Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
Pontellidae Dana, 1853 ( Diaptomoidea )
Syn.: Pontellinae Dana,1853
Ref.: Claus, 1863 (p.93, 202); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.30, 68); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.131); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.137); Esterly, 1905 (p.198); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.148); Gurney, 1931 a (p.64); Rose, 1933 a (p.256); Mori, 1937 (1964) (part., p.87, clé des G.); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.81, 407); Gonzalez & Bowman, 1965 (p.253); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.772, 778, 779, Genera key); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1005); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.657); Razouls, 1982 (p.549); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.9); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.141, 145); Sazhina, 1985 (p.67, Nauplii); Mauchline, 1988 (p.715: cuticular pores); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.252, Genera key); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.419); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Madhupratap & al., 1996 (p.863, Table 5: %/copepods); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.865); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.22); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 901, 904, 957, 958: Genera key); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.179, Def., Rem.); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.461); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.22, Def.): Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.12; 49; 162: Def.; p.164: Genera key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.486, part., Key Genera key); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.103, Table 1, Fig.2, 3, 4, Biol. mol, phylogeny); Laakmann & al., 2019 (p.330, fig. 2, 3, phylogenetic relationships)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002. http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/calanoida/index.htm
Rem.: 8 G.: Anomalocera, Calanopia, Epilabidocera, Ivellopsis, Labidocera, Pontella, Pontellina, Pontellopsis.

Definition from Bradford-Grieve (1999 b, p.179) :
Female:
- Cephalosome and pediger segment 1 separate, pedigers 4 and 5 fused or separate.
- Head sometimes with a hook on the lateral borders.- Usually, posterior corners of last thoracic segment with asymmetrical expansions.
- Rostrum bifurcate, solmetimes with a widened base incorporating a lens.
- Eyes usually large, with 1 or 2 pairs of dorsal chitinous lenses and 1 ventral lens.
- Urosome 1- to 3-segmented often asymmetrical.
- Genital segment area covered by a genital operculum, without seminal receptacles.
- Caudal rami with up to 6 setae.
- A1 with 16-24 segments.
- A2 coxa and basis separate with 1 and 2 setae respectively ; endopod much larger than the exopod ; exopod usually 5-segmented with 1, 3, 2, 2, 4 setae in Anomalocera patersoni, terminal segment atrophied or rudimentary ; proximal segment of the endopod more or less fused to basis with 2 setae, compound distal segment bilobed with 9, 7 setae or with setation reduced.
- Md blade with 5-7 teeth, basis with 4 setae ; exopod 5-segmented with 1, 1, 1, 1, 2 setae ; endopod 2-segmented with 3 and 6 setae and of sililar size.
- Mx1 with inner lobe 1 (= arthrite) large with 8-10 spines and setae ; inner lobe 2 as long as inner lobe 1 with 3 setae ; inner lobe 3 short with 3 setae ; basis with 3 setae ; proximal endopod segment fused to basis ; endopod segments with 2, 2, 5 setae or reduced ; exopod relatively small, sometimes atrophied with 9 setae ; outer lobe 2 with 1 seta ; outer lobe 1 with 7-8 setae.
- Mx2 with long, strong setae although sometimes rudimentary on the proximal part of limb ; lobes 1-5 usually with 1, 3, 3, 3, 2 setae ; endopod setation 1, 1, 2, 2.
- Mxp small, 5- or 6-segmented with coxa large with inner border lobed and with 0, 2, 2, 2/3 long setae ; basis and endopod short, basis with 2 or 3 setae, free endopod 3- or 4-segmented with 2, 2, 2+1, 3 setae or with setation reduced .
- Exopods of swimming legs P1-P4 3-segmented. Endopod of P1 2- or 3-segmented ; P2, P3 and P4 2)segmented.
- P5 not natatory, rudimentary ; coxa fused with the coupler ( = intercoxal scletite) ; basis with 1 seta ; exopod 2-segmented, segment 1 with 2 outer spines and inner distal spinous process, segment 2 with 1 or 2 spines plus an apical spinous process, or exopod may be 1-segmented and armed with spinous processes or tapering to a point ; endopod 1-segmented with a simple or bifid apex or absent.

Male:
-Urosome 4- 5- segmented, segments sometimes with asymmetrical processes.
-
-Genital opening on left.
- Right A1 prehensile, middle section swollen, terminating in 2-4 segments.
- Mouthparts identical to those of female.
- P5 asymmetrical, coxa and coupler fused to form a transverse plate, sometimes with coxa free on right side only ; right leg subchelate, comprising an unarmed coxa, basis with 1 seta, and 2-segmented exopod : segment 1+2 swollen with an outer process and spine, segment 3 forming subchela. Left leg comprising basis with an outer seta ; exopod segment 1 elongate with an outer seta ; exopod segments 2 and 3 partly fused with up to 4 outer and distal spines on apical segment.

Key to genera after Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.164) :
1 – Endopod of P1 2-segmented ……….. 2.
1’ – Endopod of P1 3-segmented …….3.
2 – Pair of cuticular lenses present in dorsal ocelli ……….. Labidocera.
2’ – Cephalosome without cuticular lenses in naupliar eye ……… Calanopia.
3 – Lateral hooks present on cephalosome ….. 4.
Lateral hooks absent from cephalosome ……. 7.
4 – 2 pairs of cuticular lenses present in dorsal ocelli ; P5 female with 2-segmented exopod ………. Anomalocera.
4’ – Single pair of cuticular lenses present in dorsal ocelli ; female P5 with 1-segmented exopod ……… 5.
5 – Female A1 21-segmented ; 4th and 5th pedigerous somites separate or incompletely fused ……. 6.
5’ – Female A1 22-segmented ; 4th and 5th pedigerous somites completely fused ……Ivellopsis.
6 – Exopod of A2 shorter than endopod ; coxal gnathobase of Md with 7 teeth …… Pontella .
6’ – Exopod and endopod of A2 about equal in length ; coxal gnathobase of Md with 5 teeth ……… Epilabidocera.
7 – Genital double-somite of female strongly asymmetrical ; caudal rami of female distinct from anal somite ; 3rd urosomal somite of male with process on right side ……… Pontellopsis.
7’ – Genital double-somite of female more or less symmetrical ; right caudal ramus of female fused to anal somite ; 3rd urosomal somite of male without processes ……..Pontellina.

Members of the family often have blue photoprotective pigment (Momzikoff, 1983). There is a tendency for some species to produce resting eggs (Uye & al., 1984; Lindley, 1990).
Family Pontellidae - Plate 1Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.162].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.
(1) Anomalocera Templeton, 1837
Syn.: Irenaeus Goodsir, 1843; Claus, 1863 (p.204)
Ref.: Lubbock, 1853 b (p.165); Brady, 1878 (p.14); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.72, 479); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.145); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.138); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.153); Wilson, 1932 a (p.142); Rose, 1933 a (p.256); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.266); Bradford, 1972 (p.30); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.772); Razouls, 1982 (p.582); Mauchline, 1988 (p.713); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.51, 68); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Mauchline, 1998 (p.95); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.487)
Rem.: Type : Anomalocera patersoni Templeton, 1837. Total: 3 spp.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.181) :
- As in the family definition.
- Female head with lateral hooks, 2 pair of dorsal lenses; no rostral lens.
- Pedigerous segments 4 and 5 separate, the latter extending into points.
- Urosome 3-segmented.
Genital segment asymmetrucal.
A1 20-segmenteed .
- Md with 7 pointed teeth.
- Mx1 basipod 2 hardly as large as inner lobe 2;
P5 exopod 2-segmented; endopod 1-segmented.
- Male ventral eye more prominent than in female.
- Male posterior metasomal points and urosome asymmetrical.
- Male A1 prehensile as in Pontella.
Male P5 as in Pontella but the right chela is much stronger.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 3.655 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.9534), and the mean male size 3.475 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.7401). The size ratio (male: female) is 0.916 (n = 3; SD = 0.9539). The sex ratio (female: male) is 1.
(2) Calanopia Dana, 1853 (part.)
Syn.: Pontella (part.) : Dana,1846
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.69, 441); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.131); A. Scott, 1909 (p.175); Pesta, 1912 a (p.51, spp. key); Sewell, 1932 (p.340); Wilson, 1932 a (p.559); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.88); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.250); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.149); Gonzalez & Bowman, 1965 (p.253); Bayly & Greenwood, 1966 (p.99, 104); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.96); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (Key of groups, p.773, 779 & suiv.); Razouls, 1982 (p.549); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.252, spp. Key); Mauchline, 1988 (p.713: cuticular pores); Ferrari, 1992 (p.392, tab.3); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Mulyadi & Ueda, 1996 (p.914, spp. key); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.865); Mauchline, 1998 (p.95); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.958, spp. Key); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.181, Def.); Ünal & Shmeleva, 2002 (p.8); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.23, 29, key p.31): Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.489, spp. Key); Al-Aidaroos & al., 2016 (p.17, Key to species: p.28-30); El-Sherbiny & Al-Aidaroos, 2017 (Rem., Table 2. on line)
Rem.: type : Pontella elliptica Dana,1849. Total: 17 spp.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.181) :
- As in the family definition.
- Head with or without lateral hooks.
- Head and pedigerous segment 1 usually separate, pedigerous segments 4 and 5 fused.
- Head without dorsal cuticular lenses.
- Urosome 2-segmented in the female, symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical; 5-segmented in the male.
- Caudal rami about 2-3 times as long as wide.
- Male right A1 geniculate with a 4-segmented terminal section.
- A2 exopod longer than half the endopod.
- P1 endopod 2-segmented.
- Female P5 symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical , 3 or 4-segmented, endopod absent.
- Male P5 4-segmented on both sides, 2 distal segments of the right leg forming a stout chela.

The genus was subdivised into 2 species groups (Bayly & Greenwood (1966), latter by Silas & Pillai (1973) into 3 groups, and 4 sepecies-groups by Mulyadi & Ueda (1996); however, these authors were unable to place C. media, C. sarsi, C. sewelli into one of the groups (see Table2 in El-Sherbuny & Al-Aidaroos (2017, on line)
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 1.768 mm (n = 32; SD = 0.4644), and the mean male size is 1.690 mm (n = 28; SD = 0.4352). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.92 (n = 15; SD = 0.647). The sex-ratio (Female: Male) is 1.
(3) Epilabidocera C.B. Wilson, 1932
Syn.: Paralabidocera : McMurrich,1916 (nom preoc.)
Ref.: C.B. Wilson, 1932 a (p.558); Davis, 1949 (p.63); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.407, 413); Vervoort, 1951 (p.148, Rem.); Park, 1966 a (p.130, Rem.); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.772, 773); Razouls, 1982 (p.585); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.409); Ferrari, 1992 (p.392, tab.3); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.871); Mauchline, 1998 (p.66: p.95: F); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.186, Def., Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164)
Rem.: Type : Paralabidocera amphitrites McMurrich, 1916.
From Bradford-Grieve (1999), (after Nishimura, 1969) Epilabidocera amphitrites (McMurrich, 1916) and E. longipedata (Sato, 1913 ) are not synonyms, but a doubt subsists. Total: 1 or 2 spp.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.186) :
- As in the family definition.
- Anterior head with cephalic hooks and dorsal lenses but no rostral lens.
- Posterior metasome and urosome segment 1 in male asymmetrical.
- Distal part of prehensile male A1 3-segmented.
- P1 with 3-segmented endopod.
- Female P5 biramous, exopod and endopod 1-segmented.
- Male right P5 long, with a small chela.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
For only one or two species in the genus: the mean female size is 3.668 mm (n = 6; SD = 0,3814), and the mean male size is 2.914 mm (n = 7; SD = 0.4757). The size ratio (male: female) is 0.78 (n = 3; SD = 0.0372). The sex ratio is nearest of 1.
(4) Ivellopsis Claus, 1893
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil,1898 (p.139); Wilson, 1932 a (p.558); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.88); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.301, Rem.); Wickstead & Krishnaswamy, 1964 (p.27); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.772); Razouls, 1982 (p.583); 1993 (p.307); Mauchline, 1998 (p.66); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164)
Rem.: Type: Pontella elephas Brady,1883.
Diagnosis of Ivellopsis after Mori (18964) and Boxslall & Halsey (2004) :

- Head with lateral hooks.
- Thoracic segments 4 and 5 fused
- Head with 1 pair of cuticular lenses in dorsal ocelli.
- Endopod of P1 3-segmented.
- A1 22-segmented.
- Exopod of P5 1-segmented.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 3.127 mm (n = 4, SD = 0.2627), and the mean male size is 2.902 mm. (n = 4, SD = 0.3291). The size ratio (male: female) is 0.928. The sex ratio (male: female) is 1.
(5) Labidocera Lubbock, 1853
Ref.: Lubbock, 1853 (1854) (p.25) ; 1853 a (1854) (p.202); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.70, 444); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.132, spp. Key); Wheeler, 1901 (p.178); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.141); Esterly, 1905 (p.199); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.149, key spp.); A. Scott, 1909 (p.164); Wilson, 1932 a (p.144, clé spp.); Sewell, 1932 (p.350); Rose, 1933 a (p.260, key spp.); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.90, spp. Key); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.101, spp. Key); Oliveira, 1946 (p.469); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.408, spp. Key); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.148); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.252); Ramirez, 1966 (p.17); Fleminger & Tan, 1966 (p.291); Fleminger, 1967 (p.2, Rem.: polymorphism, species-groups); Björnberg, 1972 (p.59); Bradford, 1972 (p.11, 30); Fleminger, 1975 (p.392 & suiv., speciation); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.773, 793); Fleminger, 1979 (p.187, spp. Key); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.659); Fleminger & al., 1982 (p.254, Rem.); Razouls, 1982 (p.551); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.253, spp. Key); Mauchline, 1988 (p.715); Ferrari, 1991 (p.115); Ferrari, 1992 (p.392, tab.3); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.866); Mauchline, 1998 (p.66, 93, 95; p.97: M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.958, 959: spp. Key); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.186, Def., Rem.); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.24, 46, keys F & M, p.47): Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.495, spp. Key); Prusova & Al-Yamani, 2014 (p.1165, Key spp F & M in the ''darwinii'' species Group.); Hirabayashi & Ohtsuka, 2014 (p.21, Rem. p.29, Key to Indo-Wesr Pacific species groups in Labidocera detruncata species complex.; Mulyadi, 2014 (p.1629, Rem.: species-Groups); Abo-Taleb, 2019 (p.367, Key M, F from the Red Sea).
Rem.: Type: Labidocera darwinii Lubbock, 1853. Total: 55 spp. + 4 unidentified.
Fleminger (1967, p.37-38) in reviewing the genus, division of the species among groups and superspecies has proven most helpful and provisional monophyletic aggregations give:
1- Superspecies: wilsoni (coastal, temperate to subtropical): jollae group: L. jollae Esterly, diandra Fleminger, kolpos Fleminger (west coast, North America).
mirabilis group: L. mirabilis Fleminger, wilsoni Fleminger & Tan (southern Florida, bahamas Islands).
2-Superspecies detruncata (mostly tropical, neritic or island forms of Indo-Pacific):
L. detruncata (Dana) (Indo-Pacific, oceanic), orsinii Giesbrecht, gangetica Sewell, cervi Krämer, caudata Nicholls, bataviae Scott, madurae Scott, pavo Giesbrecht, species Farran (1936) (Indo-Pacific, neritic-island forms), nerii Kröyer (Atlantic, oceanic).
3 -Superspecies darwinii (mainly neritic):
trispinosa group: L. trispinosa Esterly, johnsoni Fleminger, lubbockii Giesbrecht (western American coast).
Ungrouped species: L. darwinii Lubbock (southeastern South America), fluviatilis Dahl (eastern South and Central America), aestiva Wheeler (eastern North America), species (in preparation, suntropical-tropical America), scotti Giesbrecht (west Africa), brunescens Czerniavski (Mediterranean, west Africa), acutifrons (Dana) (subtropical panoceanic).
4-Superspecies kroyeri (mainly neritic, Indo-Pacific):
L. kroyeri (Brady), pectinata Thompson and Scott, bipinnata Tanaka, japonica Mori, species Dakin and Colefax (1940).
Unassigned species (mainly neritic):
L. glauca Smith (Philippines), laevidentata (Brady) (Indo-Pacific), euchaeta Giesbrecht (Indo-Pacific), wollastoni (Lubbock) (western European coast, Mediterranean), acuta (Dana) (Indo-Pacific).
Species based on immature stages, or otherwise doubtful:
L. simplex (Dana), crispata (Dana), exigua (Dana), frivola (Dana), media (Dana), hebes (Dana), inermis Brady, chubbi Brady, agilis (Dana).

Mulyadi (2002, p.17) considers 4 groups and 1 unassigned group: 1 - L. detruncata-group Fleminger, 1967 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): L. bataviae A. Scott; L. detruncata (Dana); L. pavo Giesbrecht; L. sinilobata Shen & Lee.
2 - L. kroyeri-group Fleminger, 1967 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): L. kroyeri (Brady); L. muranoi Mulyadi.
3 - L. minuta-group Mulyadi, 1997 (predominantly neritic; Indo-West Pacific): L. bengalendsis Krishnaswamy; L. minuta Giesbrecht.
4 - L. pectinata-group Fleminger & al., 1982 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): L. javaensis Mulyadi.
5 - Unassigned-group Fleminger, 1986 (predominantly neritic): L. acuta (Dana); L. laevidentata (Brady).
Mulyadi (2014, p.1629) gives a definition for the L. detruncata-Group:
In the female: 1- cephalosome without lateral cephalic hooks; 2- rostrum bifurcate, rami taper uniformly and separated at their base by more than their own length; 3- dorsal eye lenses small and separated by more than twice eye diameter; 4- urosome of 2 somites, genital double-somite short and bulbous; 5- caudal ramus with fan-shaped rami, caudal setae swollen at base; 6- P5 asymmetrical, exopod with 3 outer setae and 2 terminal setae, endopod pointed at apex. Male: 1- genital somite without any processes; 2- right A1 geniculate with denticulate ridges on anterior surface of segments 17, 18 and fused segments 19-21; 3- thumb and finger of right P5 long and slender, concave surface between thumb and finger without any processes; 4- exopodal segment 2 of left leg short and bulb-shaped furnished with 3-4 roud apex of spines.

Fleminger (1986) and Mulyadi (1997) grouped 14 species of Labidocera from Indonesian waters into 4 species-groups: detruncata-, kroyeri-, minuta-, pectinata- plus after Mulyadi (2014, p.1629) the kaimanaensis- as a sub-group of detruncata.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.186) :
- As in the family definition.
- Head and pedigerous segment 1 separate, pedigerous segments 4 and 5 fused;
- Head with or without hooks and with 1 pair of dorsal cuticular lenses and a protuberant ventral eye which extends anteroventrally between the rostral prongs.
- Rostrum deeply bifurcate with 2 relatively fine filaments, and lacking a lens.
- Last thoracic segment with corners produced into pointed lobes.
- Female urosome 2- or 3-segmented; male urosome 4- or 5-segmented;
- Genital segment and caudal rami sometimes asymmetrical in female; symmetrical in male.
- Female A1 23-segmented; male right A1 with at least 4 separate segments distal to the hinge between segments 18 and the fused segments 19-21, the middle section is expanded.
- Md with 3-4 small teeth.
- Mx1 exopod relatively well-developed.
- Mxp with 6 distinct segments.
- Exopod of P1 to P4 3-segmented; endopod of P1 to P4 2-segmented.
- Female P5 biramous, each ramus 1-segmented.
- Male right P5 uniramous with a chela; left leg sometimes with a rudimentary endopod.

For Hirabayashi & Ohtsuka (2014, p.29), although Mulyadi (2002) defined the Indo-West Pacific L. detruncata species group (10 species), it can be further subdivided into the following 5 newly rtoposed species groups on the basis of variation in the differing expressions of sexual dimorphism. L. sinilobata, L. jaafari, L. gangetica share synapomorphies: 1- the absence of endopods from P5 of the female; 2- the thumb and finger of the right P5 male, slender; 3- there is a rounded process present basal to the thumb of the right male P5; 4- there is a protrusion on the inner surface of the terminal segment of the left male P5/. These 3 species are referred to L. gangetica species group.
Two species, L. cervi, L. caudata are unusual in both having a triangular process distally on the terminal segment of the male left P5. The 1st exopodal segment of male P5 bears an outer subterminal process in both species, although it is not certain wether these are homologous. In the female the exopod of P5 bears 3 distinct lateral and 2 terminal prominences, while the endopod is simply spiniform. The posterolateral prosomal corners of L. cervi are remarkably large compared to those of L. caudata. These 2 species are considered as the L. cervi species group. McKinnon & Kimmerer (1984) pointed out the similarity in the P5 of both sexes of L. caudata, L. madutae, but it appears that the unique structure of the terminal exopodal segment of the male left P5 as a robusy synapomorphy to definethe species group.
Labidocera detruncata is most closely related to L.farrani in sharing the following synapomorphies (common possession of a derived homologous character): 1- the complex, dorsal swelling on the genital compound somite of the female; 2- the anal somite of the female ptotruded mid-posteriorly; 3- the caudal rami of the female are largely separated, and the right ramus is larger than the left; 4- the basis of the female P5 is swollen; 5- the male right P5 has a spatulate thumb; 6- the terminal segment of the male left P5 has 4 elements, the 2nd outermost of which is the longest. These 2 species belongs to L. detruncata species group sensu stricto<. L. detruncata is widely distributed in oceanic waters of the Indo Pacific and West Atlantic regions, while L. farrani has a distribution in coastal waters of Indo-West Pacific.
Labidocera pavo, L. bataviae share the features in the female: 1- the female caudal rami are broadly separated and posterolaterally expanded; 2- the exopod of the female P5 is slender, with 3 lateral and 2 terminal distinct prominences; 3- the endopod of the female P5 is short, at most 1/3 to 1/4 as long as the exopod; 4- the thumb of the 1st exopodal segment of the male right P5 is bifid; 5- the terminal exopodal segment of the male right P5 is slender, and carries 3 fine elements. Thes 2 species belong to the L. pavo species group.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 2.506 mm (n = 56; SD = 0.4831 and the mean male size is 2.283 mm (n = 53; SD = 0.5182). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.91 (n = 52; SD = 0.0762). The sex ratio (Female: Male) is 1,04.
From the species showing sizes female and male we obtain the mean female size 2.532 mm (n = 46; SD = 0.4841) , and for male 2.254 mm (n = 46; SD = 0.5338). The size ratio (male: female) is 0.906 (n = 52; SD = 0.0762). The sex ratio (female: male) is probably 1 (56:53)
Machairopus Thompson, 1988
Syn.: non Machairopus Brady,1883 (p.104)
Ref.: I.C. Thompson, 1888 b (p.152); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.531); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.159)
Rem.: ? Pontellidae. Doubtful form
(6) Pontella Dana, 1846
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.71, 461); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.139, clé spp.); Wheeler, 1901 (p.179); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.152); A. Scott, 1909 (p.159); Sewell, 1932 (p.374); Wilson, 1932 a (p.149); Rose, 1933 a (p.257); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.95); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.259); Ramirez, 1966 (p.16); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.96); Björnberg, 1972 (p.59); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.775, 779, 816); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.659); Razouls, 1982 (p.565); Fleminger, 1986 (p.84, Rem.: p.90, fig.6: phtlogenetic relationships); Mauchline, 1988 (p.714); Ferrari, 1992 (p.392, tab.3); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.868); Mulyadi, 1997 (p.673, Rem.: groups); Mauchline, 1998 (p.66; p.95: F; p.97: M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.958, 959: spp. Key); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.198, Déf., Rem.); Mulyadi, 2000 (p.182, Keys F,M, p.190, 198, Rem.: 5 Groups + 1 unasigned); 2002 (p.26, 85, spp. Key in Indonesian waters: p.86); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.510, spp. Key); Jeong & al., 2008 b (p.99, key to species in Korean waters).
Rem.: Type: Pontia atlantica Milne-Edwards, 1828. Total: 46 spp. + 9 unidentified.

Mulyadi (2002, p.17) considers 5 groups and 1 unassigned group:
1 - P. alata-group Fleminger, 1986 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): P. surrecta Wilson; P. tridactyla Shen & Lee.
2 - P. andersoni-group Fleminger, 1986 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): P. andersoni Sewell.
3 - P. fera-group Fleminger, 1986 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific):P. denticauda A. Scott; P. fera Dana; P. valida Dana.
4 - P. danae-group Mulyadi, 1997 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): P. danae Giesbrecht; P. latifurca Chen & Zhang.
5 - P. labuanensis-group Mulyadi, 1997 (neritic, Indian Sea side of southern Java): P. labuanensis.
Unassigned-group Mulyadi, 1997 (predominantly neritic, Indo-West Pacific): P. diagonalis Wilson; P. forcicula A. Scott; and provisionally Pontella sp.1 and Pontella sp.2.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.198) :
- As for the family definition.
- Head with lateral hooks but usually without a crest, with 1 pair of dorsal cuticular lenses, usually with a rostral lens (larger in male) in front of ventral eyes.
- head and pedigerous segment 1 separate, pedigerous segments 4 and 5 separate.
- Last thoracic segment usually with pointed lobes extending posteriorly, often asymmetrical and differing between sexes.
- Female urosome 2- or 3-segmented, asymmetrical.
- Male urosome 4- or 5-segmented, symmetrical;
- A1 24-segmented; right male A1 geniculate, with a 2-segmented terminal part.
- Md with 7 pointed teeth on blade.
- Mx1 and Mx2 as in Labidocera.
- Mxp with 7 segments.- Female P5 biramous as in labidocera
- Male P5 ubiramous, similar to that of Labidocera.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 3.960 mm (n = 47; SD = 1.0931), and the mean male size is 3.444 mm (n = 44; SD = 0.9908). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.908 (n = 40; SD = 0.0709). The sex-ratio (F/M) is 1,03.
The sex ratio is probably 1 (48:44 = 1.09)
(7) Pontellina Dana, 1853
Syn.: Calanops Claus, 1863 (p.211)
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.73, 497); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.149); A. Scott, 1909 (p.174); Sewell, 1932 (p.390); Wilson, 1932 a (p.155); Rose, 1933 a (p.265); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.99); Oliveira, 1946 (p.472); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.270); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.772, 778); Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1974 (p.63, 70, Déf., Rev.); Hulsemann & Fleminger, 1975 (p.174); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.659); Razouls, 1982 (p.583); Van der Spoel & Heyman, 1983 (p.147, 162); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.256); Mauchline, 1988 (p.715: pores cuticulaires); Hulsemann & Fleminger, 1990 (p.99); Ferrari, 1992 (p.392, tab.3); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.873); Mauchline, 1998 (p.97: F, M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.958, 960: clé spp.); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.203, figs.F,M, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.155, Def.): Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.515)
Rem.: Type: Pontella plumata Dana, 1849. Total: 5 spp. (of which 1 doubtful).

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.203) :
- As in the family definition.
- Prosome in dorsal view broadly oval.
- Head lacking cephalic hooks.
- Female without cuticular lenses.
- Male with 1 pair of dorsal lenses; with inconspicuous ventral eye withot a lens.
- Head and pedigerous segment 1 separate, 4th and 5th pedigerous segments fused.
-, Posterior metasome points symmetrical.
- Female urosome 2-segmented.
- Female genital segment with hairs on the posterior border and 4 groups of spinules laterally.
- Caudal rami weakly asymmetrical, right ramus fused to anal segment.
- A1 with wegments 13, 14 and 15 separate and equal in length, with plumose setae.
- A2 endopod twice the length of exopod.
- Mx2 with numerous strong curved distal setae.
- Mxp carrying large, spiny setae.
- P1 endopod 3-segmented.
- P5 with 1-segmented exopod bearing 1 lateral and 3 terminal setae as well as one medial setiform process fused to exopod and serrated along its medial margin; endopod 1-segmented and terminating in 1 or 2 apical spines.
- Male P5 with basis bearing a large plumose seta posteriorly; endopods lacking; exopod 2-segmented; right leg with an elongate basipod 1 and cheliform exopod; left leg with reduced basipod 1, distal segment of exopod armed with 4 short setiform processes.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 1,616 mm (n= 4; S= 0,109; Cv= 0,067) and the mean male size is 1,488 mm (n= 4; S= 0,068; Cv= 0,046). The size ratio (M/F) is 0,923 (n= 4; S= 0,057; Cv= 0,062).
(8) Pontellopsis Brady, 1883
Syn.: Monops Lubbock, 1853 b (p.122); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.72, 486); Wheeler, 1901 (p.182); Crisafi, 1960 e (p.280); Razouls, 1972 (Annexe: p.95, Rem.);
Pontella (part.) Dana, 1846;
Pontellina (part.) Dana,1852;
Pseudomonops Claus, 1892;
Pontellopsis (part.) Brady, 1883 (p.85)
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.145, spp. Key); Esterly, 1906 a (p.75); A. Scott, 1909 (p.170); Sewell, 1932 (p.384); Wilson, 1932 a (p.157); Rose, 1933 a (p.263); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.97); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.266); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.98); Björnberg, 1972 (p.59); Pillai, P, 1975 (p.239); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.777, 779, 835); Björnberg & al.,1981 (p.660); Razouls, 1982 (p.576); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.256, spp. Key); Mauchline, 1988 (p.715); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.871); Mauchline, 1998 (p.97: F, M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.958, 960: spp. Key); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.205, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.28, 122, F & M Keys in Indonesian waters: p.123): Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.164); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.517, spp. Key); Suarez-Morales & Kozak, 2012 (p.14, fig.6, spp. key from Eastern Pacific)
Rem.: Crisafi (1960) writes the history of the genus as well as its various synonymies. The author concludes that the law of precedence is in favor of the genus Monops Lubbock, 1853. The characters defining the genus Monops seem sufficient for the genus to be maintained, as well as the opinion, formulated by Crisafi seems quite justified. Giesbrecht (1892) synonymises Monops grandis and Pontella regaliss but conserves the name of the genus established by Lubbock. However in 1898, Giesbrecht and Schmeil refer to the genus Pontellopsis, created by Brady (1883) acknowledging a certain generic importance to the presence or absence of hooks at the head, whereas Lubbock does not mention this. One notices that the genus Labidocera comprises species with or without lateral hooks, which undermines the supremacy of this criterium. The number and the arrangement of the occular lenses does appear to be fundamental to perform generic clipping, giving so reason to Lubbock. However, by consequence of the acquired pattern and because of the fact that there are no inconveniences to retain the genus of Brady, it appears preferable to leave the decisions on correct denominations to the author of a future revision of the Pontellidae family.
Type: Pontellopsis villosa Brady, 1883. Total: 25 spp. + 2 undetermined (Several doubtful species).

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1999, p.205) :
- As in the family definition.
- Head and pedigerous segment 1 separate, 4th and 5th pedigerous segments fused.
- Head without lateral hooks or dorsal or rostral lenses.
- Last thoracic segment extending posteriorly into a point, most often asymmetrical in the male.
- Urosome asymmetrical in both sexes; 1- or 2-segmentedin the female.
Male urosomal segment 3 with a projection on the right.
- A1 of female 16-segmented.
- Prehensile male A1 swollen in the middle, terminal part 2-segmented.
- Mx2 distal setae large and spinous .
Mxp 5-segmented.
- Legs as in Pontella.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 2.573 mm (n = 46; SD = 0.8902), and the mean male size is 2.128 mm (n = 37; SD = 0.6506). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.852 (n = 19; SD = 0.6506). The sex ratio (female: male) is 1.35

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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed November 28, 2021]

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