Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamille )
Stephidae Sars, 1902 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Ref.: Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.60); Gurney, 1931 a (p.85); Rose, 1933 a (p.161); Fosshagen, 1970 (p.37); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1005); Bowman, 1976 (p.189, Rev., Genera Key); Razouls, 1982 (p.389); 1993 (p.311); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.9); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.144, 147); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.419, 467); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.132, Déf.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.913); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.461); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.15; 49; 199: Def.; p.200: Genrera Key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.847); Kos, 2016 (p.8, Def.)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002.
Rem.: 2 (ou 4 G.): Miostephos, Parastephos, Speleohvarella, Stephos.
D'après Kos (2016, p.8, 9) le genre Miostephos Bowman, 1976 ey Parastephos Sars, 1902 sont desun synonymes juniors de Stephos.
Famille Stephidae - Planche 1issued from : E.L. Markhaseva & F.D. Ferrari in Invert. Zool., 2005, 2 (2). [p.162, Table 4]
Setation of oral parts in females Stephidae (Clausocalanoidea) and ancestral condition of setation.

Famille Stephidae - Planche 2Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, part. I. [p.199].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.
Nota: Endopod of P4 on right side modified in Parastephos: middle endopodal segment elongate, distal segment with strong spinules on surface and with proximal seta on inner margin slender, denticulated and spiniform.
- Female P5 minute ; with coxae and intercoxal sclerite fused to form transverse coxal plate ; each leg tipically uniramous, comprosing basis and single tapering rxopodal process ; basis and process often fused ; process usually ornamented with spinule rows or teeth.
- Male P5 powerfully developed and strongly asymmetrical ; right leg slender, uniramous, 4 to 8-segmented, terminal segment often tapering, spiniform ; left leg uniramous, tipically 5-segmented with 4th segment robust and swollen, distal segment variable in form, often spoon-like ; both 4th and 5th segments often with additional processes ; right leg reduced to 2-segmented rudiment in Miostephos
- Eggs released into waters.
(1) Miostephos Bowman, 1976
Syn.: Stephos: Kos (2016, p.8, 9, Rem.)
Ref.: Bowman, 1976 (p.185); Razouls, 1982 (p.393); 1993 (p.311); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.132, Def.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.87: F; p.89: M); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.200)
Rem.: formes hyperbenthiques. Type: Miostephos cubrobex Bowman,1976.
Total: 2 spp.

D'après Kos (2016, p.9) le genreMiostephos Bowman, 1976 est un synonyme junior de Stephos.
(2) Parastephos Sars, 1902
Ref.: Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.65); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.86); Sars, 1919 (1921) (p.5); Rose, 1933 a (p.163); Razouls, 1982 (p.393); Fleminger, 1988 (p.309); Razouls, 1993 (p.311); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.132, Def.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.87, 89: F; p.89: M); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.200)
Rem.: formes hyperbenthiques. Type: Parastephos pallidus Sars,1902. Total: 3 spp.
D'après Kos (2016, p. 9) le genre Parastephos est un synonyme junior de Syyephos.
(3) Speleohvarella Krsinic, 2005
Ref.: Krsinic, 2005 (p.608)
Rem.: Type: Speleohvarella gamulini. Total: 1 sp.
(4) Stephos T. Scott, 1892
Syn.: Möbianus Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.51, 205); Stephus Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.29); Wolfenden, 1908 (p.21); 1911 (p.204)
Ref.: T. Scott, 1892 (p.245); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.61); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.82, spp. Key); Rose, 1933 a (p.161, spp. Key); Strömgren, 1969 (p.5, Rem.); Fosshagen, 1970 (p.37); Razouls, 1982 (p.389); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.62, 63, 324); Jacoby & Greenwood, 1991 (p.405, species coexisting); Razouls, 1993 (p.311); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.132, Def.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.913); Mauchline, 1998 (p.87, 89: F; p.89: M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 a (p.13, 25: Rem. M); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.200); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.848, spp. Key) ; Krsinic, 2012 (p.1536, Rem.); Kos, 2016 (p.9, Def., Key F & M); Brylinski & Courcot, 2019 (Rem. p.8-9: the ''hyaline sheath', zoogeography').
Rem.: formes hyperbenthiques. Type: Stephos minor T. Scott,1892. Total: 32 spp. (dont 1 douteuse) + 1 indét. Juv.
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 0.905 mm (n = 28; SD = 0.3011) and the mean male size is 0.816 mm (n = 26; SD = 0.2584). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 0.91 (n = 25; SD = 0.0758). The sex ratio (Female : Male is 1,04.
Genre Stephos - Planche 1Issued from ; J.M. Bradford-Grieve in N. Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1999, 33. [p.25, Table 1]
Stephos male leg 5 type, distribution, and depth of habitat of all species for which a male is described.

Nota: S.Y. Moon & al. (2015, p.21) describe two new species: Stephos geoginensis belonging to the ''group IV'' and Stephos projectus belonging to ''group III'', in Korean waters.

Genre Stephos - Planche 2Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in N. Z. Jour. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1999, 33. [p.14].
Spine and seta formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Genre Stephos - Planche 3Issued from : E. Suarez-Morales, M.A. Gutiérrez-Aguirre, A. Cervantes-Martinez & T.M. Iliffe in ZooKeys, 671, 2017. [ p.8, Table I].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1-P4 in female and male of Stephos fernandoi from anchialine cave on Cozumed Island (Quintana Roo, Mexico).
Roman numerals indicate spines and Arabic numerals are setae.
Note the difference between the armature formula of this new species and that shown previously by Bradford-Grieve (1999).

Genre Stephos - Planche 4Issued from : E. Suarez-Morales, M.A. Gutiérrez-Aguirre, A. Cervantes-Martinez & T.M. Iliffe in ZooKeys, 671, 2017. [ p.13, Fig.5].
Geographic disteibution of Stepphos female fifth leg groups A-F up to date 2017.
Group A lateral seta present, segment apically elongate. B latteral seta present, segment not apically elongate, short. C lateral seta absent, segment apically elongate. D lateral seta present, segment elongate, with additional segmental processes, branched or bifurcate. E lateral seta absent, segment elongate, with outer segmental processes,. F latteral seta absent, segment short, apically truncate or blunt, leg rami symmetrical or asymmetrical.
The authors explore possible distributional trends in thye genus and grouped the structural patterns of the female P5 of 29 species of Stephos. These morphological types were based on the development and armature of the distal segment. as indicated in the figure.
Pattern D was deemed as the most primitive group, followed by groups A and B, also with a lateral seta and an apically elongate or short segment, respectively.The derived pattern are those lacking a lateral seta (E, C and F).
For the authors it is speculated that ancestors of Stephos probably originated in the Australian-Western-Pacific and successively colonized the Mediterranean and the northeastern Atlantic.

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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. et de Bovée F., 2005-2024. - Biodiversité des Copépodes planctoniques marins (morphologie, répartition géographique et données biologiques). Sorbonne Université, CNRS. Disponible sur [Accédé le 18 juillet 2024]

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