Calanoida Sars, 1902 ( Neocopepoda, Gymnoplea )     ( Classification and Phylogeny )
Syn.: Gymnoplea Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.41); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.6, 7); Sars, 1901 a (1903) (p.2); Esterly, 1905 (p.113); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.5); Rose, 1933 a (p.17); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.8); Kabata, 1979 (p.47, 49); Dudley, 1986 (p.10); Staborogatov, 1986 (p.1778); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.316, 403, 419)
Ref.: Sars, 1902 (p.4); Gurney, 1931 a (p.82); Wilson, 1932 a (p.18, 540, clé G.); Rose, 1933 a (p.17); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.79); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1002 & suiv.); Kabata, 1979 (p.48, 49); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.9); Marcotte, 1982 (p.188); 1986 (p.187); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.85,139); Dudley, 1986 (p.7); Park,1986 (p.191); Boxshall, 1986 (p.204); Björnberg, 1986 (p.53, 232, Rem.N); Mauchline, 1988 (p.698); J.-S. Ho, 1990 (p.528); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.48, 403, 406, 418, 419, Rem.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.51); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.891, 901, Families Key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.3; 37; 49; 12: families Key; p.38: Super-families Key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.138, Families key.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.27, 138 : Rem., families key); Bradford-Grieve & al., 2010 (p.291, phylogeny, families cladistic analysis)
For Bradford-Grieve & al., 2014 ( p.507, p.527: fig.12 phylogram of families).
Rem.: Andronov (1974 a) established 9 Superfamilies including the Platycopioidea. Park (1986) estimates that the Spinocalanidae and the Epacteriscidae should be erected to the rank of superfamily. The Platycopiidae being isolated in a different Order, we count 9 superfamilies of which certain have changed denomination for the reason of priority rule (Andronov, 1991, p.133): Arietelloidea [= Augaptiloidea (part.)], Bathypontioidea , Calanoidea [= Megacalanoidea], Clausocalanoidea [= Pseudocalanoidea (part.)], Diaptomoidea [= Centropagoidea],, Eucalanoidea , Pseudocyclopoidea (Epacteriscoidea included in this family by Bradford-Grieve & al., 2014), Ryocalanoidea , Spinocalanoidea.
Fosshagen & Iliffe, 2004 a (p.353) and Boxshall & Hasley (2004) do not recognize the superfamily of the Fosshagenioidea. These superfamilies are defined in Boxshall & Hasley (2004, p.38).
Ferrari & Ueda (2005, p.333) following the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1985) restore the precedence of the Centropagoidea , just as the structure of the urosome of the female copepodite 5 in Fosshagenia ferrarii excludes this form from the Centropagidea and should restore the superfamily of the Fosshagenoidea .

43 pelagic or brackish water families (the Calocalanidae and the Mecynoceridae are integrated with the Paracalanidae) are defined by Boxshall & Hasley (2004), being by alphabetical order:
1 - Acartiidae, 2 - Aetideidae, 3 - Arctokonstantinidae, 4 - Arietellidae, 5 - Augaptilidae, 6 - Bathypontiidae, 7 - Boholinidae, 8 - Calanidae, 9 - Candaciidae, 10 - Centropagidae, 11 - Clausocalanidae, 12 - Diaixidae, 13 - Discoidae, 14 - Epacteriscidae, 15 - Eucalanidae, 16 - Euchaetidae, 17 - Fosshageniidae, 18 - Heterorhabdidae, 19 - Hyperbionychidae, 20 - Kyphocalanidae, 21 - Lucicutiidae, 22 - Megacalanidae, 23 - Mesaiokeratidae, 24 - Metridinidae, 25 - Nullosetigeridae, 26 - Paracalanidae, 27 - Parapontellidae, 28 - Phaennidae, 29 - Pontellidae, 30 - Pseudocyclopidae, 31 - Pseudocyclopiidae, 32 – Peudodiaptomidae, 33 – Rhincalanidae, 34 - Ridgewayiidae, 35 - Rostrocalanidae, 36 - Ryocalanidae, 37 - Scolecitrichidae, 38 - Spinocalanidae, 39 - Stephidae, 40 - Sulcanidae, 41 - Temoridae, 42 - Tharybidae, 43 - Tortanidae.
The Diaptomidae with freshwater genera are not taken into account above.
The esentially freshwater and brackish (sometimes coastal) Pseudodiaptomidae are listed in an exhaustive way and indicated in the geographic distribution matrix.
The Calanoida incertae sedis are reunited in an arbitrary "group" (inc. sed-calanoida).
Boxshall & Hasley (2004, p.188) consider the family Parkiidae as synonym of the Scolecitrichidae in the absence of a true phylogenetic analysis. Vyshkvartzeva (2004, p.176 & foll.) contests the position of the former authors concerning the genus Parkius and restores the family status of the Parkiidae. br>
Ohtsuka & Huys (2001, p.461) draw up the phylogenetic tree of the Superfamilies.
Order Calanoida - Plate 1issued from : Pacific Biomedical Research Centre, University of Hawaii at Manoa http://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/lucifer/gifs/copepod-taxo-evol.gif.
Phylogenetic tree of suborders of Calanoida (with families included) after Park 1986; Bowman & Abele 1982, revised by Andronov 1991.

Order Calanoida - Plate 2issued from : S. Ohtsuka & R. Huys in Hydrobiologia, 2001, 453/454. [Fig. 15, p.461]

Phylogenetic tree of calanoid superfamilies, after Andronov (1974) and Park (1986). Each superfamily is defined by sexually dimorphic characters (apomorphies). Arrows indicate synapomorphies

Order Calanoida - Plate 3issued from : L. Blanco-Bercial, J. Bradford-Grieve & A. Bucklin in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2011. [p.103, Fig.2]. Simplified.
Phylogram of families of the copepod Order Calanoida and outgroups. RAxML Maximum Likelihood tree, with nodes indicating percentage bootstrap recovery under three analyses: exclusion of all third codon positions in the protein-codifying genes (3rd pos.); and translation of protein-codifying genes to amino acid sequences (amono acid). The tree topology and the branch lengths shown correspond to the original sequence analysis. See full text and fig.2: doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.01.008
The phylogeny agrees with previously-published morphological phylogenies (Andronov, 1974; Park, 1986), including e.g., enlargement of the Bathypontioidea to include the Fosshageniidae.

Order Calanoida - Plate 4issued from : D.F. Figueroa in J. Crustacean Biol., 2011, 31 (1). [p.161, Fig.6].
Calanoida phylogenetic tree based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Branch values correspond to bootstrap support for maximum parsimony, maximum likehood, neighbor joining, and Bayesian posterior probabilities ( -, indicates taht the branch failed the 50% bootstrap support.

Nota: After the author, this particular genetic analysis suggests: 1- Centropagoidea is the sister branch to all other Calanoida; 2- Ridgewayiidae and Pseudocyclopidae likely share a common ancestor with Augaptiloidea; 3- Ridgewaiidae and Pseudocyclopidae should be included in the same superfamily, Pseudocyclopoidea; 4- Spinocalanoidea likely needs to be included in Clausocalanoidea to recover the monophyly of the latter superfamily.

Order Calanoida - Plate 5Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, G.A. Boxshall & L. Blanco-Bercial in Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 2014, 171. [p.527, Fig.12].
Ohylogram of taxa of the copepod order Calanoida and out-groups.
The topology and branch length correspond with the RAxML maximum-likelihood tree. Numbers at nodes indicate percentage of bootstrap recovery (when > 50%)/Bayesian posterior probability (when > 0.95, except for the Augaptiloidea/Centropagoidea node). For the super-family groupings, see Appendix S1 on line at the publisher's web-site.

Order Calanoida - Plate 6Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, G.A. Boxshall, S.T. Ahyong & S. Ohtsuka in Invert. Syst., 2010, 24. [p.310, Fig.14].
Strict consensus of 66 trees, length 428, consistency index (CI) = 0.28, retention index (RI) = 0.72. The outgroup is a hypothetical calanoid ancestor.
Calanoid copepod taxa used as exemplars in the cladistic analysis of calanoid families indicated in Table 1 (p.294).

Order Calanoida - Plate 7Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, G.A. Boxshall, S.T. Ahyong & S. Ohtsuka in Invert. Syst., 2010, 24. [p.311, Fig.15].
Strict consensus of three trees after one round of successive weighting. Clade numbers above the line, jackknife supprt below. Outgroup is a hypothetical calanoid ancestor.
Calanoid copepod taxa used as exemplars in the cladistic analysis of calanoid families indicated in Table 1 (p.294).

Order Calanoida - Plate 8Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, G.A. Boxshall, S.T. Ahyong & S. Ohtsuka in Invert. Syst., 2010, 24. [p.294, Table 1].
Calanoid copepod taxa used as exemplars in the cladistic analysis of calanoid families.

Order Calanoida - Plate 9Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, G.A. Boxshall, S.T. Ahyong & S. Ohtsuka in Invert. Syst., 2010, 24. [p.316, Fig.17].
Diagramatic representation of new hypothesis of evolutionary trends in female genitalia (oviducts and shell ducts omitted).
(A) hypothetical ancestor, Ridgewayiidae (Brattstromia) and Epacteriscidae;
(B) Pseudocyclopidae and Boholinidae;
(C) Ridgewayiidae, Centropagoidea (except Acartia), Augaptilidae, Lucicutiidae, Heterorhabdidae,and Bathypontioidea?;
(D) Augaptiloidea (Arietellidae, Hyperbionychidae, Nullosetigeridae, Metridinidae;
(E) Acartiidae (Acartia) - not in analysis- no operculum, only integumental fold with genital slit opening to outside:
(F) Megacalanidae, Calanidae, Paracalanidae, Eucalanidae, Clausocalanoidea, (not Euchaetidae?).
Large arrows indicate directions of transformations, small arrows indicate postulated places on tree (Fig. 16) where each type of configuration probably occurred (information from Cioc & al., 1997; Barthélémy & al., 1998; Barthélémy, 1999a, 1999b, and original data).
cp = copiulatory pore; ga = genital atrium; go = genital operculum; gp = gonopore; gs = genital slit; ml = opercular muscles; m2 = gonoporal plate muscles; m3 = genital atrial muscles; sp = seminal pore; sr = seminal receptacle.
Arietelloidea
Syn.: Augaptiloidea Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 5, Table 1, Fig.2, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.138, Rem..)
Rem.: 5 families : Arietellidae, Augaptilidae, Discoidae, Heterorhabdidae, Nullosetigeridae.
According to Blanco-Bercial & al. (2011, Table 1): 8 families: Arietellidae, Augaptilidae, Discoidae, Heterorhabdidae, Hyperbionychidae, Lucicutiidae, Metridinidae, Nullosetigeridae.
Bathypontioidea
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.138, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 5, Table 1, Fig.2, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Rem.: 1 family : Bathypontiidae.
Calanoidea
Syn.: Megacalanoidea Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 5, Table 1, Fig.2, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.139, Rem.)
Rem.: 4 families : Calanidae, Mecynoceridae, Megacalanidae, Paracalanidae.
Clausocalanoidea
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.139, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 5, Table 1, Fig.2, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Rem.: 13 families : Aetideidae, Clausocalanidae, Diaixidae, Euchaetidae, Kyphocalanidae, Mesaiokeratidae, Parkiidae, Phaennidae, Pseudocyclopiidae, Rostrocalanidae, Scolecitrichidae, Stephidae, Tharybidae.
Diaptomoidea
Syn.: Centropagoidea : Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 3, Fig.2, Table 1, Biol. mol, phylogeny, Rem.: p.7)
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.138, Rem.)
Rem.: 10 marine families : Acartiidae, Candaciidae, Centropagidae, Fosshageniidae, Parapontellidae, Pontellidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Sulcanidae, Temoridae, Tortanidae.
Epacteriscoidea
Syn.: Ridgewayioidea : Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.139, Rem.)
Ref.: Bradford-Grieve & al., 2014 (p.507, 526, Rem: p.529)
Rem.: 2 families : Epacteriscidae, Ridgewayiidae.
For Bradford-Grieve & al. ( 2014, p.507, 526) this Superfamily is a synonym of Pseudocyclopoidea.
Eucalanoidea
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.139, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 5, Table 1, Fig.2, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Rem.: 2 families : Eucalanidae, Rhincalanidae.
Pseudocyclopoidea
Syn.: Epacteriscoidea Fosshagen, 1973.
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.139, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 2014 (p.507, 526, Rem: p.529, phylogeny)
Rem.: 1 family : Pseudocyclopidae, [synonymized: Bohalinidae and Ridgewayidae].

Diagnosis after Bradford-Grieve & al. (2014, p.526):
Plesiomorphic calanoid copepods with underlying pattern of full development of arthropodial membranes between body somites and limb segments, with some exceptions; A1 female up to 27-segmented, ancestral segments XIX, XX, and XXIII usually without aesthetascs; male A1 always geniculate on right and tendency for ancestral segment XXV to have distoanterior process.
Male and female mouthparts identical.
A2 exopod 9-segmented, segments I-VIII with 1 seta each.
Mxp endopod segment V nearly always with outer border seta (except Edaxiella).
P1-P5 with both rami usually 3-segmented.
P1 and P2 exopodal segment 3 with 2 or 3 outer border spines.
P3 exopodal segment 3 with 2 or 3 outer border spines, P4 and P5 (female) with 2 or 3 outer border spines.
Ryocalanoidea
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.139, Rem.)
Rem.: 1 family : Ryocalanidae.
Spinocalanoidea
Ref.: Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, 5, Table 1, Fig.2, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Rem.: 2 families : Arctokonstantinidae, Spinocalanidae.
Acartiidae Sars, 1903 ( Diaptomoidea )
Aetideidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Arctokonstantinidae Markhaseva & Kosobokova, 2001 ( Spinocalanoidea )
Arietellidae Sars, 1902 ( Arietelloidea )
Augaptilidae Sars, 1905 ( Arietelloidea )
Bathypontiidae Brodsky, 1950 ( Bathypontioidea )
Boholinidae Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1989 ( Pseudocyclopoidea )
Calanidae Dana, 1846 ( Calanoidea )
Candaciidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Diaptomoidea )
Centropagidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Diaptomoidea )
Clausocalanidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Diaixidae Sars, 1902 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Discoidae Gordeeva, 1975 ( Arietelloidea )
Epacteriscidae Fosshagen,1973; emend.: Fosshagen, Boxshall & Iliffe, 2001 ( Epacteriscoidea )
Eucalanidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Eucalanoidea )
Euchaetidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Fosshageniidae Suarez-Morales & Iliffe, 1996 ( Diaptomoidea )
Heterorhabdidae Sars, 1902 ( Arietelloidea )
Hyperbionychidae Ohtsuka, Roe & Boxshall, 1993 ( Arietelloidea )
Kyphocalanidae Markhaseva & Schulz, 2009 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Lucicutiidae Sars, 1902 ( Arietelloidea )
Mecynoceridae Andronov, 1973 ( Calanoidea )
Megacalanidae Sewell, 1947 ( Calanoidea )
Mesaiokeratidae Matthews, 1961 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Metridinidae Sars, 1902 ( Arietelloidea )
Nullosetigeridae Soh, Ohtsuka, Imabayashi & Suh, 1999 ( Arietelloidea )
Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Calanoidea )
Parapontellidae Giesbrecht, 1894 ( Diaptomoidea )
Parkiidae Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Phaennidae Sars, 1902 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Pontellidae Dana, 1853 ( Diaptomoidea )
Pseudocyclopidae Giesbrecht, 1893 ( Pseudocyclopoidea )
Pseudocyclopiidae T. Scott,1894 ; emend. Jaume, Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1999 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Pseudodiaptomidae Sars, 1902 ( Diaptomoidea )
Rhincalanidae Geletin, 1976 ( Eucalanoidea )
Ridgewayiidae M.S. Wilson, 1958 ( Epacteriscoidea )
Rostrocalanidae Markhaseva, Schulz & Martinez Arbizu, 2008 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Ryocalanidae Andronov, 1974 ( Ryocalanoidea )
Scolecitrichidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Spinocalanidae Vervoort, 1951 ( Spinocalanoidea )
Stephidae Sars, 1902 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Sulcanidae Nicholls, 1945 ( Diaptomoidea )
Temoridae Giesbrecht, 1893 ( Diaptomoidea )
Tharybidae Sars, 1902 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Tortanidae Sars, 1902 ( Diaptomoidea )
incertae sedis (Calanoida)

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