Fiche d'espèce de Copépode
Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Metridinidae ( Famille )
        Pleuromamma ( Genre )
Pleuromamma gracilis  (Claus, 1863)   (F,M)
Syn.: Pleuromma gracile Claus, 1863 (p.197); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.347, 357, 774, figs.F,M);
no Pleuromamma gracilis : Esterly, 1905 (p.175, Rem.F,M); Farran, 1926 (part.);
Ref.:
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.110, Rem. F); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.234, 249); Farran, 1908 b (p.61); A. Scott, 1909 (p.123, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.289); Pesta, 1920 (p.528); Steuer, 1925 (p.91, figs.F, M); Sars, 1925 (p.204); Farran, 1926 (p.273); Rose, 1929 (p.30); Farran, 1929 (p.209, 260, figs.F, Rem.); Sewell, 1932 (p.264); Steuer, 1932 a (p.30, 33, 76); 1933 (p.16); Wilson, 1932 a (p.127, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.181, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.111); Tanaka, 1937 (p.267, figs.F); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.71, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.32); Farran, 1948 f (n°17, p.3, figs.F,M); Delsman, 1949 (p.129); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.308, figs.F,M); Marques, 1953 (p.115); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.308); 1957 a (p.12); Marques, 1959 (p.214); Tanaka, 1960 (p.51); Gaudy, 1962 (p.93, 99, Rem.: p.109, Pl.X: Juv., Tableau 8: development); Grice, 1962 (p.218, figs.F, Rem.); Tanaka, 1963 (p.24, Rem.); Paiva, 1963 (p.55); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (part, p.70-71, figs.F); Vervoort, 1965 (p.108, Rem.); Deevey, 1966 (p.165, Rem.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.80); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.71, figs.F,M); Vilela, 1968 (p.23, figs.F); Vidal, 1968 (p.33, figs.F,M); Ramirez, 1969 (p.71, figs.F, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.177, figs.M); ); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Shih & al., 1971 (p.42); Bowman, 1971 b (p.36, figs.F,M, Rem.); Bradford, 1971 b (p.24, fig.F, Rem.); 1972 (p.44, figs.F,M); Razouls, 1972 (p.94, Annexe: p.68, figs.F,M); Kos, 1972 (Vol.I, figs.F,M, Rem.); Arcos, 1975 (p.19, figs.M); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.5, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.642, figs.F,M); Zheng & al., 1982 (part. p.46, figs.F,M);Ferrari, 1984 a (p.167, fig.F); J.S. Park & Mauchline, 1994 (p.108 & suiv.,fig.F); J.S. Park, 1995 (p.212, figs.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.838, tab.7, Pl.131: F,M); Cuoc & al., 1997 (p.656, fig.F: genital complex); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.884, 949, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.121, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.179, 192); Conway & al., 2003 (p.92, Figs.F,M, Rem); G. Harding, 2004 (p.31, figs.F,M); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.61, figs.F,M, Rem.); Conway, 2006 (p.19, copepodides 1-6, Rem.); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.35, Rem. N, biolum.); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.93, Pl. 62, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.377, figs.F,M, Rem.); Halbert & al., 2013 (p.1, fig.5, DNA sequence, Rem.: cryptic forms); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2014 (p.6, Rem.: problematical for barcoding)
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 1 de figures morphologiquesisued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.121, Fig.82].
Female (from 41°41'S, 167°03'E): A, habitus (dorsal); B, urosome (left lateral side); C, P5.

Male: D, habitus (dorsal); E, P5.

Female characteristics: Pigment spot on right side.
- Proximal segments of A1 with small low denticles.
- P5 2-segmented (with 1 free segment); distal segment with 3 terminal spines and 2 thin outer spines.

Male characteristics: Pigment spot on right side.
- Urosome almost completely symmetrical except that segment 3 has a patch of hairs on left distolateral border.
- Left A1 geniculate; toothed ridges on segments 17, 18 and 19-21; serrations are variable, teeth can be pointed or more or less blunt, long and thin, or short and thick.
- Endopod segment 1 of P2 with denticles on right side only.
- Distal segment of right P5 elongate, slightly less wide than in other related forms; penultimate segment of same leg has a curvede process with a double row of blunt tubercles.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 2 de figures morphologiquesissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.24, 1-4]. As Pleuromamma gracilis Forma typica.
Female (from E China Sea): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forehead (lateral); 3, urosome (ventral); 4 idem (lateral right side).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 3 de figures morphologiquesissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.70, Lam. XIII, figs.97, 102].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 97, urosome (lateral left side); 102, P5.
Scale bars in mm: 0.5 (97); 0.05 (102).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 4 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.48, figs.2-3].
Male (from Canarias Is.): 2, right A1 (grasping segments); 3, P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 5 de figures morphologiquesissued from : F. Giron-Reguer in Thèse Fac. Sc. Paris, 1963 [Fig.11].
Female (from Alboran Sea): thoracic segments and abdomen (ventro-lateral right side).
Nota: see the length of P5 and the genital complex.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 6 de figures morphologiquesissued from : C. Cuoc, D. Defaye, M. Brunet, R. Notonier & J. Mazza in Mar. Biol., 1997, 129. [p.655, Figs.14-18]. Scanning electron micrograph of genital area of females (from Banyuls, France).
28, outer genital area of inseminated female; note pedunculate structure (arrow) on spermatophoral plug (sp.
gp: gonoporal plate; gs: gonoporal slits.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 7 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.48, Fig.27-1]. As Pleuromamma gracilis f. minima.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c-d, urosome (lateral and ventral, respectively); e, proximal segments of A1; f, P2; g, basipodite, exopodal segment 1 and endopod of P2; h, P5.

Male: i, habitus (dorsal); j, grsping segments of left A1; k, basipodite, exopodal segment 1 and endopod of P2; l, P5.

Scale bars in mm.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 8 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.49, 27-2, f-q). As Pleuromamma gracilis f. maxima.
Female: k, habitus (dorsal); l, forehead (lateral); m-n, urosome (lateral and ventral, respectively); 0, proximal segments of A1; p, basipodite, exopodal segment 1 and endopod of P2; q, P5.

Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 9 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (2nd edit., 1964). [Pl.35, Figs.1-5].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 4, P5.

Male: 2, P5 (posterior); 3, habitus (dorsal); 5, P2 (anterior).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 10 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.M. Bradford in Mem. N. Z. Oceonogr. Inst., 1972, 54. [p.45, Fig.11, (-3].
Female (from Kaikoura, New Zealand): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, P5.

Male: 3, P5.

Scale bars: 1 mm (1); 0.1 mm (2, 3).

Nota: The form was forma maxima (Steuer, 1932) which has 2-segmented female P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 11 de figures morphologiquesissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.51].
Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): A, P5; B, P5 (anomaly); C, urosome (dorsal); C', last segment of metasome and genital segment (lateral).

Male: D, last segment of metasome and urosome (dorsal); E, exopod of right P5, E' process on exopodal segment 1 of right P5 (various views); F, geniculation on right A1.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 12 de figures morphologiquesissued from : D.F.R. Arcos in Gayana, Zool., 1975, 32. [Lam.VI, Figs.54-55].
Female (from Bahia de Concepcion, Chile): 54, habitus (lateral) [ Juvenile ? ].

55, endopodite segment 1 of P2.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 13 de figures morphologiquesissued from : D.F.R. Arcos in Gayana, Zool., 1975, 32. [Lam.V, Figs.52-53].
Male: 52, habitus (dorsal); 53, P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 14 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T.E. Bowman in Smithson. Contr. Zool., 1971, 96. [p.44, Fig.39, e-h].
Female (from Florida): e-f, urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively); g, P5; h, P5 (terminal spines).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 15 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T.E. Bowman in Smithson. Contr. Zool., 1971, 96. [p.43, Fig.38, e-i].
Male: e, distal segments of left A1; f, segments 13-16 of left A1; g, posterior segments of prosome (lateral), showing position of spermatophore; h, anal segment and caudal ramus (dorsal); i, Md (cutting edge).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 16 de figures morphologiquesissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.217, Pl.22, Figs.13-15]. As Pleuromamma gracilis f. minima.
Female (from equatorial Pacific): 13, habitus (lateral); 14, urosome (ventral); 15, P5.
Nota: Divergent margins of the anal segment. Fused 2nd basal and exopodal segments of P5 In most of the present specimens the left caudal ramus is enlarged.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 17 de figures morphologiquesissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.31].
Female & Male.

Nota: Male; P5 with a longer knobbed process (arrowed) on exopodal segment 2 than in P. borealis.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 18 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.33, Fig.47]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Female: 47, urosome (lateral).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 19 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Fig.20]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Female: 20, P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 20 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Fig.24]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Female: 24, P2 (anterior view).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 21 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Fig.4]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Female: 4, Mx1 (posterior view).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 22 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Fig.17]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Female: 17, Mxp (anterior view).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 23 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.33, Fig.41]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Male: 41, urosome.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 24 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Fig.6]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Male: 6, A1 (proximal segments 1 to 12-13; ventral view).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 25 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Fig.6]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Male: 6, A1 (distal segments 12-13 to 24-25; ventral view).


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 26 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.32, Figs.18, 19]. As Pleuromma gracile.
Male: 18, right P5 (exopodal segments); 19, left P5 (exiopodal segments 1 and 2).
Ps = left leg; Pd = righjt leg; Re = exopod.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 27 de figures morphologiquesissued from : P.E. Lapernat & C. Razouls in Vie Milieu, 2002, 52 (1). [p.28, Pl. VI, fig.6].
Masticatory edge of Md gnathobase female (from off Malta, Mediterranean Sea).

Nota: Itoh's index: 582.2 (number of teeth : 8) for the masticatory edge of the right Md, and 608.3 (number of teeth : 8) on the masticatory edge of the left Md.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 28 de figures morphologiquesissued from : A. Ianora, B. Scotto di Carlo, M.G. Mazzocchi & P. Mascellaro in J. Plankton Res., 1990, 12 (2). [p.253, Fig.4, A].
Pleuromamma gracilis female (from Gulf of Naples, Italy) parasitized by the dinoflagellate Blastodinium, less than 1 % throughout the year.
Scale bar = 0.100 mm.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 29 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.63, Fig.35].
Female (from Flores Sea): a, habitus (dorsal); b, urosome (lateral); c, P2 (exopod segments 2 and 3 missing); d, P5.

Male: e, habitus (dorsal); f, P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 30 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.22, Fig.88]. As Pleuromamma gracilis forma maxima.
Female (from 75°17'S, 172°20'E): 88, P5.
Scale bar: 100 µm.

Nota: The occurrence of this specimen is anomalous, although Farran (1929) recorded it as far south as 52°S.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 31 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : O. Tanaka in Japanese J. Zool., 1937, VII, 13. [p.267, Fig.15].
Female (from coast of Heda, Japan): a, abdomen (ven,tral); b, P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 32 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : M.G. Mazzocchi in Guida al Riconoscimento del plancton dei Mari Italiani, Vol. II, 2006. [p.70, Tav. 62]. Redrawn after Rose, 1933; Steuer, 1933.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b-c, urosome (ventral and lateral, respectively); d, proximal part of A1; e, P5.

male: f, urosome (ventral); g, distal part of left A1; h, P5.


Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Planche 33 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : L. Blanco-bercial, A. Cornils, N. Copley & A. Bucklin in PLoS Currents, 2014, Version 1, p.8]. TCS analysis on the Pleuromamma piseki and Pleuromamma gracilis sequences.

For the authors: The clade containing P. gracilis and P. piseki was recovered with 100% bootstrap support, but the species formed a number of clusters and MOTUs. A detailed analysis of these two taxa showed a complex pattern, with strong regional-scale genetic structuring of P. gracilis, but no clear isolation from P. piseki .
P. gracilis from the SE Atlantic showed a number of highly divergent haplotypes, but still no amino acid substitutions. Regional-scale genetic structure and the presence of highly-divergent rare haplotypes may be related to the large effective population size of cosmopolitan marine copepods.
In contrast P. piseki did not show strong spatial structure and lacked genetic divergence from P. gracilis. Similar results have been recently reported for the same species complex for other mitochondrial markers (see Halbert, Goetze & Carlon, 2013). Clearly, integrated molecular and morphological analysis of both species throughout their distributional ranges is needed to clarify both the status of the species and their population structure.

Ref. compl.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.195); Rose, 1924 d (p.479); 1925 (p.152); Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (1936) (p.167, Rem.); Wilson, 1942 a (p.202); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.91); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.349, 503, 508, 512, 514, 516, 519, 525, 547, 549, 557, 567); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.289); Kott, 1957 (p.5, 17); Yamazi, 1958 (p.150, Rem.); Wickstead, 1962 (p.550, food & feeding); Fagetti, 1962 (p.27); Grice & Hart, 1962 (p.287, table 3); Duran, 1963 (p.19); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.32; V.N. Gaudy, 1963 (p.25, Rem.); Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Shmeleva, 1963 (p.141); Grice, 1963 a (p.496); Ahlstrom & Thrailkill, 1963 (p.57, Table 5, abundance); Björnberg, 1963 (p.50, Rem.); Bary, 1963 a (p.1519, Table 1); 1964 (p.183, T-S diagram-occurrences, Rem.: p.198); De Decker, 1964 (p.16, 24, 28); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Deevey, 1966 (p.155, fig.3, lengths variation); Mullin, 1966 (p.546, Table I, III, diet); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution vs mixing Oyashio/Kuroshio region, Table 8, 9); Mazza, 1966 (p.71); 1967 (p.367); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.738, geographic distribution, Rem.); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); De Decker, 1968 (p.45); Evans, 1968 (p.14); Berdugo & Kimor, 1968 (p.447); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.81, 82, 83, 84, 91, 277); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.269); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Carli, 1971 (p.373, tab.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs. day/night, Table II: %); Binet & al., 1972 (p.69); Boucher & Thiriot, 1972 (p.47, Tableau 4); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 354, fig.5); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 b (p.550, Rem.); Razouls S., 1972 b (p.2, respiration); Nival & al., 1972 (p.63, respiration); Björnberg, 1973 (p.338, 388); S. Razouls, 1974 (147, oxygen rate); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); de Bovée, 1974 (p.109, 124); Vives & al., 1975 (p.46, tab.II, III, IV); Fernandez, 1975 (p.1, fig.11, 12, 13, 14, metabolism/lux), Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 602); Timonin & Voronina, 1977 (p.291); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Arashkevich, 1978 (p.118, Table: diets); Fernandez, 1978 (p.97, metabolism/food, Rem.: Table 19); Dessier, 1979 (p. 206); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Hayward, 1980 (p.295, Table 2, vertical distribution, feeding); Vives, 1982 (p.293); Rudyakov, 1982 (p.208, Table 2); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.84); Scotto di Carlo & Ianora, 1983 (p.150); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, 2, Rem., %); Roe, 1984 (p.358); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Sameoto, 1984 (p.767, as glacilis, vertical migration); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.5); De Decker, 1984 (p.316, 360: chart); Binet,1984 (tab.2, 3); Boucher, 1984 (p.469, spatial distribution/hydrological front); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1041); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); Sazhina, 1985 a (p.491, tab.2); Petipa & Borichenko, 1985 (tab.2); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.35); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Longhurst, 1985 (tab.2); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); M. Lefèvre, 1986 (p.33); Wishner Allison, 1986 (tab.2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Brenning, 1986 (p.9, spatial distribution, T-S Diagram, Rem.); Saraswathy, 1986 (p.189); Ambler & Miller, 1987 (tab.2, 3, 4, 5); Wiebe & al., 1988 (tab.7); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Dessier, 1988 (tabl.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Buskey & al., 1989 (p.207, vertical distribution vs light penetration); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1990 (p.305, fig.4: vertical distribution night/day; fig.7: cluster); Ianora & al., 1990 (p.249, fig., parsitism effects); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1, as glacilis); Park & al., 1991 (p.203); Hattori, 1991 (tab.1, Appendix); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1991 (p.270); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Heinrich, 1992 (p.86); Ayukai & Hattori, 1992 (p.163, Table 5, fecal pellet production rate); Jiyalal Ram & Goswami, 1993 (p.129, tab.IV); Ashjian & Wishner, 1993 (p.483, abundance, species group distributions); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Kouwenberg, 1993 a (p.281, fig.3, 4, sex ratio); Hays & al., 1994 (tab.1); Landry & al., 1994 (p.55, abundance, grazing); Kouwenberg, 1994 (tab.1); Genin & al., 1994 (p.941, fig.5, patchiness); Heinrich, 1995 (tab.1); Palomares Garcia & Vera, 1995 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.71); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Timonin, 1997 (p.83, Rem.); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.102, 112); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1, 2); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.2, 4); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.30, 33, 58, 63); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Reid & Hunt, 1998 (p.310, figs.2, 3, Rem.); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.476); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Harvey & al., 1999 (p.1, 49: Appendix 5, in ballast water vessel); Onishchik, 1999 (p.76, fig.2); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl. 3, 4); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 5, Appendix); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Escribano & Hidalgo, 2000 (p.283, tab.2); Plounevez & Champalbert, 2000 (p.175, Table III, IV, V, abundance vs fish); Sautour & al., 2000 (p.531, Table II, abundance); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 2000 (1247, tab.1); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou & al., 2000 (tab.I, fig.8); Plounevez & Champalbert, 2000 (p.175, Table III, IV, V, abundance vs fish); Haury & al., 2000 (p.69, Table 1); Madhupratap & al., 2001 (p. 1345, vertical distribution vs. O2, figs.4, 5: clusters, p.1353); d'Elbée, 2001(tabl. 1); Rebstock, 2001 (tab.2); Holmes, 2001 (p.20); Hidalgo & Escribano, 2001 (p.159, tab.2); Hidalgo & Escribano, 2001 (p.158, fig.5); Rebstock, 2002 (p.71, Table 3, 5, 6, Figs.2, 3, climatic variability); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.1692); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Gaudy & al., 2003 (p.357, tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.397, tab.1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, fig.6); Pusch & al., 2004 (251, tab.3); Gallienne & al., 2004 (p.5, tab.3); CPR, 2004 (p.60, fig.177); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Wang & Zuo, 2004 (p.1, Table 2, dominance, origin); Vukanic & Vukanic, 2004 (p.9, tab. 2, 3); Shimode & al., 2005 (p.113 + poster); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.313, fig.2); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.485, tab.1); Berasategui & al., 2006 (p.485: fig.2); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.162: tab.1); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I) ; Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.56, Rem., chart); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.152, tab.2, 3, Rem.); Mackas & al., 2006 (L22S07, Table 2); Zervoudaki & al., 2006 (p.149, Table I); Escribano, 2006 (p.20, Table 1); Koppelmann & Weikert, 2007 (p.266: tab.3); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.24); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.104: tab.1); Morales C.E. & al., 2007 (p.452, Rem.: p.462: abundance); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.844: Tab.1); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.520); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Raybaud & al., 2008 (p.1765, Table A1); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.153, Table 2, fig.5, occurrence vs geographic distribution, indicator species); Tseng & al., 2008 (p.402, Table 2); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations, Table 2: indicator species); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Tseng & al., 2009 (p.327, fig.5, feeding); Zhang W & al., 2009 (p.261); Zhang W & al., 2009 (p.263); Licandro & Icardi, 2009 (p.17, Table 4); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); Escribano & al., 2009 (p.1083, Table 1, figs.6, 10); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Brugnano & al., 2010 (p.312, Table 3, fig.8); Williamson & McGowan, 2010 (p.273, Table III, Pacific central gyres: N & S); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, fig.2, 4, Table 2, cluster analtsis); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.426); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Nowaczyk & al;, 2011 (p.2159, Table 2); Pepin & al., 2011 (p.273, Table 2, seasonal abundance); Xu & Gao, 2011 (p.514, figs.3, 4, Table 2: optimal salinity); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.317, Table 2, indicator of seasonal change); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Pillai H.U.K. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, vertical distribution); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Selifonova, 2011 a (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Shiganova & al., 2012 (p.61, Table 4); Brugnano & al., 2012 (p.207, Table 2, 3); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); Jang M.-C & al., 2012 (p.37, abundance and seasonal distribution); Mulyadi & Rumengan, 2012 (p.202, Rem.: p.204); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Hidalgo & al., 2012 (p.134, Table 2, 3, fig.8: occurrence vs hydrology); Minutoli & Guglielmo, 2012 (p.91, carbon requirement vs vertical distribution); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, p.4, Table 2); Siokou & al., 2013 (p.1313, fig.4, 8, biomass, vertical distribution); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2013 (p.1009, Table I, fig.7, abundance vs environmental factors); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Kobari & al., 2013 (p.78, Table 2); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Tseng & al., 2013 a (p.1, Table 3, 4, abundance); Wishner & al., 2013 (p.122, diel vertical migration); Sobrinho-Gonçalves & al., 2013 (p.713, Table 2, fig.8, seasonal abundance vs environmental conditions); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker); Sano & al., 2013 (p.11, Table 2, feeding habits); Mendoza Portillo, 2013 (p.37: Fig.7, seasonal dominance, p.42: fig.10, biomass); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Fernandez de Puelles & al., 2014 (p.82, Table 3, seasonal abundance); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Lopez-Ibarra & al., 2014 (p.453, fig.6, Table 2, biogeographical affinity); Mazzocchi & al., 2014 (p.64, Table 3, 4, 5, spatial & seasonal composition %); Pino-Pinuer & al., 2014 (p.83, Table 1, 2, fig.3, abundance variation vs time); Fierro Gonzalvez, 2014 (p.1, Tab. 3, 5, occurrence, abundance); Zaafa & al., 2014 (p.67, Table I, occurrence); Dias & al., 2015 (p.483, Table 2, abundance, biomass, production); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1) ; Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones); Chaouadi & Hafferssas, 2018 (p.913, Table II: occurrence); Dias & al., 2018 (p.1, Table 4: % vs. season); Acha & al., 2020 (p.1, Table 3: occurrence % vs ecoregions, Table 5: indicator ecoregions).
NZ: 22

Carte de distribution de Pleuromamma gracilis par zones géographiques
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 4issued from : M. Saraswathy in Mahasagar-Bull. Nat. Inst. Oceanogr., 1986, 19 (3). [p.187, Fig.1B].
Distribution of P. gracilis in the Indian Ocean (upper water column of 200 m).
Triangle: South West Moonsoon season: April 16 to October 15 (white triangle = negative stations; black = animals collected). Circle: North East Moonsoon season: October 16 to April 15 (white circle = negative stations; black = numbers of ianimals collected).
Nota: Tis species was found to be most abundant off the Somalia coast.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 5issued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.73, Table 29].
Vertical distribution of Pleuromamma gracilis at the ''40-Mile station'' in the Florida Current (± 25°35'N, 79°27'W).
SL 53: 18 V 1958; SL 55: 21 VII 1958. A: during midday; B;: during midnight.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 6issued from : G.A. Rebstock in Global change Biology, 2002, 8. [p.77, Fig.2 l ].
Climatic regime shifts and decadal-scale variability in calanoid copepod populations off southern California (31°-35°N, 117°-122°W.
Cumulative sums of nonseasonal anomalies from the long-term means of copepod abundance from years 1950 to 2000.
A negative slope indicates a period of below-average anomalies; a positive slope indicates a period of above-average anomalies. Abrupt changes in slope indicate step changes. Step changes are marked with arrows (downward -pointing for decreases).
The October 1966 cruise (prior to the increase in sampling depth), March 1976 cruise (prior to the 1976-77 climatic regime shift), and October 1988 cruise (prior to the hypothesized 1989 climatic regime shift) are marked with vertical lines.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 7issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 25 ]. Pleuromamma gracilis (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 8issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock - 35. Jahrgang 1986. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 5. [p.8, Fig.5].
Spatial distribution for Pleuromamma gracilis, P. piseki and P. borealis from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 9issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock - 35. Jahrgang 1986. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 5. [p.10, Fig.7].
T-S Diagram for Pleuromamma gracilis, P. piseki and P. borealis from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W.
SO: Southern Surface Water (S °/oo: 34,50; T°C: 29,0); ND: Northern Water of the Surface Layer (S °/oo: 37,5; T°C: 21,0); SD: Southern Deep Water of the surface layer (S °/oo: 35,33; T°C: 13,4). See commentary in Temora stylifera and Brenning (1985 a, p.6).
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 10issued from : T.L. Hayward in Mar. Biol., 1980, 58. [p.299, Fig.2].
Plots of day (open circle) and night (filled circle) depth distributions of Pleuromamma gracilis in the North Pacific central gyre (main sampling location: 25°N, 155°W with drogue), September 1968.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 11issued from : T.L. Hayward in Mar. Biol., 1980, 58. [p.302, Fig.4].
Day and night feeding indices (relative degree of gut fullness of copepods collected under differing environmental conditions) for females Pleuromamma gracilis from N Pacific central gyre (main sampling location: 28°N, 155°W), June 1973.
Numbers in abscisse : stations.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 12Issued from : P.-E. Lapernat in DEA Océanogr. Biol., Univ. P. & M. Curie, Paris VI. July 5, 2000. [Fig.10 e].
Verical distribution of Pleuromamma gracilis at an oligotrophe site (off NW Cape Verde Islands: 21° N, 31° W) in females (F) and males (M) (ind. per m3) in the day (white circle) and night (black circle).

Nota: Sampling in the water column 0-1000 m, one during the day and another during the night with BIONESS multiple-net: 0-75; 75-150; 150-250; 250-350; 350-450; 450-550; 550-700; 700-850; 850-965 m. In May-June 1992.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 13Issued from S. Razouls in XXIII rd Congress of Athens, 3-11 November 1972. [p.2]. Oxygen consumed by individual (adult) in the Banyuls Bay and equivalent carbon asked.
(1) Hydrological season in the stability period: Eté = Summer: 18-20 °C; Hiver = Winter: 13-10°C.
Espèces = species; Saison = Season; Lg céph.= cephalothoracic length; an = individual.
Espèce Pleuromamma gracilis - Carte de distribution 14Issued from : M. Madhupratap & P. Haridas in J. Plankton Res., 12 (2). [p.311, Fig.4].
Vertical distribution of calanoid copepod (mean +1 SE), abundance No/100 m3. 19- Pleuromamma gracilis.
Night: shaded, day: unshaded.
Samples collected from 6 stations located off Cochin (India), SE Arabian Sea, November 1983, with a Multiple Closing Plankton Net (mesh aperture 300 µm), in vertical hauls at 4 depth intervalls (0-200, 200-400, 400-600, 600-1000 m).
Loc:
Cosmopolite (tropical and temperate). Also Antarct. (SW Atlant., Ross Sea, South Georgia), sub-Antarct. (SW Atlant., SW Pacif.), Brazil-Argentina, South Africa (E), Brazil (off Rio de Janeiro, Campos Basin, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé), Namibia, G. of Guinea, Ivorian shelf, off NW Cape Verde Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, Cap Ghir (Morocco), Great Meteor Seamount, Canary Islands, off Madeira, off W Cabo Finisterre, Bay of Biscay, Azores Is, Caribbean Colombia, Caribbean Sea, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Florida, off Bermuda: Station ‘’ S’’ (32°10’N, 64°30’W), Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream (off Cape Hatteras, off E Cape Cod), Woods Hole, off SE Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, S Iceland, off W Ireland, off SW Ireland, North Sea, Portugal, Ibero-moroccan Bay, off W Tangier, Medit. (M"Diq, Alboran Sea, Algerian Basin, Gulf of Annaba, Baleares, off Barcelona, Banyuls, Marseille, Ligurian Sea, Napoli, Tyrrhenian Sea, Messina, Gulf of Taranto, Malta, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin, W Egyptian coast, Alexandria, Black Sea), Arabian Sea, Natal, Sri Lanka, S Indian, off S Madagascar, Mascarene Basin, off E La Réunion Is., Rodrigues Is.- Seychelles, Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea (Batten Island), Australia (W, North West Cape), Indonesia-Malaysia, Flores Sea, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (S, E, SW, W, N, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon, NE), Korea, Korea Strait, Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Sagami Bay, off Sanriku, off S Shikoku Is., Kuroshio zone, Pacif. (equatorial), off NE Hawaii, Guaymas Basin, Oregon, California, Santa Monica Basin, Sixtymile Bank, W BaJa California, Gulf of California, G. of Tehuantepec, off W Guatemala, W Costa Rica, Pacif. (E & W equatorial), Pacific (central gyres: N & S), Australia (Great Barrier), New Caledonia, New Zealand (Kaikoura, South Island S, NE, North Island N), Campbell Is., Kermadec Is, Tasman Sea, Pacif. S (NPFZ), Moorea Is., Galapagos-Ecuador, Peru, Chile (N-S, Mejillones Peninsula, off Santiago, Concepcion)
N: 393
Lg.:
(22) F: 2,55-1,6; M: 2,55-1,51; (35) [Atlant. N] F: 1,85; [Atlant. trop.] F: 1,83-1,7; [N-Z] F: 1,98-1,8; [Auckland & Campbell Is.] F: 2,4-2,28; (38) F: 2,34-2,2; M: 1,82-1,72; (45) F: 2-1,5; M: 1,85-1,5; (46) F: 1,95-1,7; M: 1,85-1,6; (54) F: 2,05; 1,82; M: 1,81; 1,68; (66) F: 1,75; (73) F: 2,04-1,9; (75) F: 1,98-1,78; M: 1,8-1,67; (91) F: 2-1,2; M: 2-1,2; (102) F: 1,8; (116) F: 2,4-1,9; M: 1,9; 1,86; (118) F: 2,5-1,85; M: 2-1,6; (128) F: 1,86-1,72; (180) F: 1,98-1,8; M: 1,82-1,55; (187) F: 1,94-1,7; M: 1,6-1,47; (199) F:1,98-1,67; M: 1,82-1,44; (237) F: 2,0-1,9; M: 1,8; (254) F: 1,9; (290) F: 1,7-1,9; M: 1,55-1,85; (327) F: 1,99; (449) F: 1,95-1,7; M: 1,85-1,6; (530) M: 1,5; (786) F: 2,25-2; (864) F: 1,73-2,22; (909) F: 1,9-2,4; M: 1,7-1,9; (920) F: 1,86; M: 1,63; (991) F: 1,2-2,55; M: 1,51-2,25; (1122) F: 1,85; M: 1,75; {F: 1,20-2,55; M: 1,50-2,25}

The mean female size is 1.933 mm (n = 55; SD = 0.2823), and the mean male size is 1.736 mm (n = 36; SD = 0.2417). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.94 (n = 19; SD = 0.1275) or 94 %.
Rem.: epi-mésopélagique.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-600 m. Cf. Pleuromamma gracilis gracilis
Pleuromamma gracilis gracilis (Claus,1863) (F,M)
Syn.: Pleuromma gracile Claus, 1863 (p.197); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.42); Pleuromamma gracilis minima Steuer, 1931 (p.6); Grice, 1962 (p.218, figs.F, Rem.)
Ref.: Vervoort, 1965 (p.108, Rem.); Mazza, 1967 (p.187, Rem. juv.); Vilela, 1968 (p.23, figs.F); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.177, figs.M); Ref. compl.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.17); Park, 1970 (p.477); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1);
Loc.: sub-Antarct., Afr. S, Congo, G. de Guinée, Canaries, Lisbonne, Mer des Antilles, Mer des Sargasses, Indien W, Japon (Suruga Bay), Pacif. équatorial, Californie
N: 8
Lg.: (16) F: 2-1,65; M: 1,58; (101) F: 2,07-1,8; (180) F: 1,98-1,8; M: 1,82-1,55; (207) F: 2,12-1,88; M: 1,9-1,65
Pleuromamma gracilis maxima Steuer,1931 (F,M)
Ref.: Steuer, 1931 (p.6); 1932 a (p.36, 50, 77, figs.F,M); 1933 (p.19); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.85, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1963 (p.24, Rem.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.109, 110); Deevey, 1966 (p.165); Bradford, 1971 b (p.24, fig.F); Lapernat, 1999 (p.24, 55); Lapernat & Razouls, 2001 (tab.1)
Loc.: Antarct., Atlant., Médit., Indien, Japon, Nouvelle-Zélande
N: 2
Rem.: 2000 m (off Malte)
Pleuromamma gracilis minima Steuer,1931 (F,M)
Ref.: Steuer, 1931 (p.6); 1932 a (p.33, 50, 77); 1933 (p.16, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1963 (p.24, Rem.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.109, Rem.); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.224); Mazza, 1967 (p.187, Rem. juv.); Vidal, 1968 (p.33, figs.F,M)
Lg.: (26) F: 1,9-1,88; (207) F: 2,12-1,88; M: 1,9-1,65
Rem.: Cf. Pleuromamma gracilis gracilis
Voir aussi les remarques en anglais
Dernière mise à jour : 13/07/2020

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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2020. - Diversité et répartition géographique chez les Copépodes planctoniques marins. Sorbonne Université, CNRS. Disponible sur http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr [Accédé le 28 septembre 2020]

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Copépodes planctoniques marins

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