Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Aetideus ( Genus )
Aetideus armatus  (Boeck, 1872)   (F,M)
Syn.: Pseudocalanus armatus Boeck, 1872; Brady, 1878 (p.46, figs.F);
Aetidius armatus : Brady, 1883 (part., p.76, figs.F); Sars, 1901 a (1903) (p.25, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1902 (p.451, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.209, figs.F); With, 1915 (p.75, figs.F); Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (1936) (p.157, Rem.); De Decker, 1968 (p.45); Falkenhaug & al., 1997 (p.449, spatio-temporal pattern); Hunt, 2004 (p.1, 43, Table 3.2); Papastephanou & al., 2006 (p.3078, Table 3);
Aethidius armatus: Cleve, 1904 a (p.185); A. tenuirostris Wolfenden, 1904 (p.116, Rem.);
Paraetideus armatus : Paulsen, 1909;
no A. armatus : Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.213); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.31);
Undinopsis armatus : Shih & Young, 1995 (p.67);
no A. armatus : Esterly, 1905 (p.145, figs.F); Campbell, 1929 (p.311); ? Tanaka, 1957 a (p.31, figs.F,M); Aetideus armatus s.l. : Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1);
Ref.:
Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.233, 244); Farran, 1908 b (p.28); A. Scott, 1909 (p.37, figs.F); Lysholm, 1913 (p.5); Pesta, 1920 (p.507); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.11); Sars, 1925 (p.41); Farran, 1926 (p.246); 1929 (p.208, 228); Sewell, 1929 (p.99); Sciacchitano, 1930 (p.12, Rem.); Wilson, 1932 a (p.45, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.80, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.52); Farran, 1936 a (p.87); Jespersen, 1940 (p.17); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.38, figs. juv.F,M); Davis, 1949 (p.25, figs.F); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.144, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1952 a (n°42, p.3, figs.F,M); 1957 (p.44, Rem.); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.122, Rem.); Gaudy, 1963 (p.22); Matthews, 1964 (p.24, Rem.); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.50, figs.F); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.43, figs.F,M); Mazza, 1967 (p.108, 138, figs.juv., F,M, Rem.); 1968 (p.531, figs.); Park, 1968 (p.544, Rem.); Ramirez, 1969 (p.57, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vaupel-Klein, 1970 (p.4, 10, Rem.); Bradford, 1971 (p.15, figs.F, Rem); 1972 (p.36, figs.F,M); Razouls, 1972 (p.94, Annexe: p.39, figs.F,M); Park, 1974 (p.215, Rem.); Arcos, 1975 (p.15, figs.F,M); Park, 1978 (p.104); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.6, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.604, 630, figs.F,M); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.235, figs.F); Razouls, 1994 (p.62, figs.F,M); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.14, figs.F,M, Rem.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.682, Pl.32: F); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.879, 920, figs.F,M); G. Harding, 2004 (p.53, 54, figs.F ,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.544, figs.F,M, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.103, Table 1, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1971, 5 (1). [p.17, Fig.3]. From SW Africa (21°-35°S).
Male : a, habitus (dorsal); b, P5; c, caudal ramus; d, 3rd exopod segment of P3.
Nota: Posterior thoracic points extend up to (but not past), the posterior border of urosomal segment 1. Width: length ratio of caudal rami is 1: 2.58-2.70. Terminal seta on P2-P4 with 24, 22 and 18 teeth respectively.

Female: e, habitus (dorsal); f, idem (lateral right side); g, rostrum; h, genital segment and posterior thoracic points (lateral left side); i, idem (lateral right side); j, rostrum.
Nota: Posterior thoracic points just passed the posterior border of the genital segment, seminal receptacles with a thick, short tube joining the dorsal and ventral sacs. Rostrum: width/depth about 0.86-1.3 (falling within the range of the 2 specimens from Norway). Anterior cephalothorax vaulted, heavily chitinized and when viewed laterally indented above the base of A1 (characteristic not noted in the Norwegian specimens).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Sars G.O. in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl. XIII]. As Aetidius armatus.
Female & Male.
C = forehead (lateral); R = rostrum (frontal view);


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : Sars G.O. in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl. XIV]. As Aetidius armatus.
Female & Male.
M = Md; m = Mx1; mp1 = Mx2; mp2 = Mxp.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1971, 5 (1). [p.15, Fig.2].
Female (drawn from mounted specimens from Sars' collection): a, A2; b, Md (cutting edge); c, Md (mandibular palp); d, Mx1; e, Mx2; f, Mxp; g, P1; h, P2; i, P4.

Nota: Anterior integument covered with very small chitinous thickenings (visible only under phase contrast). Terminal spines of P2-P4 with 16, 17, 15 teeth respectively (although the numbers vary slightly between specimens). Seminal receptacle similar to A. australis


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.56, Lam. IX, figs.57, 58, 61].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 57, habitus (lateral left side); 58, idem (dorsal).

Male: 61, P5.
Scale bars in mm: 0.6 (57, 58); 0.1 (61).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate IV, Figs.14-25].
Female (from Indonesia-Malaysia): 14, habitus (dorsal); 15, forehead (lateral); 16, last thoracic and genital segments (left side); 17, rostrum; 18, A1; 19, A2; 20, Md; 21, Mx2; 22, Mxp; 23, P1; 24, P2; 25, P3.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Die Marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 1911. [p.208, Fig.4]. As Aetidius armatus.
Female: a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, rostrum


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in Mem. N. Z. Oceonogr. Inst., 1972, 54. [p.37, Fig.6 (1-3)].
Female (from Kaikoura, New Zealand): 1, habitus (lateral).

Male: 2, habitus (dorsal); 3, P5.

Scale bars: 1 mm (1, 2); 0.1 mm (3).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.41, A, C].
Female: A, habitus (lateral).

Male: C, P5.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : D.F.R. Arcos in Gayana, Zool., 1975, 32. [Lam.IV, Figs.29-34].
Female (from Bahia de Concepcion, Chile): 29-30, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 31, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); 32, genital segment (lateral, left side); 34, exopodite segment 3 of P4.

male: 33, P5.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : D.F.R. Arcos in Gayana, Zool., 1975, 32. [Lam.III, Fig.28].
Male: 28, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 36 , Figs.7, 8, 9]. As Aëtidius armatus.
Female: 7, forehead (lateral); 8, urosome (ventral); 9, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral, left side).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 36 , Fig.6]. As Aëtidius armatus.
Male: 6, habitus (dorsal).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1915, III (4). [p.75, Text-Fig.16]. As Aetidius armatus.
Female (from 61°-67°N, 9°-55°W):distal part of prosome and urosome (lateral, left side).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1915, III (4). [Pl. II, Figs.1a, 1b]. As Aetidius armatus.
Female: 1a, genital segment (left side); 1b, same (ventral).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1915, III (4). [Pl. II, Figs.1c, 1d]. As Aetidius armatus.
Female: 1c, basipod of left P4 (posterior); 1d, lamina labialis.
Nota: The basipod 2 of P4 has, in addition to marginal row of setae, posteriorly and just proximally to the inner seta a transverse row of 4 short spines (1c), which corresponds to the two spines mentioned by Giesbrecht but not by Sars and Scott. Glandular pores were found at the base of outer seta of exopod 2 and outer seta of exopod 3 in the three posterior pair of legs, and in addition to these a pore was found at the base of outer seta of exopod 1 in P3-P4.
The lamina labialis and the setae in front of it have a structure as shown in fig. 1d.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.53].
Female.

P1: Exopodite 1 without spine on the outer margin (arrowed). P2: Endopodal segments 1 and 2 incompletely separated (arrowed).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. [p.26, Fig.122].
Female: 122, forehead (lateral).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1971, 5 (1). [p.18, Fig.4, a]. [modified C.R]
Rostrum width : depth plotted against rostrum depth (c) for Aetideus armatus. SA: Southern African specimens.
Compare with A. australis, A. truncatus, A. divergens and A. pseudarmatus.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Trudy Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.16, Fig.4].
Female (from 48°33'N, 18°52'W).


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 21 of morphological figuresAetideus armatus female: 1 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment prolonged into points.
2 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment not prolonged into wing-like lobes. Points not reaching the middle of urosomal segment 2. Anterior part of cephalon without crest.
3 - Basipodite of right P1 without external tooth-like projection distally. Coxopodite of P4 usually with spinules near the base of internal seta.
4 - Points of posterior corners reaching or exceeding posterior border of genital segment.
5 - Spermatheca with short duct connecting its dorsal and ventral parts.


Species Aetideus armatus - Plate 22 of morphological figuresAetideus armatus male:
1 - Last thoracic segment with points.
2 - Points not exceeding posterior border of urosomal segment 1 (in dorsal view).
3 - 2nd segment of P5 2.3-3.1 times as long as wide.
4 - Exopodite 3 of P3 with terminal spine shorter than the segment itself.

Compl. Ref.:
Rose, 1925 (p.152); Wilson, 1942 a (p.170); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.11); Sewell, 1948 (p.347, 499, 508, 512, 516, 525, 545, 549, 555, 559, 566); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.159); Gundersen, 1953 (p.1, 26, seasonal abundance); Østvedt, 1955 Table 3, p.59); Yamazi, 1958 (p.148, Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.17); Gaudy, 1962 (p.93, 99, Rem.: p.105); Duran, 1963 (p.15); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Shmeleva, 1963 (p.141); Grice, 1963 a (p.495); Gaudy, 1963 (p.22, Rem.); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.21, Rem.M); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.11); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223); Mazza, 1966 (p.70); Pavlova, 1966 (p.43); Matthews, 1967 (p.159, Table 1, Rem.); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.14); Berdugo & Kimor, 1968 (p.448); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.267); Park, 1970 (p.475); Shih & al., 1971 (p.31, 142); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Gamulin, 1971 (p.382, tab.3); Carli, 1971 (p.373, tab.2); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.327, 345); Boucher & Thiriot, 1972 (p.47, Tableau 4); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 a (p.332); Björnberg, 1973 (p.326, 384); Vives & al., 1975 (p.41, tab.II, III, IV); Vives, 1976 (p.104); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Arashkevich, 1978 (p.118, Table: diets); Dessier, 1979 (p.204); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.1); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Huntley & al., 1983 (p.143, Table 2); Brenning, 1983 (p.1, spatial distribution, T-S diagram, Rem.); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.3); De Decker, 1984 (p.316); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Roe, 1984 (p.356); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1044); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.3); Sameoto, 1984 (p.767, vertical migration); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.30, as Aetidus ); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.58); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Fransz & al., 1991 (p.9); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Hattori, 1991 (tab.1, Appendix); Hays & al., 1994 (tab.1); Kouwenberg, 1994 (tab.1); Hajderi, 1995 (p.542); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.66); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p107); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.100); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.349); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.476); Halvorsen & Tande, 1999 (p.279, tab.2, 3, Rem.: p.282); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl. 3, 4); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou & al., 2000 (tab.I); d'Elbée, 2001(tabl. 1); Holmes, 2001 (p.45); Hunt & al., 2001 (p.374, tab.1); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.1692); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); CPR, 2004 (p.49, fig.134); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.313, fig.2); Hop & al., 2006 (p.182, Table 4); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Kosobokova & al., 2007 (p.929: Tab.7); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.103: tab.1); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Castro & al., 2007 (p.486, fig.3, 5, Table 1, 2, 3); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.517); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Wishner & al., 2008 (p.163, Table 2, fig.8, oxycline); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Raybaud & al., 2008 (p.1765, Table A1); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Licandro & Icardi, 2009 (p.17, Table 4); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.423); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, fig.6, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Selifonova, 2011 (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Salah S. & al., 2011 (Tableau 1); Shiganova & al., 2012 (p.61, Table 4): Zizah & al., 2012 (p.79, Tableau I); Miloslavic & al., 2012 (p.165, Table 2, transect distribution); Brugnano & al., 2012 (p.207, Table 2); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2013 (p.1009, Table I, V, abundance vs environmental factors); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, pers. comm.); Sobrinho-Gonçalves & al., 2013 (p.713, Table 2, fig.8, seasonal abundance vs environmental conditions); Bode M. & al., 2013 (p.1, Table 1, respiration rate & ETS activity)
NZ: 24

Distribution map of Aetideus armatus by geographical zones
Species Aetideus armatus - Distribution map 4issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 17 ]. Aetideus armatus (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Species Aetideus armatus - Distribution map 5issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock - 32. Jahrgang 1983. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 5. [p.1, Figs.1, 2].
Spatial distribution and T-S Diagram for Aetideus armatus, Aetideus giesbrechti and Aetideopsis carinata from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W.
Loc:
Cosmopolite: tropical & temperate (except Arct.), Also Antarct. (Atlant. SW, South Georgia, Indian), sub-Antarct. (Atlant. SW, off W Prince Edward, Indian, Pacif. SW, SE), G. of St. Lawrence, off SE Nova Scotia, Davis Strait, Kongsfjorden (E Spitzbergen), Iceland, off Faroe, Norwegian Sea, Malangen fjord, Raunefjorden, North Sea, English Channel, Mediterannean Sea, Marmara Sea, Black Sea, Arabian Sea, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Japan, Chile (N-S), CalCOFI region, G. of California, Caribbean Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia), Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Peru
N: 214
Lg.:
(7) F: 1,93; (14) F: 1,7-1,65; (22) F: 1,95-1,80; M: 1,53-1,4; (34) F: 1,44-1,33; (35) F: 1,84-1,68; (37) F: 2-1,6; M: 1,53-1,3; (38) F: 1,95-1,8; M: 1,53; ? (39) F: 1,82; M: 1,8; (45) F: 1,8; M: 1,45-1,25; (59) F: 2-1,8; M: 1,5-1,4; (65) F: 1,8; M: 1,45; (72) F: 2,02-1,8; (116) F: 1,78; M: 1,56; (199) F: 1,9-1,6; (202) F: 1,78-1,95; M: 1,4-1,56; (204) F: 1,9-1,6; M: 1,5-1,3; (205) F: 2,25-2,15; M: 2,1-2; (244) F: 1,9; (290) F: 1,6-1,75; (432) F: 1,98-1,83; (449) F: 1,8; M: 1,45; (866) F: 1,65-1,95; M: 1,4-1,8; (920) F: 1,51; (1109) F: 1,58-1,87; {F: 1,33-2,25; M: 1,25-2,10}
Rem.: epi-bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-600; 100-1000 m. Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-1500 m
For Bradford (1971, p.16) the SW Africa specimens appear to be not significantly different from the material from Norway.
A doubt subsists between the Tanaka's (1957) form and Aeiideus divergens.
After Shiganova & al. (2012, p.99) this species new in the Black Sea (as other species) arise from a rise of the water surface layer temperature and/or increasing of shipping activity during the last decades.
Last update : 13/10/2014
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