Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Acartiidae ( Family )
            Acartia ( Genus )
                Acartiura ( Sub-Genus )
Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica  Pinhey, 1926   (F,M)
Syn.: Acartia clausi hudsonica Pinhey, 1926 (p.7, figs.F,M); Sekiguchi & al., 1980 (p.133, eggs and fecal pelets production);
A. clausi : Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.420, figs.F,M);
A. clausi (part): Carillo & al., 1974 (p.452, figs.F,M: Pacific forms);
Acartia sp. Bradford, 1976 (p.181, figs.F,M).
Ref.:
Bradford, 1976 (p.176, figs.F,M, Rem.); Ueda, 1986 (p.124, Redescr., figs.F,M, Rem.); 1986 b (p.134, figs.F,M); Kang & Lee, 1990 (p.378, figs.F,M, Rem.); Yoo & al., 1991 (p.258); Durbin E.G. & al., 1992 (p.342, Rem.: p.343, affinities with A. clausii); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.670, Pl.16: F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 (N°181, p.4, figs.F,M); Barthélémy, 1999 (p.858, 862, figs.F); 1999 a (p.9, Fig.22, C, D); Soh & Suh, 2000 (p.332); Caudill & Bucklin, 2004 (p.91, molecular biology); G. Harding, 2004 (p.22, figs.F,M); Zhang H. & al., 2013 (p.57, RNA-extraction method).
Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1976, 10 (1). [p.176, 177, Figs.14,15].
Female (from East USA: Patuxent River, Gulf of Maine): 1a, habitus (dorsal view); 1b, idem (lateral view); 1c-e, P5.; 2a-c, genital segment (dorsal view); 2d-f, idem (lateral view).


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1976, 10 (1). [p.178, Fig.16].
Male (from East USA): a, habitus (dorsal view); b, idem (lateral view); c, posterior surface of P5; d, terminal segment of left P5.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : H. Ueda in J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 1986, 42 (2). [p.125, Fig.1].
Female (from different regions): A, B, urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively; from Long Island Sound); C, D, urosome (lateral; from Chesapeake Bay); E, F, urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively; from Maizuru Bay, Japan); G, H, idem (from San Juan Island, Puget Sound, Washington).

Male: I, P5 (anterior view; Long Island Sound); J, idem (Maizuru Bay); K, idem (from San Juan Island).


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : H. Ueda in J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 1986, 42 (2). [p.125, Fig.1].
Female (from different regions):Prosome length and body proportions of Acartia hudsonica females from various Atlantic and Pacific localities.
PL and PW: prosome length and width; GL and GW: genital segment length and width; RL and RW: right caudal ramus length and width.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : H. Ueda in J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 1986, 42. [p.136, Fig.2]. Comparative aspects between A. omorii, A. hudsonica and A. clausi.
A. omorii (from Maizuru Bay, Japan): Female: A-B, urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively);. Male: C, P5 (posterior view); D-E, 3rd segment of right P5 (other specimens).

A. hudsonica (from Maizuru): Female: F-G, urosome (dorsal and lateral); H, P5 (posterior view); I-J, 3rd segment of right P5 (other specimens).

A. clausi (after Bradford, 1976): Female: K-L, genital segment (dorsal and lateral, respectively).


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : H. Ueda in J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 1986, 42. [p.136, Table 1].
Comparative list of distinctive characters of A. omorii and A. hudsonica, after Bradford, 1976.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1976, 10 (1). [p.180, Fig.17]. As Acartia sp.
Female (from San Juan Island, Puget Sound): a-b, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively); c, P5.

Male: d-e, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); f, P5 (anterior surface); g, basipod 2 of left P5 (posterior surface); h, terminal segment of left P5.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1976, 10 (1). [p.182, Fig.18]. As Acartia sp.
Female (from Bremerton, Puget Sound): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, P5.

Male: d-e, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); f, habitus of small form (dorsal); g, P5 (anterior surface); h, terminal segment of left P5.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1976, 10 (1). [p.183, Fig.19]. As Acartia sp.
Female (from Puget Sound): a-b, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively).

Male: c-d, habitus (dorsal and lateral , respectively); e, P5 (anterior surface).
Nota: having subsequently seen female from Puget Sound with or without small spinules posterodorsally on the urosome segments and males in which the proportions of the right caudal ramus straddle the two previous forms, the author looks at as one variable species.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : E.B.-G. Carillo, C.B. Miller and P.H. Wiebe in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1974, 19 (3). [p.455, Fig.2]. As Acartia clausi.
Females (from Yaquina Bay, Oregon;) (right figure) and Acartia clausi (from Woods Hole: Atlantic form) (left figure).
Interbreeding attempts between Atlantic and Pacific populations.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : E.B.-G. Carillo, C.B. Miller and P.H. Wiebe in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1974, 19 (3). [p.455, Fig.1]. As Acartia clausi.
Male (from Yaquina Bay, Oregon) (right figure) and Acartia clausi (from Woods Hole) (left figure) (left figure).
Interbreeding attempts between Atlantic and Pacific populations.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : E.B.-G. Carillo, C.B. Miller and P.H. Wiebe in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1974, 19 (3). [p.456, Table 3]. As Acartia clausi.
Sizes of adult Acartia clausi from Pacific and Atlantic forms cultured at 17°C. Interbreeding attempts between Atlantic and Pacific populations.
Atlantic males and females are bigger than pacific males and females; the shape of the 4th segment of the male urosome is different: in the Atlantic form it bears a triangular projection pointing posteriorly on the dorsal side, in the Pacific male the projection is indented at the midline; P5 of females are very similar; P5 males of the Atlantic form are relatively bigger than those of the Pacific form. The Atlantic and Pacific populations of Acartia clausi (largo sensu) have been grouped for mabny years under the same name, based on morpholological similarity (Esterly, 1924). The comparisons between individuals shows differences mostly by size, and by a few subtle details in the males. mayr (1963) pointed out that most geographic isolates differ in some morphologic characters. These differences are not necessarily evidence of reproductive isolation, but are frequently correlated with it. The authors have shown experimentally that under the same environmental conditions, Atlantic and Pacific populations were able separately to breed and produce fertile off-spring, but not when members of the two populations were brought together.
It is not yet clear that either the Pacific or Atlantic population with interbreeding potentiallity possible between all of its geographic wide area; the assignment of new specific names should only follow a larger, possibly worldwide study of Acartia clausi populations. The authors follow in this the taxonomic philosophy of Wilson & Brown (1953).
Physiomogical, ecological, and behavorial differences have been found in closely related and similar species. According to Mayr (1963), this indicates that each is a separate biological system with species specific tolerances to physical and biological factors.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : Y.-S. Kang & S.-S. Lee in Bull. Korean Fish. Soc., 1990, 23 (5). [p.381, Fig.2].
Female (from Korea): D, habitus (dorsal); E, 1st, 2nd urosomal segments (dorsal); F, genital segment (lateral).

Male: A, habitus (dorsal); B, P5; C, inner lobe of 3rd segment of right P5.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Bathélémy in J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 1999, 79. [p.860, Fig.3, C].
Scanning electon miccrograph. Female (from Maizuru Bay, Japan): C, genital area (external ventral view).
Scale bar: 0.030 mm.
Symbols: * = fixation site of the spermatophore; arrowhead = lamellar flap.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : L. Seuront in J. Plankton Res., 2005, 27 (12). [p.1303, Table I].
Comparisons of distinctive characters of Acartia closely related to each other.


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.22].
Female & Male


Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : M. Chihara & M. Murano in An Illustrated Guide to Marine Plankton in Japan, 1997. [p.674, Pl. 16, fig.4 a-g].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); c, same (lateral, right side); d, P5.

Male: e, habitus (dorsal); f, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); g, P5 d, P5.
Nota: numbers show caracteristics of this species to compare with A. omorii.

Compl. Ref.:
Conover, 1978 (p.66, 72, feeding); Deason, 1980 (p.101, grazing); Hebert & Poulet, 1980-81 (p.121, feeding v.s. oil polluant); Turner & Dagg, 1983 (p.16); Turner & Anderson, 1983 (p.359, grazing); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, cell nucleus); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.3, Rem.); Hargrave & al., 1985 (p.221, annual abundance); Ueda, 1987 (p.691); Bollens & Frost, 1989 (p.1047, vertical migration/predator); Verity & Smayda, 1989 (p.161, ingestion-egg production); Stoecker & McDowell Capuzzo, 1990 (p.891, feeding); Gifford, 1991 (p.8, Table 2, diet); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table 1, eggs, temperature-dependent production); Durbin & al., 1992 (p.342, size-weight, egg production); Durbin A.G. & Durbin, 1992 (p.379, egg development, age distribution); Durbin E.G. & Durbin, 1992 a (p.361, feeding, length-weight, temperature effect); Rodriguez & Durbin, 1992 (p.7, feeding behaviour); Kimmerer, 1993 (tab.2); Weissman & al., 1993 (p.613, epibiontic effects); Jonasdottir, 1994 (p.67, nutrition); Bollens & al., 1994 (p.555, vertical migration/predators); Landry & al., 1994 (p.55, abundance, grazing); Ohtsuka & al., 1995 (p.158: Rem., 159); Samatov & Samatova, 1996 (p.21); Marcus, 1996 (p.143); Mauchline, 1998 (p.525, tab.19, 21, 33, 40, 45, 63, 64); Ueda & al., 2000 (tab.1); White & McLaren, 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Peterson & al., 2002 (p.353); Mackas & Galbraith, 2002 (p.725, tab.2a, 2b); Shimode & Shirayama, 2004 (tab.2); Mackas & al., 2004 (p.875, Table 2); Choi & al., 2005 (p.710: Tab.III); Manning & Bucklin, 2005 (p.233, Table 1, fig.12); Mackas & Coyle, 2005 (p.707, fig.7); Mackas & al., 2006 (L22S07, Table 2); Hooff & Peterson, 2006 (p.2610); Sullivan & al., 2007 (p.259, Rem.: climate change); Colin & Dam, 2007 (p.875, toxic effect); Sullivan & al., 2008 (p.485); Makino & al., 2008 (p.639: feeding rates); Teegarden & al., 2008 (p.33, Rem.: feeding and toxicity); Humphrey, 2008 (p.83: Appendix A); Yen & al., 2008 (p.283, Rem.: kinematic); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 4, 5); Hopcroft & al., 2009 (p.9, Table 3); Hopcroft & al., 2010 (p.27, Table 2, fig.9); Milligan & al., 2011 (p.155, phylogeography); Zheng Y. & al., 2011 (p.723, toxic food); Dam & Haley, 2011 (p.245, dinoflagellate toxicity effect); DiBacco & al., 2012 (p.483, Table S1, ballast water transport); Gusmao & al., 2013 (p.279, Table 3, sex-specific predation by fish); Questel & al., 2013 (p.23, Table 3, interannual abundance & biomass, 2008-2010).
NZ: 6 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica by geographical zones
Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Distribution map 2
Chart of 1996
Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Distribution map 3issued from : H. Ueda in J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 1986, 42. [p.136, Fig.1].
Distribution of A. omorii and A. hudsonica in Japanese inlet and cosatal waters.
Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Distribution map 4issued from : Y.-S. Kang & S.-S. Lee in Bull. Korean Fish. Soc., 1990, 23 (5). [p.383, Fig.4].
Distribution of Acartia hudsonica and Acartia omorii in Korean waters: 1: Sogcho; 2: ChumunJin; 3: UlJin; 4: Pusan; 6: ChejuDo; 7: Taeheugsan-Do; 8: Young-kwang.
Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Distribution map 5issued from : B.T. Hargrave, G.C. Harding, K.F. Drinkwater, T.C. Lambert & W.G. Harrison in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1985, 20. [p.227, Fig.7].
Major species of zooplankton present at the central station in St. Georges Bay (45°45'N, 61°45'W) during 1977.
Nota: All zooplankton collections were made after sunset. The net towed obliquely throughout the water column (± 34 m in depth).
Species Acartia (Acartiura) hudsonica - Distribution map 6issued from : B.T. Hargrave, G.C. Harding, K.F. Drinkwater, T.C. Lambert & W.G. Harrison in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1985, 20. [p.223, Fig.2].
Seasonal profiles of water temperature and salinity in St. Georges Bay (45°45'N, 61°45'W) near the central station during 1977.
Loc:
NW Atlant. (Strait of Belle Isle, Perch Pond (Falmouth, Massachusetts), Tuckerton bay, Hudson Bay, Patuxent River, Long Island, Rhode Island, G. of Maine, Narragansett Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Bedford Basin, James Bay, Passamoquoddy Bay, Casco Bay, Halifax Harbor, St. Lawrence Estuary (Rimouski), St. Georges Bay, Long Island, Cape Cod, Great Bay, Norfolk (Virginia), ? China Seas, Korea, Japan (Tanabe Bay, Maizuru Bay, Shiogama Bay), California, Santa Monica Basin, Jakles Lagoon, Oregon (coast), San Francisco Bay, Tomales Bay, San Juan Is., British Columbia, Queen Charlotte Is., ? S Beaufort Sea, ? Alaska (Port Clarence), SE Kamchatka (Avachinskaya Bay), Chukchi Sea
N: 63
Lg.:
(174) F: 1,07-0,87; M: 0,96-0,81; (181)* F: 1,32-0,74; M: 1,07-0,71; (866) F: 0,8-1,2; M: 0,7-1; (1089) F: 0,87-1,2; M: 0,81-1,02; (1309) F: 0,85-1,308; {F: 0,74-1,32; M: 0,71-1,07}

*: F: 1,0-1,32 (Chesapeake Bay, March); F: 1,05-1,13; M: 0,97-1,07 (Long Island Sound, June); F: 0,92-1,10 (March); M: 0,86-0,93 (March); F: 0,81-0,92 (June) (Maizuru Bay); F: 1,09-1,17 (May); M: 0,94-1,0 (May); F: 0,78-0,95 (August) (Akkeshi Bay); F: 0,74-0,85; M: 0,71-0,84 (San Juan Island, May).
Rem.: Some confusions with Acartia clausi lead to uncertain locality records in the Pacific as well as in the Atlantic (See in Ueda, 1986, p.131).
For Ohtsuka & al. (1995, p.158) A. hudsonica as Eurytemora affinis and E. herdmani are recognized as belonging to an Arctic-temperate cold-water element, distributed in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic; according to Nishimura (1980, 1981), this element may have originated from the North Pacific, and then dispersed exclusively from the northern Pacific to the northern Atlantic during the Miocene-Pleistocene. Tortanus discaudatus also belongs to this element although this species occurs in waters of higher salinity than Eurytemora species and is not regarded as a brackish-water copepod.
Last update : 26/09/2014
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