Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Clausocalanidae ( Family )
            Clausocalanus ( Genus )
Clausocalanus lividus  Frost & Fleminger, 1968   (F,M)
Syn.: Clausocalanus arcuicornis sp.2 : Fleminger,1964 a; 1967 a (tab. I)
Ref.:
Frost & Fleminger, 1968 (p.35, figs.F,M, Rem.); Carli & Crisafi, 1969 (p.277, figs.F,M); Razouls, 1972 (p.94, Annexe: p.31, 33, figs.F, Rem.); Williams & Wallace, 1975 (p.175, fig.F); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.7, 8, figs.F,M); Alvarez-Marques, 1981 (p.157, figs.F, Rem.); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.182, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.118, figs.F,M, fig.101); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.776, Pl.90,93: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.878, 916, figs.F,M); Bucklin & al., 2003 (p.335, tab.2, fig.1, Biomol); Blanco-Bercial & Alvarez-marqués, 2007 (p.73, fig.2, Biomol.); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.78, Pl. 47, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.619, figs.F,M, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.108, fig.3, phylogeographic biomol. analysis)
Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull; Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [Pl.14, p.128-129; Pl.15, p.130-131; Pl.16, p.132-133].

Female: 1 a, habitus (right lateral view); 1 b, idem (dorsal view); taken from different specimens.2 a, b, frontal region (right lateral view); 2, c-f, rostrum (right lateral view); 2 g, rostrum (anterior view); 2, h-j, Th. 4-5 (posterior part) and genital segment (right lateral view); from different specimens; 3 a, Th.4-5 (posterior part) and genital segment (right lateral view); 3 b, genital segment (ventral view); 3 c, Th.4-5 (posterior part) and urosome with spermatophore attached (right lateral view); 3 d, B2 of P2; 3 e, B2 of P3; 3 f, P5; from different specimens.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull; Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [Pl.17, p.134-135; Pl.18, p.136-137].

Male: 1 a, habitus (right lateral view); 1 b, idem (dorsal view); 1 c, frontal region (right lateral view); 1 d, urosome 4 (posterior part), urosome 5 and caudal rami (armature incomplete) (dorsal view); from different specimens. 2 a, Th.4-5 (posterior part) and urosome (right lateral view); 2 b, urosome (armature of caudal rami incomplete) (dorsal view); 2 c, B2 of P2; 2 d, B2 of P3; 2 e, P5 (right lateral view); 2 f, right P5 (posterior ); 2 g, right P5 (left lateral); from different specimens.
Nota: 2nd segment of P5 more than 4.4 times as long as wide. Urosomal segment 2 more than 1.35 times as long as 2nd segment of P5.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.118, Fig.67].
Female: A, habitus (lateral right side); B, genital somite (lateral right side); C, rostrum (lateral view); D, basipod of P3.

Male: F, habitus (lateral left side); G, basipod 2 of P3; H, P5.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Thèse Doc. ès Sciences, Univ. P & M. Curie, Paris , Tome annexe, 1972, Fig.32 (unpublished).
Female (from Banyuls): A, habitus (lateral left side); B, basipod 2 of P2; C, basipod 2 of P3; D, P5; E, anal segment and right furcal ramus (dorsal).


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Thèse Doc. ès Sciences, Univ. P & M. Curie, Paris , Tome annexe, 1972, Fig.33 (unpublished).
Female (from Banyuls): A-E, rostrum from different specimens (lateral view); F, P5.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.30, Table 2a].
Clausocalanus lividus females: Measurements and ratios *.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.31, Table 2b].
Clausocalanus lividus males: Measurements and ratios *.
r = sample range; m = sample mean; n = number of specimens measured; s = sample standard deviation.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.102, P1.1, b, c].
Female: b, urosome with spermatophore attached (right lateral); c, basipodite 2 of P3.
cm = cementing material; am = accessory material associated with spermatophore neck; sn = spermatophore neck; ss = spermatophore sac; D = proximal width of basipodite 2 spiniform process 3; L = distance between processes 2 and 3.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.27, Fig.10].
Urosomal segment 2:segment 2 of P5 length ratio (ordinate) plotted against urosomal segment 2 length tabscissa) for males of Clausocalanus lividus and C. mastigophorus.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.18, Fig.1].
Female caudal ramus length-to-width ratio (ordinate) plotted against caudal ramus length (abscissa) for Clausocalanus mastigophorus and C. lividus.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.131, Pl.15, c-f, g].
Female: c-f, rostrum (right lateral); g, rostrum (anterior).


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.133, Pl.16, d, e, f].
Female: d, basipodite 2 of P2; e, basipodite 2 of P3; f, P5.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.137, Pl.18, a, b, e, f-g].
Male: a, posterior part of last thoracic segment and urosome (right lateral); b, urosome (dorsal); e, P5 (right lateral); f-g, right P5 (left lateral).


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.137, Pl.18, c, d].
Male: c, basipodite 2 of P2; d, basipodite 2 of P3.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, 1968, 12. [p.133, Pl.16, a, b].
Female: a, posterior part of last thoracic segment and genital segment (right lateral); b, genital segment (ventral; see legend of structure of seminal receptacle in C. arcuicornis).


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.32].
Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): A, habitus (lateral); B, basipod 2 of P2; C, basipod 2 of P3; D, P5; E, anal segment and left caudal ramus (dorsal).


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.34].
Female: A-E, various forms of rostrum; F, P5.


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Table XXXI] (unpublished).
Sizes and ratios in Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): Lt= Bodyl length; C= Cephalolome length; P= prosome length; U= urosome length; U1= 1st urosomal segment; U2= 2nd urosomal length; U3= 3rd urosomal segment; F= caudal ramus length; n= number of specimens; moyenne= mean; Cv= coefficient of variation (percentage).


Species Clausocalanus lividus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from F. Alvarez-Marques in Rev. Fac. Cienc. Univ. Oviedo (Ser. Biologia), (1979-80), 20-21, 1981. [p.161, Pl. I, Figs.3-5].
Female (from Gijon, NW Spain): 3, habitus (lateral); 4, urosome and spermatheca (lateral); 2, P5.

Compl. Ref.:
Björnberg, 1973 (p.310, 385); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Scotto di Carlo & Ianora, 1983 (p.150); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1041); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.6: Rem.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.27); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Greze & al., 1985 (p.7); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.100); Pancucci-Papadopoulou & al., 1990 (p.199); Ianora & al., 1990 (p.249, fig., parsitism effects); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1991 (p.270); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Saiz & Calbet, 1999 (p.599, reproduction); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou & al., 2000 (tab.I, fig.6); Fragopoulu & al., 2001 (p.49, tab.1); Mackas & Galbraith, 2002 a (p.423, Table 2); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Peralba & Mazzocchi, 2004 (p.645, figs.3,6); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Vukanic & Vukanic, 2004 (p.9, tab. 2, 3); Fernandez & al., 2004 (p.501, tab.5); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Hooff & Peterson 2006 (p.2610); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.103: tab.1); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Lan & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2); Brugnano & al., 2010 (fig.8); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical, Fig.4, 6, 7, Tabe 4); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.425); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, Table II, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Miloslavic & al., 2012 (p.165, Table 2, transect distribution); Brugnano & al., 2012 (p.207, Table 3); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker); Peijnenburg & Goetze, 2013 (p.2765, genetic data); Fernandez de Puelles & al., 2014 (p.82, Table 3, seasonal abundance)
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Clausocalanus lividus by geographical zones
Species Clausocalanus lividus - Distribution map 3issued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1968, 12. [p.36, Chart 2, a].
Occurrence of C. lividus in samples examined; closed circles represent samples examined; open circles represent samples in which adults were found; bars through open circles represent samples from which specimens were removed for measurements.
Species Clausocalanus lividus - Distribution map 4issued from : B. Frost & A. Fleminger in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 1968, 12. [p.37, Chart 2, b].
Occurrence of C. lividus in samples examined; closed circles represent samples examined; open circles represent samples in which adults were found; bars through open circles represent samples from which specimens were removed for measurements.
Loc:
China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (SW, E, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon), Japan, off SE Japan, Pacif. (subtropical & temperate N & S), Gulf of Alaska (58°N, 147°W), Vancouver Is., Oregon (off Newport), California, New Zealand, Tahiti, Chile, Indian S, E South Africa (Natal), off S Cape Verde Is., G. of Mexico, Florida, New-York, Gulf Stream (41° N,58° W), off S Newfoundland, off W Ireland, Bay of Biscay, Gijon (NW Spain), Cantabrian Sea, Baie Ibéro-marocaine, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, Baleares, Banyuls, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Strait of Messina, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin)
N: 59
Lg.:
(30) F: 1,77-1,26; M: 1,45-1,13; (374) F: 1,75-1,262; (784) F: 1,98-1,66; (1138): F: 1,79-1,22; M: 1,30-1,09; {F: 1,22-1,98; M: 1,09-1,45}
Rem.: epipelagic. For Frost & Fleminger (1968, p.38) C. lividus female is distinguished from the very similar ingens by the shape and curvature of the forehead and rostrum in lateral view. C. lividus and laticeps differ in the inclination of the rostrum in lateral view, the length-width ratio of the caudal ramus, the form and spacing of basipodite 2 spiniform processes 2 and 3 of P3, and usually in the shape of the frontal region of the anterior portion of body including the cephalosome and fusedthoracic segment bearing P1, in lateral and dorsal view. C. lividus female differs from jobei and minor in the form of the rostrum in lateral view. The male of C. lividus is distinguished from ingens by the Prosome/Urosomal segment 2 length ratio and the length-width ratio of the left 2nd segment of P5. C. lividus and males differ in the urosomal segment 2/2nd segment of P5 and urosomal segment 3/3rd segment of P5 length ratios, in the length-width ratio of the caudal ramus, and in the form of basipodite 2 spiniform processes 2 and 3 of P3. The name lividus refers to the blue or lavender tint observed in the cuticle of late copepodid and adult specimens.
See in the annex (in Razouls, 1972, p.30-32) the comparison with the females of this species and Clausocalnus mastigophorus, notably the variability of the rostrum (figs31 and 33.)
Last update : 20/09/2014
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