - Laterally, posterior edge of genital field conically produced (Fig.72-c).

Compl. Ref.:
Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Sano & al., 2013 (p.11, Table 2, feeding habits)
NZ: 7

Distribution map of Paraeuchaeta tuberculata by geographical zones
Species Paraeuchaeta tuberculata - Distribution map 2issued from : T. Park in Hydrobiologia 292/293, 1994. [Fig. 4, p.328]. Geographical distribution of Paraeuchaeta tuberculata (lozange)
Loc:
Indian, off E Sri Lanka, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, China Seas (South China Sea, Est China Sea), E Taiwan, Japan, Sagami Bay, off Sanriku, N Pacif. (off Hawaii), off California, off British Columbia
N: 10
Lg.:
(3) F: 7-5,8; M: 5,9-5,5; (5) F: 7; M: 6,8; (18) F: 6,7-6; (29) F: 6,5; (63) F: 7,42-6,39; M: 6,18-5,67; (92) F: 5,92-5,73; (99) F: 6,7-6,1; M: 5,88-5,43; {F: 5,73-7,42; M: 5,43-6,18}

The mean female size is 6.438 mm (n = 12; SD = 0.5412), and the mean male size is 5.909 mm (n = 7; SD = 0.4694). The size ratio is 0.878 (n = 3; SD = 0.0174), or ± 88 %.
Rem.: Mesopelagic.
According to Morris (1970, p.2306) this species is the first record from the open North Pacific. The specimens off N Hawaii is collected at depth 125 and 500 m and agree with the description given by Fontaine (1967) except for having a nearly complete separation between the cephalosome and the first thoracic segment.
For Park (1995, p.75) the distribution overlaps in the Indo-western Pacific with that of P. tonsa, but in the rest of the Pacfic, the two species are contiguous without overlapping significantly, with P. tuberculata occurring north of P. tonsa.
Park (1995, p.76) found this species in the western Pacific including the Malay Archipelago, the South and East China seas, and along the Pacific coast of Japan between 11°S and 35°N, the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10°S and 14°S, and in the central North Pacific at 31°N and off California at 35°N.
After Sano & al. (2013, p.14, Table 2) atomic C:N (mean ± SD) = 11.7 ±2.4, n = 5, in Sagami Bay (21-27 April 2009).
Last update : 12/08/2016
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