Cyclopoida ( Order )
Sapphirinidae Thorell, 1859 ( Cyclopoida )
Ref.: Pesta, 1928 c (p.126); Rose 1933 a (p.306); Björnberg & al., 1991 (p.668); Razouls, 1982 (p.705); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.12); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.263, clé des G.); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.466); Razouls, 1993 (p.313); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.989); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 971, 972: clé des G); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.16; 652: Def.; p.653: Genera & spp Keys; Rem. p.1: For the authors the order Poecilostomatoida is questionable); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.353, Rem., Genera key); Gur & al., 2015 (p.8408, color changes); Gur & al., 2016 (p.1393, color changes); Berger & al., 2016 (p.2195, guanine properties); Hirai & al., 2020 (p.1, Fig.4: metabarcoding, Fig.8: OTUs distribution patterns)
Rem.: 3 G.: Copilia, Sapphirina, Vettoria.
Wickstead (1962, p.547, 549, food & feeding, ? molecular absorption)

The secret to the sea sapphire’s colors and invisibility. Amazing video.
Sea Gur D., Leshem B., Pierantoni M., Farstey V., Oron D., Weiner S. & Addadi L., 2015. Structural Basis for the Brilliant Colors of the Sapphirinid Copepods. J. Am. Chem. Soc.,137 (26): 8408–8411.
And Gur D., Leshem B, Farstey V., Oron D., Addadi L. & Weiner S., 2016. Light-Induced Color Change in the Sapphirinid Copepods: Tunable Photonic Crystals. Advanced Functional Materials, 26 (9): 1393-1399.
Family Sapphirinidae - Plate 1Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. II. [p.652].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Nota: Sexual dimorphism marked in P2, with apex of endopod and distal armature elements modified in male. Inner seta on basis of P1 absent. Inner coxal seta sometimes secondarily absent. Setation of rami, especially endopod of P4, often reduced; endopod of Copilia species tipically 1-segmented, with 2 setae.
P5 without a free segment; represented by small papilla; armed with 2 setae and 1 spine.
P6 represented by genital opercula with 1 or 2 setae in female, and with up to 3 elements in male.
- Egg sacs paired, multiseriate.
(1) Copilia Dana, 1849
Syn.: Saphirinella Claus,1863 (p.153); Hyalophyllum Haaeckel, 1864 (p.63)
Ref.: Claus, 1863 (p.160); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.84, 647, 761: clé spp.); A. Scott, 1909 (p.260); Pesta, 1920 (p.643); Lehnhofer, 1926 (p.121, Rev., biogéography.); Wilson, 1932 a (p.374); Rose, 1933 a (p.320, spp. key); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.138); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.109, clé spp.); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.171); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.117, clé spp.); Wolken & Florida, 1969 (p.279); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.668, 672); Razouls, 1982 (p.714); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.264, spp. key); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.991, Pl.226, 232); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.972: spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.653, spp. key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.355, Rem., spp. key. from Iberica Fauna)
Rem.: Type: Copilia mirabilis Dana,1849.
7 spp.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 3,831 mm (n= 7; S= 0,618; Cv= 0,161) and the mean male size is 5,518 mm (n= 5; S= 0,937; Cv= 0,17). The size ratio (M/F) is 1,558 (n= 6; S= 0,461; Cv= 0,296). The size differences within the same species are significant and the male sizes are always greater than those of the females (which is uncommon for the other families).
(2) Sapphirina Thompson, 1829
Syn.: Saphirina : Brady, 1883 (p.121)
Ref.: Haeckel, 1864 (p.102); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.84, 618); Wheeler, 1901 (p.190); Esterly, 1905 (p.218, Rem.: p.224); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.194); A. Scott, 1909 (p.253); Pesta, 1920 (p.636); Sars, 1921 (p.113); Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.269, Rev., biogéo.); Wilson, 1932 a (p.363, clé spp. F); Rose, 1933 a (p.306, clé spp.); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.123, clé spp.); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.107, clé F); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.103, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.264, Rem.); Rose & Vaissière, 1951 (p.134); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.170); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.561, clé spp., Rev.); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.114, clé spp.); Crisafi & Mazza, 1968 (1969) (p.437, Rem.); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.668); Razouls, 1982 (p.705); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.264, clé spp.); Razouls, 1993 (p.313); Chae & Nishida, 1994 (p.205, Rem.: coloration); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.989, Pl.226); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.972, spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.653, spp. key; p.653: Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.363, Rem., spp. key from Iberica Fauna)
Rem.: Type: Sapphirina indicator J.V. Thompson,1830
Because of the observed variations, Lehnhofer (1929) groups certain species, followed in this by several authors, but maintained by Crisafi & Mazza (1966). Total: 20 species (or 17 if one follows Lehnhofer, or less if one admits certain synonymies). Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.652, 653) reduce this number to 15 valid species, but acknowledge that the need of a genus revision is growing. Only a genetic analysis could permit this clarification.

Ohtsuka & Nishida (2017, p.583) underline males of the genus Sapphirina are unique in having beautiful, species-specific iridescence caused by the multiple layers of hexagonal guanine platelets in the epidermal cells (see Chae & Nishida, 194). The specific colors of the males may be involved in mating (wee Chae & Nishida, 2004)
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 02,468 mm (n= 23; S= 0,916; Cv= 0,371) and the mean male size is 2,777 mm (n= 23; S= 1,109; Cv= 0,399). The size ratio (M/F) is 1,146. The sex-ratio is 1.
(3) Vettoria Wilson, 1924
Syn.: Corina Giesbrecht,1891; 1892 (p.84, 645); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.197); Rose, 1933 a (p.319); Rose & Vaissière, 1952 (1953) (p.15, 22: Rem.); Corissa Farran, 1936 a (p.131); Rose & Vaissière, 1953 (1954) (p.393)
Ref.: Wilson, 1924 (p.15); 1932 a (p.592); Rose & Vaissière, 1953 (1954) (p.394); Hure & Scotto di Carlo, 1967 (p.286, 294, spp. key); Bourcier & al., 1969 (p.271); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.671); Razouls, 1982 (p.713); 1993 (p.313); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.653, spp. key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.393, Rem., spp. key.)
Rem.: type: Corina granulosa Giesbrecht,1891. Total: 4 spp.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0,868 mm (n= 4; S= 0,186; Cv= 0,214) and the mean male size is 0,813 mm n= 4; S= 0,199; Cv= 0,199; Cv= 0,245). The size ratio (M/F) is 0,936 or 93,6 % (n= 4; S= 0,118; Cv= 0,126)

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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed July 26, 2021]

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