Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Spinocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Spinocalanidae ( Family )
            Spinocalanus ( Genus )
Spinocalanus abyssalis  Giesbrecht, 1888   (F,M)
Syn.: no Spinocalanus abyssalis : Sars, 1903 (p.157, figs.M); With, 1915 (p.69); Jespersen, 1934 (p.51); 1940 (p.16);
S. brevicaudatus (part) Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.136);
no S. abyssalis pygmaeus Farran, 1926 (p.246); 1936 a (p.85); ? Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (1936) (p.156, Rem.); Grice, 1963 a (p.495);
S. abyssalis pygmaeus : Farran & Vervoort, 1951 g (part., n° 39, p.3, figs.F); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents: herbivorous);
S. parabyssalis Park, 1970 (part., p.483, figs.M, no F);
? S. major Esterly,1906 (p.55);
Spinocalanus abyssalis Tanaka, 1937 (part., p.253, figs.M, non F); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (part., p.132, fig.M, no F)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.209, Descr.F, figs.F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.31); Farran, 1908 b (p.27, Rem.); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.10); ? Sars, 1925 (p.28); Farran, 1926 (part., p.242, Rem.); 1929 (part., p.227: small forms: F: 1,2-1,18); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.11); Vervoort, 1946 (p.147, Rem.); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.130, figs.F); Vervoort, 1951 (p.70, Rem.); ? 1957 (p.40, Rem.); ? Tanaka, 1956 c (p.389); ? 1960 (p.36); Vives, 1967 (p.551, fig.M); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.229, fig.F); Vaupel-Klein, 1970 (p.4, 10); Park, 1970 (p.475, 481, figs.F; Rem.: p.482); ? Minoda, 1971 (p.22); ? Bradford, 1971 b (p.17, figs.F,M); Grice, 1971 (p.275, 280, figs.F: I-J); Minoda, 1971 (part., p.22); Roe, 1975 (p.298, figs.M, Rem. M); Damkaer, 1975 (part., p.17, figs.F, Rem.F, no M); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.250, figs.F,M, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.878, 914, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.833, figs.F,M, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.103, Table 1, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Brodsky K.A., Vyshkvartseva N.V., Kos M.S. & Markhaseva E.L. in Opred. Faune SSSR, 1983, 135. [p.251, Fig.114].
Female.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : D.M. Damkaer in NOAA Technical Report NMFS CIRC-391, Seattle, 1975. [p.18, Fig.4-10; p.63, Fig.148].
Female: 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, idem (left lateral side); 6, Mxp; 7, P1; 8, P2; 9, P3; 10, P4; 148, terminal segments of A1.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.]480, Figs.13-22].
Female: 13, habitus (dorsal); 14, idem (lateral left side); 15, A2; 16, Md; 17, Mx1; 18, Mxp; 19, P1 (anterior); 20, P2 (posterior); 21, P3 (posterior); 22, P4 (2nd and 3rd exopod segments broken off), posterior.
Nota: A2 7-segmented (1st segment with or without a seta, 2nd segment with 3 setae, and 3rd to 6th segments each with a seta. Md: basis with 4 setae and some patches of stiff hairs. Mxp with a comb of spines on basis.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice & K. Hulsemann in J. Zool., 1965, 146. [p.230, Fig.7, a].
Female (from NE Atlant.): a, habitus (lateral left side).


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.486, Figs.34-42]. As Spinocalanus parabyssalis.
Male (from Caribbean Sea): 34, habitus (dorsal); 35, idem (lateral left side); 36, P5 (posterior).
Nota: Prosome about twice as long as urosome. 2nd urosomal segment about 1.5 times as long as the 3rd. Exopod of right P5 reaching middle of 2nd segment of exopod of left P5; right endopod longer than left endopod.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Cah. Biol. Mar., 1971, XII. [p.278, Fig.3 I-J].
Female (from Medit.): I, habitus (lateral left side); J, Mxp (coxa and basis).


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 36, Fig.49];
Female: abdomen (lateral, right side).


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 13, Fig.42];
Female: 42, Md (mandibular blade).


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.13, Fig. 43].
Female: 43, Mx1 (anterior view).
B = basipod; Re = exopod; Ri : endopod; Li = inner lobe; Le = outer lobe.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 13, Figs.45, 47, 48 ].
Female: 45, Md (mandibular palp); 47, Mxp (anterior view); 48, Mx2 (posterior view).
B = basipod; Ri = endopod; L = lobe; S = seta.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 13, Figs.44, 46 ].
Female: 44, P4 (posterior view); 46, P1 (anterior view).
Si = inner seta; se = outer seta; St = terminal seta.; B = basipod; Ri3 = 3rd segment of endopod.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : H.S.J. Roe in Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool., London, 1975, 28 (7). [p.299, Fig.1, a-j];
Male (Cape verde Islands): a, base of A1; b, A2; c, Md; d, Mx2; e, Mxp; f, P1; g, P2; h, P3; i, P4; ; j, P5.
Bar scale 0.1 mm unless indicated.
Nota : No rostrum.
A1 19-segmented (basal eught segments with large flattened sensory filaments, 1st segment with a small group of spines, reaches to about halfway along the 2nd abdominal segment.
Cephalothorax arched dorsally, 1.7 times as long as the 5-segmented abdomen.
head and 1st thoracic segment fused, 4th and 5th partially fused.
2rd thoracic segment has protruding corners in dorsal view.
Anal segment very short, telescoped into the 4th abdominal segment.
P5 reaches back to the hind edge of the 2nd abdominal segment.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.17, Figs.24, 25].
Female (from Ross Sea): 24, basipod 1 and 2 of Mxp; 25, P2.
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.17, Fig.23].
Female (from Ross Sea): 23, P1.
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.17, Fig.24].
Female (from Ross Sea): Mxp (basipods 1 and 2).
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.17, Fig.22].
Male (from 71°15'S, 176°30'E): 22, P5.
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.17, Fig.27].
Male (from Ross Sea): 27, P1.
Scale bar: 10 µm.


Species Spinocalanus abyssalis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Japanese J. Zool., 1937, VII, 13. [p.254, Fig.4, e-d].
Male (from coast of Heda, Japan): d, Mxp; e, P5.

Nota: Cephalothorax: 1.14 mm; abdomen: 0.48 mm.
Frontal margin of the head contracted in the middle.
Head and 1st thoracic segment fused, 4th and 5th separated.
Abdomen 5-segmented.
A1 24-segmented.
P5 as With's figure.

Compl. Ref.:
Pearson, 1906 (p.10); Jespersen, 1939 (p.46, Rem., Table 25); Wilson, 1942 a (p.209); Sewell, 1948 (p.347, 495, 499, 545, 549, 559, 566, 568); ? C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.341); Gundersen, 1953 (p.1, 26, seasonal abundance, Fjords distribution); Řstvedt, 1955 (p.14: Table 3), p.59; Minoda, 1958 (p.253, 255: occurrence); ? Fagetti, 1962 (p.16); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); M.W. Johnson, 1963 (p.89, Table 1, 2); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.20); Shmeleva, 1964 a (p.1068); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223); Pavlova, 1966 (p.43); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.14); Matthews, 1967 (p.159, Table 1, Rem.); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.258, 266); Deevey, 1971 (p.225); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 a (p.331, Rem.); Björnberg, 1973 (p.322, 389); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Vives & al., 1975 (p.35, tab.II, III); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Rudyakov, 1982 (p.208, Table 2); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Roe, 1984 (p.356); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.58); Ward & al., 1995 (p.195, Table 2); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.423); Kosobokova & al., 1998 (tab.2); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.111); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 5, Appendix); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2000 (p.2029, tab.2); Holmes, 2001 (p.41); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.13); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table1, N Atlantic Mid-Ridge); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 4, Appendix 1); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.427); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2010 (p.991, Table 2); Michels & al., 2012 (p.369, Table 1, occurrence frequency); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Sano & al., 2013 (p.11, Table 6, Rem.: p.21, food habits)
NZ: 20

Distribution map of Spinocalanus abyssalis by geographical zones
Loc:
Cosmopolite: Antarct. (Croker Passage, Peninsula, Weddell Sea, SW Atlant., Indian, SW Pacif., Ross Sea), sub-Antarct. (South Georgia, Indian, SE Pacif.), Caribbean Colombia, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda: Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), off E Cape Cod, Atlant., Porcupine Bank, Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Akrefjord, Raunefjorden (rare), North Sea, Medit. (W Basin, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea), Indian, Pacif., Kuroshio zone, Arct. (Polar Basin), Laptev Sea, Kejser Franz Joseph fjord (rare)
N: 93
Lg.:
(8) M: 1,22-1,06; (13) F: 1,32-0,85; ? (25) F: 2,2-1,7; M: 2,2-1,7; (31) F: 1,89-1,65; (38) F: 1,6-1,45; (47) F: 1,25-1,1; (88) M: 0,9; ? (102) F: 2-1; M: 1,9; (128) M: 1,62; (199) F: 1,6-0,83; (432) F: 1,5-1,2; (545) F: 1,3-1; {F: 0,83-1,98; M: 0,90-1,62}
Rem.: Meso- to bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 300-1000-2000 m. Sargasso Sea: 500-2000 m. In vertical tow 4000-3000 m (Harding, 1974).
This species seems to show an inverse nycthemeral migration.
Certain confusions exist between this species and S. brevicaudatus, S. terranovae; hence an unsure geographical distribution.
According to Grice & Hulsemann (1965, p.229) both S. abyssalis and S. abyssalis var.pygmaeus Farran, 1926 appeared in the NE Atlantic samples. They both had practically the same distribution except at the northern station (61°41'N, 02°32'W) where the var. pygmaeus was absent.
Last update : 08/05/2016
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