Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Metridinidae ( Family )
        Pleuromamma ( Genus )
Pleuromamma antarctica  Steuer, 1931   (F,M)
Syn.: Pleuromamma robusta antarctica Steuer, 1931 (p.8, fig.F); 1932 a (p.24, figs.F,M); 1933 (p.13, figs.F); Mackintosh, 1934 (p.85); Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (p.167); Vervoort, 1951 (p.123, figs.F,M, Rem.); 1957 (p.125, Rem.); 1965 (p.107); Ramirez, 1969 (p.73, figs.F,M); Rudyakov, 1972 (p.886, Table 1: sinking rate); Bradford, 1972 (p.46); Séret, 1979 (p.139, figs.F,M); Razouls, 1994 (p.146, figs.F,M, Rem); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); ? Pleuromamma robusta : Mazzocchi & al., 1995 (p.57, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Ferrari & Saltzman, 1998 (p.217, figs.F,M, Rem.); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 3, Appendix 1, biogeography from Southern Ocean); Cheng F. & al., 2013 (p.119, molecular biology, GenBank)
Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 1 of morphological figuresPleuromamma robusta antarctica
Female: 1, dorsal view; 2, Urosome (dorsal); 3, P5; issued from Séret, 1979 (var. robusta ?). 4, dorsal view; 5, A1; 6 & 6', Urosome (dorsal, lateral); 7 P5; issued from : Vervoort, 1951 (var. antarctica).

Male: 8, dorsal view; 9, P5; issued from Séret, 1979. 10, P5 (G: left; Dt: right); issued from Vervoort, 1951

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 2 of morphological figuresComparison between robusta and antractica; issued from : Séret C., 1979.
1: Furca and A1 from robusta robusta.
2: Furca and A1 from robusta antarctica;
P5 female from Pleuromamma sp. (Kerguelen Islands).

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from: M.G. Mazzocchi, G. Zagami, A. Ianora, L. Guglielmo & J. Hure in Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellan. Copepods. L. Guglielmo & A. Ianora (Eds.), 1995. [p.59, Fig.3.6.1]. As Pleuromamma robusta.
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, forehead (lateral); C, urosome (lateral left side); D, P5.
Nota: Pigmented spot on right side of cephalothorax. Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 41:24:17;18 = 100. Anal somite produced into distinct tooth-like corner on each side with 3 pores at tip; dorsal distal margin bordered with a row of denticles and concave area ornated with short setae. Caudal rami slightly asymmetrical, left one slightly longer; inner edge of both rami hairy; dorsal surface of left ramus with row of long setules along midline.

Male: E, habitus (dorsal); F, left P5; G, right P5.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 15:18:16:19:16 = 100.3rd urosomal somite with a clutch of long hairs on posterior margin of left side.

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : F.D. Ferrari & J. Saltzman in Plankton Biol. Ecol., 1998, 45 (2). [p.219, Fig.8].
Female (from 55° S, 21°E): A, genital complex (ventral); B, idem (lateral right side); C, A1 sgments 2-4 (arrows to recurved hooks).

Male: D, rostral area (lateral left side); E, urosomal segment 3; F, urosomal segments 2-3 (ventral); G, left A1 segments 13-14 (arrowhead to tip of distal rogid seta, arrow to axial angle of segment attenuation); H, P5 (anterior) (short arrow connects left coxa and basis; arthropodial membranes and poorly sclerotized areas stippled) ; I, P5 (posterior) (curved arrow to angled proximal face of attenuation of left exopod 3; straight arrow to twisted attenuation of left exopod 1; short arrow connects left coxa and basis; arthropodial membranes and poorly scletotized areas stippled).

Nota: Thoracic, abdominal somites and ramal segments are numbered according to their appearance during development as interpreted from data of Hulsemann (1991).

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.125, Fig.68]. As Pleuromamma robusta forma antarctica.
Female (from ± 66°.5S, 11°W): a, urosome (dorsal); b, habitus (dorsal); c, right A1 (proximal portion).
Nota: Head and 1st thoracic segment fused, 4th and 5th fused. Rostrum with 2 filiform appendages. The eye spot (pigment) is found on the right side of the body (in all specimens). Proportional lengths of cephalothorax and abdomen as 54:29. Abdomen 3-segmented; proportional lengths with the caudal rami 38:25:18:19 = 100. A1 23-segmented (tth-9th segments fused; basal segments without spines or teeth.

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.126, Fig.69]. As Pleuromamma robusta forma antarctica.
Female: a, urosome (lateral, left side); b, right P5 (anterior).
Nota: Genital segment laterally with a huge ventral swelling, greatest lateral diameter in the first third of the segment. Anal segment symmetrical, on each side produced into a distinct tooth-like corner. Anal valve semicircular, not set with teeth. Caudal rami slightly longer than twice the diameter, slightly asymmetrical (left ramus slightly longer); there are 4 marginal setae of nearly equal length, densely plumose, an additional seta is found along the outer margin, about halfway its length; inner edge of caudal rami haired.

Male: c, P5 (anterior; lt = left foot, rt = right foot).
Nota: The male differs from P. robusta normally met in tropical waters by the scantiness of the hair covering; no spinules or tubes are found along the edge of the anal operculum.

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle UPMC, Paris 6. 1979. [Pl. XXXVI, Figs.234-237]. As Pleuromamma robusta.
Female (from off Kerguelen Is.): 234, habitus (dorsal); 235, urosome (dorsal); 236, A1; 237, P5.

Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle UPMC, Paris 6. 1979. [Pl. XXXVI, Figs.238-240]. As Pleuromamma robusta.
Male: 238, habitus (dorsal); 239, A1; 240, P5 (D = right leg; G = left leg)..

NZ: 4

Distribution map of Pleuromamma antarctica by geographical zones
Species Pleuromamma antarctica - Distribution map 3Issued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle, UPMC, Paris 6. 1979, Annexe. [p.22].
Geographical occurrences of Pleuromamma robusta (= P. robusta) in the Indian Ocean and Antarctic zone. [after publications from: Brady, 1883, 1918; Thompson, 1900; Wolfenden, 1908, 1911; With , 1915; Rosendorn, 1917; Farran, 1929; Sewell, 1929, 1947; Brady & Gunther, 1935; Steuer, 1929, 1392, 1933; Ommaney, 1936; Vervoort, 1957; Tanaka, 1960; Brodsky, 1964; Seno, 1966; Andrews, 1966; Grice & Hulsemann, 1967; Seno, 1966; Frost & Fleminger, 1968; Voronina, 1970; Zverva, 1972].

Nota: It is unlikely that the occurrences in the northern Indian Ocean are Pleuromamma robusta F. Dahl, 1894 and in the antarctic waters the form of Pleuromamma antarctica from Steuer, 1931.
Antarct., sub-Antarct., Straits of Magellan (Pacific area), S Indian (subtropical convergence), S Kerguelen Is., New Zealand (Kaikoura)
N: 12
(25) F: 4,5-3,65; M: 3,6-3,06; (31) F: 4,55-4; M: 3,1; (36) F: 3,82-3,45; M: 3,27-3,14; (246) F: 3,91-4,64; M: 3,19-3,48; (426) F: 4,19-1,2; M: 3,19-3,48; (772) F: 4,5-3,9; M: 3,6-2,9; {F: 1,20-4,64; M: 2,90-3,60}

The mean female size is 3.859 mm (n = 12; SD = 0.9208), and the mean male size is 3.274 mm (n = 11; SD = 0.2335). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.87 (n = 6; SD = 0.1876).
Rem.: According to Mazzocchi & al. (1995, p.57) the specimens from Straits of Magellan show intermediate characters between the two forms typica and antarctica, because the females lack hook-like teeth on the A1; both sexes have an ornamentation on the anal operculum. antarctica differs from typica mainly by the scantiness of the hairs covering the urosomal somites and furca, both in females and males. The A1 in females is ornated with strong hooks on the basal segments in typica; in antarctica, the proximal segments have no spines or teeth, but the various setae have a proeminent base. In antarctica male no spinules, tubes or hairs are found along the edge of the anal operculum.
For Ferrari & Saltzman (1998, p.218), females differ from P. robusta by the urosome viewed laterally with distinct projection of ventral edge of genital segment posteriorly not as pronounced as anterior projection; A1 without small attenuate points on segments 1 and 2. Males differ from P. robusta by cephalon less vaulted dorsal to rostral area; urosomal segment 2 ventrally with small areas of spinules posteriorly on left and right side; urosomal segment 3 dorsally an area of spinules along the posterior half of the middle of the segment, ventrally with small areas of spinules posterior on right and left side; left A1 with tip of distal seta of segment 14 does not reach to axial angle of distal attenuation of the segment; P5: right basis with lateral area of long denticles on posterior face beginning lateral to seta, exopod 3 (middle) tip of medial attenuation reaches beyond middle of distal segment.
Last update : 13/02/2016
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