Fiche d'espèce de Copépode
Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamille )
        Paracalanidae ( Famille )
            Acrocalanus ( Genre )
Acrocalanus gracilis  Giesbrecht, 1888   (F,M)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.171, 175, 770, figs.F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.25, Rem. F); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.233, 243); Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1003, Rem., figs.F,M); A. Scott, 1909 (p.29); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.204); Sewell, 1912 (p.359); 1914 a (p.209); Früchtl, 1924 b (p.41); Mori, 1929 (p.172, figs.F); Sewell, 1929 (p.79, figs.F, p.87: Rem. M), fig.M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.205); Farran, 1936 a (p.81); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.31, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.93, figs.F); Vervoort, 1946 (p.134, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.53, Rem.); Tanaka, 1956 c (p.371, Rem. F,M, p.374: Rem.M); Tanaka, 1960 (p.27, figs.F, Rem.: abormality); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.116, figs.F); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.24, fig.F); Shen & Lee, 1963 (p.574); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.45, figs.F,M); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.78); Kos, 1972 (Vol.I, figsF, Rem.); Greenwood, 1976 (p.18); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.624, figs.F); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.28, Figs.F); Hiromi, 1987 (p.154); Nishida, 1989 (p.173, fig. 3, dorsal hump); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.48, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.846, Pl.136: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.877, 909, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.154, figs.F,M, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.174, figs.F, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.117, figs.F); Gusmao & McKinnon, 2009 (p.1101, Table II, III, figs.F, M, sex ratio, intersex); Soh & al., 2013 (p.49, figs.F).
Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 1 de figures morphologiquesissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.10, 10-14].
Female (from E China Sea): 10, habitus (dorsal); 11, idem (lateral left side); 12, distal segment of exopod of P4 (posterior).

Male: 13, habitus (dorsal); 14, P5 (posterior).


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 2 de figures morphologiquesissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1929, X. [p.79, Fig.31].
Female (from Nicobar Is.): a, habitus (lateral left side); b, P1; c, P2; d, P3; e, P4.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 3 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T.E. Bowman in Bull. mar. Sc. Gulf Caribb., 1958, 8 (2). [p.119, Fig.1, E].
Female (from W Pacific equatorial): E, habitus (lateral).


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 4 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Mori inThe pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.12, Figs.1-5].
Female: 1, habitus (lateral); 4, P1 (anterior); 5, P4 (posterior).
Nota: The external margins of the 3rd exopod segment of P2 to P4 are denticulate.

Male: 2, habitus (lateral); 3, P5.
Nota: The right leg of P5 is vestigial or absent; left leg 5-segmented.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 5 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen inMarine planktonic copepods in Chinese waers. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.28, Fig.15].
Female: a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, exopod of P4, P2 and P3.
Scale bars in mm.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 6 de figures morphologiquesissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. V, Fig.1].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 1, habitus (lateral).


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 7 de figures morphologiquesissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IV, Figs.24-25].
Female: 24, P4; 25, P2.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 8 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Fig.35].
Female: exopodite 3 of P4.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 9 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 6, Fig.27].
Female: 27, habitus (lateral).


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 10 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.199, Fig.73].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, P4.

Body length after the drawing: F = 1.143 mm.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 11 de figures morphologiquesissued from : L.F.M. Gusmao & A.D. McKinnon J. Plankton Res., 2009, 31 (9). [p.1106, Fig.1].
Examples of different sexes in the last three stages of development of Acrocalanus gracilis raised in incubation in the Timor Sea.
Normal C4, C5 and adult females do not have P5, and only the basipodite can be seen. The P5 of C4 males is almost half the length of the urosome, and in C5 males the P5 is as long as the urosome. In C5 and adult intersex, P5 is as long as in the C4 males.

The authors propose that sex change is an important mechanism determining the adult sex ratio.
Sex ratios of Acrocalanus gracilis could be explained by sex change alone; the observations suggest that sex determination is under strong environmental control, and that the food limitation is an important determinant of sex change.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 12 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.174, Fig.97].
Female (from Indonesian Seas): a, habitus (dorsal); b, posterior thoracic segments and urosome (lateral left side); c, P1; d, P3; e, P4.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 13 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [Pl. IX, 1-4].
Female (from Indian Ocean): 1, habitus (lateral); 2, P2; 3, P3.

Abnormal female P5: 4.
A female specimen measuring 1.22 mm had an abnormal P5 composed of 4 segments; the distal outer margin of the exopod of the P3 was furnished with very minute spines.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 14 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.50, Fig.28].
Female (from Korean waters): A-B, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); C, forehead (ventral); D, P5.
Scale bars: A, B = 200 µm; C = 100 µm; D, 25 µm.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 15 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.51, Fig.29].
Female: A, P1; B, P2; C, P3; D, P4.
Scale bars: A = 50 µm; B-D = 100 µm.


Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Planche 16 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : M.C. Kos in Field guide for plankton. Zool Institute USSR Acad., Vol. I, 1972. After Brodsky, 1962.
Female: 1-2, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3, P1; 4, P2; 5, P3; 6, P4.

Ref. compl.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.184); Carl, 1907 (p.16); Wilson, 1942 a (p.170); Sewell, 1948 (p.390, 395, 403, 407, 412, 422, 433); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.157); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.115); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.306); 1957 a (p.11); Yamazi, 1958 (p.147, Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.13); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.7, 15); Björnberg, 1963 (p.9); De Decker, 1964 (p.14, 17, 28); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.11); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Delalo, 1968 (p.137); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Subbaraju & Krishnamurphy, 1972 (p.25, 26 ); Björnberg, 1973 (p.303, 384); Patel, 1975 (p.659); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.794); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, 2, Rem., %); De Decker, 1984 (p.315, 328: carte); 1984 a (p.157); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Binet, 1984 (tab.3); 1985 (p.85, tab.3); Almeida Prado Por, 1985 (p.250); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Dessier, 1988 (tabl.1); Williams D. & al., 1988 (p.580); Echelman & Fishelson, 1990 a (tab.2); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 563, Table 1); Hirakawa, 1991 (p.376: fig.2); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Godhantaraman, 1994 (tab.5, 6); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.71); Gouda & Panigrahy, 1995 (p.206); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Wong & al., 1998 (tab.2); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.45); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hwang & al., 1998 (tab.II); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Smith S. & al., 1998 (p.2369, Table 6, moonsoon effects): Dolganova & al., 1999 (p.13, tab.1); Ueda & al., 2000 (tab.1); Dalal & Goswami, 2001 (p.22, fig.2); McKinnon & Duggan, 2001 (p.121); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Hwang & al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Shimode & Shirayama, 2004 (tab.2); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.397, tab.1); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.486, tab.2, 3, abundance); L0 & al. *, 2004 (p.218, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.468, tab.2); Chang & Fang, 2004 (p.456, tab.1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1, tab.2); Gallienne & al., 2004 (p.5, tab.3); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Kazmi, 2004 (p.230, Rem.: p.232); Rezai & al., 2005 (p.157, Table 2: spatial & temporal variations); Shimode al., 2005 (p.113 + poster); Prusova & Smith, 2005 (p.75); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.163: tab.1); Lopez-Ibarra & Palomares-Garcia, 2006 (p.63, Tabl. 1, seasonal abundance vs El-Niño); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.24); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.844: Tab.1); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.521); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Lopez Ibarra, 2008 (p.1, Table 1: abundance, Table 2: Rem.); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 5); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations, Table 2: indicator species); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.62, Table 2, fig.5, occurrence vs geographic distribution, indicator species); Tseng & al., 2008 (p.402, Table 2); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.46, table 2, abundance vs moonsons, fig.8, table 3: indicator species); Pagano, 2009 (p.116); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Mendes Gusmao & McKinnon, 2009 (p.1089, development and production); Tseng & al., 2009 (p.327, fig.5, feeding); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Hernandez-Trujillo & al., 2010 (p.913, Table 2); Sun & al., 2010 (p.1006, Table 2); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, 3, 4, fig.5, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.317, Table 2, 3, fig.6, indicator of seasonal change); Kâ & Hwang, 2011 (p.155, Table 3: occurrence %); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Pillai H.U.K. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, vertical distribution); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2); Beltrao & al., 2011 (p.47, Tabvle 1, density vs time); Jang M.-C & al., 2012 (p.37, abundance and seasonal distribution); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance, indicator species); Johan & al., 2012 (p.647, Table 1, fig.2, salinity range); Cornils & Blanco-Bercial, 2013 (p.861, Table 1, molecular analysis, figs.3, 4, 5); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2013 (p.1009, Table I, abundance vs environmental factors); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, pers. comm.); Varadharajan & Soundarapandian, 2013 (p.2: occurrence vs stations); Tachibana & al., 2013 (p.545, Table 1, seasonal change 2006-2008); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Tseng & al., 2013 a (p.1, Table 3, 5, abundance); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, 4, 5, 6, fig.11, seasonal abundance); Anjusha & al., 2013 (p.40, Table 3, abundance & feeding behavior); Anjusha & al., 2013 (p.40, Table 3, abundance & feeding behavior); Mendoza Portillo, 2013 (p.37: Fig.7, seasonal dominance); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Lopez-Ibarra & al., 2014 (p.453, Table 2, biogeographical affinity); Dias & al., 2015 (p.483, Table 2, abundance, biomass, production); Nakajima & al., 2015 (p.19, Table 3: abundance); Rojas-Herrera & al., 2016 (p.40, Table 2: temporal abundance, Table 3: diversity index); Ben Ltaief & al., 2017 (p.1, Table III, Summer relative abundance); Ohtsuka & Nishida, 2017 (p.565, Table 22.1)
NZ: 15

Carte de distribution de Acrocalanus gracilis par zones géographiques
Espèce Acrocalanus gracilis - Carte de distribution 3Issued from : S.-H. Hsiao, S. Kâ, T.-H. Fang & J.-S. Hwang inHydrobiologia, 2011, 666. [p.326, Fig.6].
Variations in the most abundant copepod species (mean ± SE) along the transect in the boundary waters between the northern part Taiwan Strait and the East China Sea , March (black bar) and October (grey bar) 2005 (Mann-Whitney U test, sig. **P <0.01.
See drawings of Hydrological conditions and superficial marine currents in Calanus sinicus.
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), Patagonia, Brazil (Campos Basin, ...), Cuba, Antilles, E Medit. (G. of Gabes), G. of Suez, G. of Aqaba, Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Maldives Is., Madagascar, Rodrigues Is. - Seychelles, Mascarene Basin, Natal, Indian, Sri Lanka (Pearl Banks), India (Saurashtra coast, W, SE coast, Porto Novo, G. of Mannar, Palk Bay, Madras, Rushikulya estuary, Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is., Barren Island, S Burma, W Malay Peninsula (Andaman Sea), Perai River estuary, Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Ambon Bay, Bintulu coast, Tioman Is., SW Celebes, Timor Sea, Philippines, Viet-Nam (Cauda Bay), Hong-Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (S, E, W, SW, Tapong Bay, Kaohsiung Harbor, NW, N, Mienhua Canyon, NE), Okinawa, S Korea, Korea Strait, Japan Sea, Japan ( Ariake Bay, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tokyo Bay, Seto Inland Sea), off SE Japan, Aleutian Is., Bering Sea, off Washington, California, Baja California (Bahia Magdalena), G. of California, Acapulco Bay, W Costa Rica, Clipperton Is., Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (S, Great Barrier, Moreton Bay, North West Cape, G. of Carpentaria), New Caledonia, Pacif. (equatorial), Bikini Is., off Hawaii, S Panama, Fiji Is., off NE Tuamotu Is., Galapagos, off Peru, Chile

Data from Cornils & Blanco-Bercial (2013): 05°07'S; 119°21'E.
N: 180
Lg.:
(28) F: 1,35-1,04; M: 1,05-0,86; (29) F: 1-0,81; M: 1-0,8; (34) F: 1,3-1,2; (47) F: 1,2; (55) F: 1,32-1,25; M: 1,24-1,2; (66) F: 1,34-1,05; M: 1,19; (104) F: 1,4; (150) F: 1,8-1,15; M: 1,32-1,17; (290) F: 1,2-1,05; M: 0,95; (334) F: 1,4-1,3; (351) F: 1,06-0,99; M: 0,83-0,94; (786) F: 1,32-1,3; (795) F: 1,14; (1023) F: 1,33; (1122) F: 1,2; (1174) F: 1,68; (1230) F: 1,0-1,8; M: 0,8-1,4; {F: 0,81-1,80; M: 0,80-1,32}
Rem.: épipélagique, parfois plus profonde.
Voir aussi les remarques en anglais
Dernière mise à jour : 01/12/2020

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