List species and varieties by family
Monstrillidae Dana, 1849
(1) Australomonstrillopsis Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014
Rem.: The new genus is erected by Suarez-Morales & McKinnon (2014, p.315) to accomodate a male specimen with a remarkable combination of important genus level characters not present in any other genus of the Monstrilloida.
It has a 5-segmented geniculate A1 that resembles that of Monstrillopsis in its general structure and armature, particularly in the presence of an inner protuberance of the last segment and the structure of the apical elenents. Setal element 2 (sensu Huys & al., 2007) forms a distinctive sabre-like structure in males of Monstrillopsis (Suarez-Morales & al., 2006) and element 1 is relatively short (as in M. fosshageni, M. chathamensis, M. cahuitae). In the new genus element 2 is short, curved and only slightly longer than element 1. This character is not present in males of Monstrillopsis. Another unique character present is the peculiar cuticular processes of the cephalothorax, forming sac-like protuberances on the anteroventral surface but also dorsal folds.
An important apomorphy found in this genus is the absence of an inner seta on the 1st segment of the exopods of P1-P4. The absence of such a seta is shared only with Maemonstrilla (Grygier & Ohtsuka, 1008).
Type species: Australomonstrillopsis crassicauda.
Total 1 sp.

[1] Australomonstrillopsis crassicaudata  Surarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (M)    [Figs]
(2) Caromiobenella Jeon, Lee & Soh, 2018
Rem.: Type species: Caromiobenella castorea. 2 sp. + 6 spp. (comb. nov.) + 1 undetermined.
Diagnosis male from Jeon & al. (2018,: p.47) :- Cephalothorax not exceeding half of total body length (caidal rami excluding).
- Forehead margin generally round, lacking 2 usual short sensilla.
- Body segmented: cephalothorax with incorporated 1st pedigerous somit, free pedigers 1-3, 1st urosomal somite, genital somite, postgenital somite, penultimate somite, anal somite.
- A1 5-segmented with modified 5th segment (inner distal margin formed into several comb-like rows of spinules).
- Oral papilla on anterior ventral surface of cephalothorax, low, somewhat inconspicuous.
- Genital apparatus consisting of robust genital shaft pmus 2 short, subtriangular genital lappets diverging from distal posterior end of shaft.
- Branced setae of distal A1 segment replaced by unbranched, wello-developed simple setae in most species (branched setae reportedly in Caromiobenella arctica comb. nov.).
- Spine 2d, on 2nd segment elongated, biserially plumose, or both depending on species.
- Distal end of genital shaft with deep notch or medial protrusion.
- 3 or 6 caudal setae on each caudal ramus, depending on species.
- Two pairs of prominent crater-like depression on anterior dorsum of cephalothorax.
- Posterior dorsum of cephalothorax (i.e. incorporated 1st pediger) with 2 longitudinal rows of 4 pores each, arranged in pairs across midline.

After these authors the species included in this new genus will be (comb. nov.): C. helgolandica (Claus, 1863); C. serricornis (Sars, 1921); C. arctica (Davis & Green, 1974); C. hamatapex (Grygier & Ohtsuka, b1995); C. pygmaea (Suarez-Morales, 2000); C. patagonica (Suarez-Morales, Ramirez & Derisio, 2008) and Caromiobenella sp. [= Monstrilla sp. in Huys & Boxshall, 0991].

The new genus displays a unique set of characters, but some ambiguity is present in the generic assignment of all species Caromiobenella mentioned, including the two new species C. castorea and C. polluxea. For example, the numbers of urosomal somites and caudal setae match those of Monstrilla, whereas the modifications of setal element 2d 2 involving elongation and plumosity, are more like those in some species of Cymbasoma.
Molecular analysis provides an alternative means of compensating for uncertainties and defects caused by insufficient morphological information. The molecular evidence strongly supports the separation of caromiobenella from Monstrilla, with an about two-fold difference between the within-genus and between-genera divergences for genes mtCOI and for genes 28S rRNA (see in Table 2)

[1] Caromiobenella castorea  Jeon, Lee & Soh, 2018   (M)    [Figs]

[2] Caromiobenella hamatapex  (Grygier & Ohtsuka, 1995)   (F)    [Figs]

[3] Caromiobenella helgolandica  (Claus, 1863)   (F)

[4] Caromiobenella polluxea  Jeon, Lee & Soh, 2018   (M)    [Figs]
(3) Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888
Rem.: type: Cymbasoma rigidum Thompson,1888. 41 species in Suarez-Morales, 2011 (p.4) + 25 species in Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016 (p.3). Total: 71 species + 1 undet.

Diagnosis after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, Vol. 33, p.157) :
Female :
- Abdomen 2-segmented.
Male :
- Abdomen 2-segmented.
For Jeo,g & al. (2018, p.61) the number of caudal setae 3 or 4 occurs in Cymbasoma including between two sexes of C. rigidum, C. longispinosum, C. tumorifrons, C. quintanarooensis, C. chelemense.

[1] Cymbasoma agoense  Sekiguchi, 1982   (F)    [Figs]

[2] Cymbasoma alvaroi  Suarez-Morales & Carillo , 2013   (F)    [Figs]

[3] Cymbasoma annulocolle  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F,M)    [Figs]

[4] Cymbasoma apicale  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[5] Cymbasoma astrolabe  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[6] Cymbasoma bali  Desai & Krishnaswamy, 1962   (F,M)    [Figs]

[7] Cymbasoma bidentatum  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[8] Cymbasoma bitumidum  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[9] Cymbasoma bowmani  Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998   (F)    [Figs]

[10] Cymbasoma boxshalli  (Suarez Morales, 1993)   (F)    [Figs]

[11] Cymbasoma buckleyi  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[12] Cymbasoma bullatum  (A. Scott, 1909)   (M)    [Figs]

Cymbasoma bullatum ghardaqana    Al-Kholy, 1963   (M)
Syn.: Cymbasoma bullatus ghardaqana Al-Kholy,1963 (p.133, fig.M)
Ref.: Suarez-Morales, 1999 (2000) (in Sarsia: sous presse)
Loc: Mer Rouge (Ghardaqa)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma ghardaqana

[13] Cymbasoma californiense  Suarez-Morales & Palomares-Garcia, 1999   (F)    [Figs]

[14] Cymbasoma chelemense  Suarez-Morales & Escamilla, 1997   (F,M)    [Figs]

[15] Cymbasoma cheni  Lian & Tan, 2019   (F)    [Figs]

[16] Cymbasoma clairejoanae  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[17] Cymbasoma claparedei  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F)    [Figs]

[18] Cymbasoma clauderazoulsi  Suarez-Morales, Goruppi, Olazabal & Tirelli, 2017   (F)    [Figs]

[19] Cymbasoma cocoense  Suarez-Morales & Morales-Ramirez, 2009   (F)    [Figs]

[20] Cymbasoma colefaxi  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[21] Cymbasoma concepcionae  Suarez-Morales & Morales-Ramirez, 2003   (F)    [Figs]

[22] Cymbasoma constrictum  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[23] Cymbasoma dakini  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[24] Cymbasoma danae  Malaquin, 1896   (F,M)    [Figs]

[25] Cymbasoma davisi  Suarez-Morales & Pilz, 2008   (F)    [Figs]

[26] Cymbasoma fergusoni  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

Cymbasoma filogranarum    Malaquin, 1901   (F,M)
Syn.: Thaumaleus filigranarum Malaquin, 1896 (p.1316, Rem.); Haemocera filogranarum Malaquin, 1901 (p.110, figs.F); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.218, fig.F)
Ref.: Grygier, 1995 a (p.12, 16, 64)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla filogranarum

[27] Cymbasoma frondipes  (Isaac, 1975)   (F)    [Figs]

[28] Cymbasoma galerus  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[29] Cymbasoma germanicum  (Timm, 1893)   (F)    [Figs]

[30] Cymbasoma ghardaqana  Al-Kholy, 1963   (M)    [Figs]

[31] Cymbasoma gigas  (A. Scott, 1909)   (F)    [Figs]

[32] Cymbasoma gracile  Gurney, 1927   (F,M)    [Figs]

Cymbasoma herdmani    Thompson, 1888   
Ref.: ? Cf. Monstrilla anglica
Loc: I. Puffin, Malte

[33] Cymbasoma guerrerense  Suarez-Morales & Morales-Ramirez, 2009   (F)    [Figs]

[34] Cymbasoma janetae  Mageed, 2010   (F)    [Figs]

[35] Cymbasoma javensis  (Isaac, 1974)   (M)    [Figs]

[36] Cymbasoma jinigudira  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F,M)    [Figs]

[37] Cymbasoma leighrandalli  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[38] Cymbasoma lenticula  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F,M)    [Figs]

[39] Cymbasoma longispinosum  (Bourne, 1890)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[40] Cymbasoma lourdesae  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[41] Cymbasoma malaquini  (Caullery & Mesnil, 1914)   (F)

[42] Cymbasoma marioeduardoi  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[43] Cymbasoma markhasevae  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[44] Cymbasoma mcalicei  Suarez-Morales, 1996   (M)    [Figs]

[45] Cymbasoma mediterranea  Suarez-Morales, Goruppi, Olazabal & Tirelli, 2017   (F)    [Figs]

[46] Cymbasoma morii  (Tokioka, 1949)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Cymbasoma nicobaricum    Sewell, 1949   (M)
Syn.: Cymbasoma nicobarica Sewell, 1949 (p.142, figs.M); Desai & Krishnaswamy, 1962 (p.163)
Ref.: Grygier, 1995 a (p.31, 51, 72, Rem.)
Loc: Is. Nicobar, Port Nankauri
Rem.: Cf.: Cymbasoma tropicum

[47] Cymbasoma nicolettae  Suarez-Morales, 2002   (F)    [Figs]

[48] Cymbasoma pallidum  (Isaac, 1974)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[49] Cymbasoma paraconstrictum  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[50] Cymbasoma pseudobidentatum  Suarez-Morales, Goruppi, Olazabal & Tirelli, 2017   (F,M)    [Figs]

[51] Cymbasoma pseudoquadridens  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[52] Cymbasoma quadridens  Davis, 1947   (M)    [Figs]

[53] Cymbasoma quintanarooense  (Suarez Morales, 1994)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[54] Cymbasoma rafaelmartinezi  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[55] Cymbasoma reticulatum  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F)    [Figs]

[56] Cymbasoma rigidum  Thompson, 1888   (F,M)    [Figs]

[57] Cymbasoma rochai  Suarez-Morales & Dias, 2001   (M)    [Figs]

[58] Cymbasoma rostratum  (T. Scott, 1904)   (F)    [Figs]

[59] Cymbasoma similirostratum  (Isaac, 1974)   (M)    [Figs]

[60] Cymbasoma sinopense  Üstün, Terbiyik Kurt & Suarez-Morales, 2014   (F)    [Figs]

[61] Cymbasoma solanderi  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[62] Cymbasoma specchii  Suarez-Morales, Goruppi, Olazabal & Tirelli, 2017   (F)    [Figs]

[63] Cymbasoma striatum  (Isaac, 1974)   (F)    [Figs]

[64] Cymbasoma striifrons  Chang C.Y., 2012   (F)    [Figs]

[65] Cymbasoma strzeleckii  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[66] Cymbasoma tenue  (Isaac, 1974)   (M)    [Figs]

[67] Cymbasoma tergestinum  Suarez-Morales, Goruppi, Olazabal & Tirelli, 2017   (F)    [Figs]

[68] Cymbasoma tharawalorum  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[69] Cymbasoma thompsoni  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[70] Cymbasoma tirmiziae  Khan & Kamran, 1974   (F)
Rem.: Publication not found.

[71] Cymbasoma tranteri  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]

[72] Cymbasoma tropicum  (Wolfenden, 1905)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[73] Cymbasoma tumorifrons  Suarez-Morales, 1999   (F)    [Figs]

[74] Cymbasoma williamsoni  Khan, 1976   (M)
Rem.: Publication not found.

[75] Cymbasoma zetlandicum  (T. Scott, 1904)   (F,M)    [Figs]
Rem.: After T. Scott (1904, p.249), a male belonging apparently to the same species as the female described is considerably smaller than it.
? Cf. Monstrilla regarding the male structure.

Cymbasoma sp.    Marques, 1961   (M)
Ref.: Marques, 1961 (p.51)
Loc: Guinée
Lg.: (631) M: 1,48.

[76] Cymbasoma sp.  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2016   (F)    [Figs]
Guanabaraenia Oliveira, 1945
Rem.: non Monstrillide
Guanabaraenia jurujubae    Oliveira, 1945   (F)
Ref.: Oliveira, 1945 a (p.470, figs.F)
Loc: Brésil (Rio de Janeiro)
Lg.: (656) F: 0,3
Rem.: Cf. ?

Haemocera Malaquin, 1896
Rem.: Sars (1921, p.9) considers this genus as a synonym of Cymbasoma. Isaac (1974, 1975) does not recognize this genus and does not retain the generic criteria in Sewell, 1949 (p. 132). 1 species (unidentifiable).
Haemocera danae Malaquin,1901    , Haem   (F,M)
Ref.: Malaquin, 1901 (p.88, 109, fig.F); ? van Breemen,1908 a (p.217, figs.F,M, Rem.); Sars, 1921 (p.21); Sewell, 1949 (p.144, figs.F, Rem.); Razouls, 1972 (Annexe: p.155); 1973 (p.467)
Loc: Manche, Médit., Is. Nicobar, Viet-Nam
Lg.: (662) F: 1,15; (737) F: 2,4-2; M: 1,4-1; {F: 1,15-2,40; M: 1,10-1,40}
Rem.: Sewell (1949, p.145) n'admet pas la synonymie avec le genre Cymbasoma (C. rigidum = Thaumaleus rigidus ). Grygier (1995 a, p.63) considère cette espèce comme un synonyme junior de Monstrilla danae Claparède, 1863.
Haemocera morii    Tokioka, 1949   (F)
Ref.: Tokioka, 1949 (p.71, figs.F); Rose, 1956 (p.463); Grygier, 1994 a (p.23, Rem.)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma morii
Haemocera roscovita    Malaquin, 1901   (F)
Syn.: Cymbasoma roscovita : Rose, 1933 a (p.351, fig.F)
Ref.: Malaquin, 1901 (p.110, fig.F); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.219, fig.F, Rem.); Isaac, 1975 (p.8, fig.F); Grygier, 1995 a (p.75)
Loc: Manche
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla roscovita
(4) Maemonstrilla Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008
Rem.: Type: Maemonstrilla hyottoko. With 2 species-groups: kyottoko Group (Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008, p.463) and turgida Group Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008, p.492). Total: 11 species.

Diagnosis for females after Grygier & Ohtsuka (2008, p.462) :
- Ovigerous spines pointing forward between thoracopods.
- P1 to P4 widely separated across midline; intercoxal of legs 1-4 low and approximately as wide as legs themselves.
- Cephalothorax bulbous, about half of body length, with often very prominent oral papilla in anterior third of length and 2-4 (usually 3) small scars clustered behind base of each A1.
- Naupliar eye well developed; hyaline bodies absent in front of the widely separated lateral cups.
- Dorsal surface of metasomal pedigers and all urosomal segments except telson (for the so-called 'anal somite') occupied by extensive, more or less rectangular patches of denticles or spinules.
- A1 with branched outer distal b-setae.
- Single pore on anterior face of 3rd segment of each ramus in P1-P4.
- P5 either a long, narrow rod with 2 distal setae and at most a tiny, unarmed endopodal lobe, or bilobed with 3 setae on exopodal lobe and 1 (or supposedly 2 in one instance) on endopodal lobe.
- Urosome 4-segmented.
- Genital compound somite usually with obvious dorsal suture, lacking dorsal pores.
- Caudal rami with 6 setae and ventral pore.

This genus represents the only example of subthoracic brooding among planktonic copepods: Unusual direction of the ovigerous spines (foreward), the shape of the intercoxal sclerite, very low and very wide, and probably the loss of the inner seta of the 1st segment of each leg ramus (see remarks in Monstrillidae concerning the subthoracic egg brooding in copepods).

Males unknown (or unrecognized).
In the samples examined, monstrillid specimens and species of various genera were usually abundant, and up to three species of Maemonstrilla females co-occurred in samples; matching sexes by co-occurrence cannot be done in these circumstances.
Ohtsuka & Nishida (2017, p.574) underline a peculiar characteristic in this genus, which bears anteriorly directed genital spines on the genital compound somite of the female, which are posteriorly directed in other monstrilloids. Because egg masses attached to the spines are positioned in a space surrounded by the right and left legs, Grygier & Ohtsuka (2007) regarded it as a kind of brood chamber.

Maemonstrilla hyottoko species-Group :
- Cephalothorax with reticulate pattern of cuticular ridges.
- A1, lateral sides of metasomal somites and urosomal segments, dorsum of telson, and caudal rami ornamented (except in M. simplex).
- Dorsal surface of metasomal pedigers and first three urosomal segments, as well as outer face of thoracods (coxa and exopod), densely denticulate or spinulose (except in M. simplex).
- No spine-like scales posteriorly near dorsal midline on 1st and 2nd free pedigers.
- Outer basis seta of P3 at least as long as exopod.
- No inner seta of 1st exopodal segment of P1-P4; inner seta of 1st endopodal segment of these legs absent or represented by socket-like or button-like structure;
- P5 a long, thin rod with 2 distal setae, 1 apical and 1 slightly subapical; endopodal lobe absent (or reportedly tiny and unarmed in one instance).
- Posterior part of genital compound somite with ventral protrusion.
5 species: M. hyottoko, M. simplex, M. okame, M. polka, M. spinicoxa.

Maemonstrilla turgida species-Group : Monotypic. See diagnosis to the species Maemonstrilla turgida (A. Scott, 1909) comb. nov. from Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008 (p.492); distinguished from the former species-Group by the cephalothorax non-reticulated.

[1] Maemonstrilla crenulata  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (F)    [Figs]

[2] Maemonstrilla hoi  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (F)    [Figs]

[3] Maemonstrilla hyottoko  Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008   (F)    [Figs]

[4] Maemonstrilla longipes  (A. Scott, 1909)   (F)    [Figs]

[5] Maemonstrilla okame  Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008   (F)    [Figs]

[6] Maemonstrilla ohtsukai  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (F)    [Figs]

[7] Maemonstrilla polka  Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008   (F)    [Figs]

[8] Maemonstrilla protuberans  Suarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (F)    [Figs]

[9] Maemonstrilla simplex  Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008   (F,M)    [Figs]

[10] Maemonstrilla spinicoxa  Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008   (F)    [Figs]

[11] Maemonstrilla turgida  (A. Scott, 1909)   (F)    [Figs]
(5) Monstrilla Dana, 1849
Rem.: Type: Monstrilla viridis Dana, 1849, but the genus concept needs to be clarified by designation and detailed description of a neotype. Total: 57 species + 1 uncertained (of which several doubtful). Provisional number, the species of the genus Monstrillopsis should no doubt be incorporated in this genus (Davis, 1949 a; Davis & Green, 1974).

Diagnosis after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, Vol. 33, p.157) :
Female :
- Abdomen 3-segmented.
- Oral papilla located approximately more than 1/4 of the ventral length of the cephalothorax (mainly at half length).
- Eyes absent or small.
Male : Abdomen 4-segmented
- Eyes not prominent.
- P5 absent or very small.
With the creation of the new genus Caromiobenella Jeon, Lee & Soh, 2018) the number of the species is at the present time 50.

[1] Monstrilla anglica  Lubbock, 1857   (M)    [Figs]

[2] Monstrilla arctica  Davis & Green, 1974   (M)    [Figs]

[3] Monstrilla bahiana  Suarez-Morales & Dias, 2001   (M)    [Figs]

[4] Monstrilla barbata  Suarez-Morales & Gasca-Serrano, 1992   (F)    [Figs]

[5] Monstrilla bernardensis  (Willey, 1920)   (M)    [Figs]

[6] Monstrilla brasiliensis  Dias & Suarez-Morales, 2000   (F)    [Figs]

[7] Monstrilla brevicornis  Isaac, 1974   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla canadensis    McMurrich, 1917   (M)
Syn.: Monstrilla anglica : Wilson, 1932 a (p.394, figs.M); M. serricornis : C.B. Wilson, 1950
Ref.: McMurrich, 1917 (p.47, fig.M); Fontaine, 1955 (p.890); Shih & al., 1971 (p.57, 215); Isaac, 1975 (p.6, 8, figs.M); Threlkeld, 1977 (p.226); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.82, figs.M); McAlice, 1982 (p.46, Rem.); 1985 (p.627, figs.F,M, Rem.); Grygier, 1995 a (p.27, 32, 52, 61)
Loc: G. du Maine, Baie de Fundy, Détroit d'Hudson , Is. Gilbert
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla helgolandica (M) Claus,1863

[8] Monstrilla capitellicola  Hartman, 1961   (F)    [Figs]

[9] Monstrilla careli  Suarez-Morales & Dias, 2000   (F)    [Figs]

[10] Monstrilla careloides  Suarez-Morales, 2001   (F)    [Figs]

[11] Monstrilla chetumalensis  Suarez-Morales & Castellanos-Osorio, 2019   (M)    [Figs]

[12] Monstrilla ciqroi  (Suarez-Morales, 1993))   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla clavata    Sars, 1921   (F)
Ref.: Sars, 1921 (p.14, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.341, figs F); Sewell,1949 (p.141); Wilson, 1950 (p.267); Isaac, 1975 (p.7, Rem.); Grygier, 1994 (p.240: Rem.); 1995 a (p.62)
Loc: Norvège, Philippines
Rem.: Cf.: Monstrilla longicornis

[13] Monstrilla conjunctiva  Giesbrecht, 1902   (F,M)    [Figs]

[14] Monstrilla cymbula  A. Scott, 1909   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla dakinensis    Davis, 1949   (F)
Syn.: Monstrilla sp. Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.117, figs.F)
Ref.: Davis, 1949 a (p.247, 249); Gryier, 1995 a (p.30, 62)
Loc: Australie (Nouvelle-Galles du Sud)
Lg.: (104) F: 3,7
Rem.: espèce non décrite à ma connaissance.

Monstrilla danae    Claparède, 1863   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Haemocera danae Malaquin, 1901; Razouls, 1973 (p.467)
Ref.: Claparède, 1863 (p.95, figs.F,M); Bourne, 1890 b (p.573, 575, fig.F, Rem.M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.578, 580, 694); Malaquin, 1901 (p.107, 109: Rem.); Pearson, 1906 (p.33: F); Grygier, 1995 a (p.6, 7, 10, 62)
Loc: Manche (St. Vaast la Hougue), Irlande SW, Kieler Bucht
Lg.: (741) F,M: 2
Rem.: Sp. douteuse. Cf. Monstrilla anglica (M) et Cymbasoma rigidum (F)

Monstrilla dubia    T. Scott, 1904   (F,M)
Ref.: T. Scott, 1904 (p.247, Descr.F, figs.F); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.217, figs.F); Shih & al., 1971 (p.57, 215); Grygier, 1995 a (p.63)
Loc: Ecosse
Rem.: Cf. Monstrillopsis dubia

[15] Monstrilla elongata  Suarez-Morales, 1994   (F,M)    [Figs]

[16] Monstrilla filogranarum  (Malaquin, 1901)       [Figs]

[17] Monstrilla floridana  Davis, 1949   (M)    [Figs]

[18] Monstrilla ghardaqensis  Al-Kholy, 1963   (F)    [Figs]

[19] Monstrilla ghirardelli  Suarez-Morales, Goruppi, Olazabal & Tirelli, 2017   (M)    [Figs]

[20] Monstrilla gibbosa  Suarez-Morales & Palomares-Garcia, 1995   (F)    [Figs]

[21] Monstrilla globosa  Suarez-Morales, 2003   (M)    [Figs]

[22] Monstrilla gohari  Al-Kholy, 1963   (F)    [Figs]

[23] Monstrilla gracilicauda  Giesbrecht, 1892   (F)    [Figs]

[24] Monstrilla grandis  Giesbrecht, 1891   (F,M)    [Figs]

[25] Monstrilla grygieri  Suarez-Morales, 2000   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla hamatapex    Grygier & Ohtsuka, 1995   
Rem.: Cf. Caromiobenella hamatapex

[26] Monstrilla helgolandica  Claus, 1863   (F,M)    [Figs]

[27] Monstrilla humesi  Suarez-Morales, 2001   (F)    [Figs]

[28] Monstrilla inserta  A. Scott, 1909   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla intermedia    Krichagin, 1877   (F,M)
Ref.: Non consulté; Dolgopolskaya, 1948 (p.177, Rem.); Isaac, 1975 a (BZN, p.171); Grygier, 1995 a (p.6, 48, 68)
Loc: Mer Noire
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla grandis

Monstrilla intermedia    Aurivillius, 1898   (F)
Ref.: van Breemen, 1908 a (p.205, fig.F); Isaac, 1975 (p.7); 1995 a (B.Z.N., p.171); Grygier, 1995 a (p.48, 68)
Loc: Skagerrak
Lg.: (750) F: 4
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla longicornis

[29] Monstrilla investigatoris  Sewell, 1949   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla javensis    Isaac, 1974   (M)
Ref.: Isaac, 1974 a (p.132, Descr.M, figs.M); Grygier, 1995 a (p.43, 68)
Loc: Mer de Java (Bangka Strait)
N: 1
Lg.: (739) M: 1,39; {M: 1,39}
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma javensis

[30] Monstrilla lata  Desai & Bal, 1963   (F,M)

Monstrilla leucopis    Sars, 1921   (F,M)
Syn.: Monstrilla leucopsis : Wilson, 1950 (p.267); non Monstrilla leucopis : Suarez & Gasca, 1990
Ref.: Sars, 1921 (p.15, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.342, figs.F,M); Sewell,1949 (p.132, 138,139, Rem.); Grygier, 1995 a (p.24, 55, 68)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla conjunctiva

[31] Monstrilla leucopis  Sars, 1921   (F,M)    [Figs]

[32] Monstrilla longa  (Isaac, 1974)   (F)    [Figs]

[33] Monstrilla longicornis  Thompson, 1890   (F,M)    [Figs]

Monstrilla longipes    A. Scott, 1909   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Maemonstrilla longipes.

[34] Monstrilla longiremis  Giesbrecht, 1892   (F,M)    [Figs]

Monstrilla longispinosa    Bourne, 1890   (F)
Syn.: Thaumaleus longispinosus : Isaac, 1975 (p.8, Rem.)
Ref.: Bourne, 1890 b (p.575, Descr.F, figs.F); Grygier, 1995 a (p.70)
Loc: Plymouth
Lg.: non donné
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma longispinosum

[35] Monstrilla longissima  Krichagin, 1877   

[36] Monstrilla mariaeugeniae  Suarez-Morales & Islas-Landeros, 1993   (F,M)    [Figs]

[37] Monstrilla marioi  Suarez-Morales, 2003   (M)    [Figs]

[38] Monstrilla minuta  Isaac, 1974   (M)    [Figs]

[39] Monstrilla mixta  T. Scott, 1914   (F)

[40] Monstrilla nasuta  Davis & Green, 1974   (F)    [Figs]

[41] Monstrilla nicholsii  Davis, 1949   (F)

[42] Monstrilla obesa  Isaac, 1974   (F,M)

[43] Monstrilla orcula  A. Scott, 1909   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla ostroumowi    Karavaev, 1895   (F)
Ref.: Karavaev, 1894 (1895) (p.33, Descr.F, figs.F); Malaquin, 1901 (p.110); Porumb, 1961 (p.1224, Rem.); Isaac, 1975 (p.8); Grygier, 1995 a (p.45, 72)
Lg.: (755) F: 1,15
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma rigidum

[44] Monstrilla papilliremis  Isaac, 1975   (M)    [Figs]

[45] Monstrilla patagonica  Suarez-Morales, Ramirez & Derisio, 2008   (F,M)    [Figs]

[46] Monstrilla pontica  (Krichagin, 1877)   

[47] Monstrilla pustulata  Suarez-Morales & Dias, 2001   (F)    [Figs]

Monstrilla quadriseta    Davis, 1949   (M)
Ref.: Davis, 1949 a (p.248: nom. nud.); Grygier, 1995 a (p.30, 73)

[48] Monstrilla pygmaea  Suarez-Morales, 2000   (M)    [Figs]

[49] Monstrilla rebis  Suarez-Morales, 1993   (F)    [Figs]

[50] Monstrilla reidae  Suarez-Morales, 1993   (M)    [Figs]

Monstrilla reticulata    Davis, 1949   (F,M)
Ref.: Davis, 1949 a (p.251, figs.F,M); Isaac, 1975 (p.9); Grygier, 1995 a (p.73)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrillopsis reticulata

[51] Monstrilla roscovita  (Malaquin, 1901)   (F)    [Figs]

[52] Monstrilla rugosa  Davis, 1947   (M)    [Figs]

[53] Monstrilla satchmoi  Suarez-Morales & Dias, 2001   (F)    [Figs]

[54] Monstrilla scotti  (Isaac, 1975)   (F,M)

[55] Monstrilla semperi  Krichagin, 1877   

[56] Monstrilla serricornis  Sars, 1921   (M)    [Figs]

[57] Monstrilla spinosa  Park, 1967   (F,M)    [Figs]

Monstrilla turgida    A. Scott, 1909   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Maemonstrilla turgida.

Monstrilla typica    Kroyer, 1849   (juv. F)
Syn.: Thaumatoëssa Typica Kröyer, 1842-1845 ?; Thaumaleus typicus Kröyer, 1849 (in Damkaer & Damkaer, 1979 (p.43, figs.F); Grygier, 1993 (1994) (p.235, figs. juv.5F); Grygier, 1995 a (p.24, 77)
Loc: Norvège (entrée du Fjord Trondheims)
Lg.: (juv.F): 4,67 ou 4,54
Rem.: sp. imprécise

Monstrilla viridis    Dana, 1849   
Ref.: Bourne, 1890 b (p.575); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.586); Grygier, 1994 (p.245, Rem.); 1995 a (p.6, 9, 78)
Loc: Mer de Sulu
Rem.: sp. imprécise

[58] Monstrilla typica  (Kröyer, 1849)   (F)

[59] Monstrilla wandelii  Stephensen, 1913   (F,M)    [Figs]

Monstrilla wandelii tropica Suarez-Morales    , 1996   (M)
Ref.: Suarez-Morales, 1996 (p.35, figs.M); 1998 (p.360, Rem.)
Loc: Yucatan
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla mariaeugeniae

Monstrilla zetlandicum    T. Scott, 1904   (F,M)
Syn.: Thaumaleus zetlandicus T. Scott, 1904 (p.249, figs.F,M); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.215, figs.F,M); Isaac, 1975 (p.3, 7, 9, figs.F,M); Cymbasoma zetlandica : Rose, 1933 a (p.350, figs.F,M)
Loc: I. Shetland, Manche
Rem.: La structure du mâle incite Isaac (1975) à classer cette forme dans ce genre. Voir à Cymbasoma zetlandicum.

[60] Monstrilla sp.1  [Davis & Green, 1974]   (M)    [Figs]

Monstrilla sp.    Dakin & Colefax, 1940   (F)
Ref.: Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.117, figs.F); Grygier, 1995 a (p.29)
Loc: Australie (Nouvelle-Galles du Sud)
Lg.: (104) F: 3,7

Monstrilla sp.    Nicholls, 1944   (F)
Ref.: Nicholls, 1944 (p.56, figs.F)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla nichollsii

Monstrilla sp.    Krishnaswamy, 1953   (F)
Ref.: Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.75, figs.F)
Loc: Inde (Madras)
Lg.: (531) F: 1,6

Monstrilla sp.    Sekiguchi, 1982   (F)
Ref.: Sekiguchi, 1982 (p.26, Descr.F, figs.F); Grygier & Ohtsuka, 1995 (p.708, Rem.: 717)
Loc: Japon (Ago Bay)
Lg.: (723) F: 1,6
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla hamatapex

[61] Monstrilla sp.2  Carneiro-Schaefer, Sühnel, Dias, de Melo, Magalhaes, 2017   (Juv.F)    [Figs]
(6) Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921
Rem.: type: Monstrilla dubia T. Scott,1904. The authors do not agree on the validity of this genus, in spite of the arguments of Davis (1949 a) : ? Cf. Monstrilla.
Total: 20 species (some probably doubtful).
Suarez-Morales & al. (2006, 2013) included the following nominal ten species in the genus Monstrillopsis: M. dubia (Scott, 1904) from Scotland (60°N), M. zernowi from the Black Sea (43°N), M. sarsi Isaac, 1974 from England (54°N), M. fosshageni from Brazil (20°S), M. dubioides Suarez-Morales, 2004 from Norway (62°N), M. ferrarii Suarez-Morales & Ivanenko from the White Sea (66°N), M. chilensis from off Chle (33°S), M. igniterra from the Southern Ocean (55°S), M. chathamensis from the Eastern Pacific, M. cahuitae from the Costa Rica (Caribbean Sea (9°45'N).
For Delaforge & al. (2017, p.11), several authors have questioned the validity of the genus Monstrillopsis Sars (1921) whereas others have accepted ir (Huys & Boxshall, 1991; Boxshall & Halsey, 2004; Suarez-Morales & al., 2006). The argumentation against it has relied on the presumed mixed characters shown by males of the Arctic species M. bernardensis (Willey, 1920); as in Monstrillopsis, these specimens have 4 caudal setae and the oral papilla is located anteriorly on the cephalothorax, but the specimens examined by Davis & Green (1974) from Resolute Bay have a rudimentary P5 as in Monstrilla; they explicitly state that the differ from Willey's population. The specimens of M. bernardensis from Resolute Bay should be redescribed. For instance, the number of caudal rami should be confirmed, some species of Monstrilla have a small, inconspicuous caudal seta V (i.e., M. elongata Suarez-Morales, 1994; M. gracilicauda Giesbrecht (1892). Also, the A1 segmentation and armature, particularly of the distal segment, should be examined to determine if it has the characters relatable to Monstrillopsis. Huys & Boxshall (1991) strengthened the genus concept by assigning to the males of Monstrillopsis a particular antennular type, different from those recognized in Cymbasoma and Monstrilla. With regard to the females of species of Monstrillopsis, little evidence contrary to the validity of the genus has been presented. The other Arctic species described by Davis & Green (1974), M. arctica and M. nasuta are clearly species of Monstrilla.
The distribution of the genus seems to be largely restricted to temperate and cold latitudes.

Diagnosis of the the genus Monstrillopsis owing to its possession of the combination of characters noted by Sars (1921) :
- 2 free somites posterior to the genital double-somite;
- Eyes fully developed;
- 4 segmented A1 in the female;
- Oral papilla occurring near the anteriormost part of the cephalothorax (< 20 % of way back along cephalothorax);
- P5 bilobed in female , outer lobe armed with 3 setae;
- Caudal rami with 4 setae.
For Delaforge & al. (2017, p.8), some species can have more caudal setae (i.e. M. reticulata (Davis, 1949), M. zernowi Dolgopolskaya, 1948), but except for the aberrant M. zernowi with 5 caudal setae, also present in the females.

Diagnosis after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, Vol. 33, p.157) :
Female :
- Abdomen 3-segmented.
- Eyes well developped.
- Oral papilla located 1/4 length of the ventral cephalothorax.
Male : Abdomen 4-segmented
eyes very prominent.

lee J. & al. (2016, p.421), in Monstrillopsis the number of caudal setae is generally 4 in both sexes; however, some congeneric species have more caudal setae (see Suarez-Morales & al., 2006), and are distinguished from the Korean species: in the male, 6 setae in M. cohuitae and 5 setae in M. reticulata and M. zernowi.
After Jeon (2018, p.62) the genus Haemocera Malaquin, 1901, should be a senior synonym of Monstrillopsis.

Remarks from Suarez-Morales & al. (2006, p.101)combination of characters defined by Sars (1921) in his diagnosis of this genus concerning females:
- 1: A1 4-segmented.
- 2: Oral papilla occurring near anteriormost part of cephalothorax.
- 3: zyzs fully developed.
- 4: Urosome with 3 somites including genital double-somite.
- 5: P5 of female bilobed, and outer lobe armed with 3 setae.
- 6: Caudal rami with 4 setae. Sars (1921) mentioned also unusually produced caudal rami; this character is not constant in the members of the genus.
- Additional characters proposed later for this genus are the absence or armament on the inner lobe of the female P5; a modified distal segment and a curved terminal spine in the male A1, and absent or reducted P5 in the male (character shared with Cymbasoma (Suarez-Morales, pers. obs.).

[1] Monstrillopsis angustipes  Isaac, 1974   (F)    [Figs]

[2] Monstrillopsis boonwurrungorum  Surarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (M)    [Figs]

[3] Monstrillopsis cahuitae  Suarez-Morales & Carillo, 2013   (M)    [Figs]

[4] Monstrillopsis chathamensis  Suarez-Morales & Morales-Ramirez, 2009   (M)    [Figs]

[5] Monstrillopsis chilensis  Suarez-Morales, Bello-Smith & Palma, 2006   (F,M)    [Figs]

Monstrillopsis ciqroi    Suarez-Morales, 1993   (F)
Rem.: Depth sampling: 1.5 m.
Suarez-Morales & Castellanos-Osorio, 2019 (p.120: Rem.) indicate this species as belonging to the genus Monstrilla in the species" key of the Mexican Caribbean.

[6] Monstrillopsis coreensis  Lee, Kim & Chang, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[7] Monstrillopsis dubia  (T. Scott, 1904)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[8] Monstrillopsis dubioides  Suarez-Morales, 2004   (F,M)    [Figs]

[9] Monstrillopsis ferrarii  Suarez-Morales & Ivanenko, 2004   (F)    [Figs]

[10] Monstrillopsis filogranarum  (Malaquin, 1901)   (F)    [Figs]

[11] Monstrillopsis fosshageni  Suarez-Morales & Dias, 2001   (M)    [Figs]

[12] Monstrillopsis hastata  Surarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (M)    [Figs]

[13] Monstrillopsis igniterra  Suarez-Morales, Ramirez & Derisio, 2008   (F)    [Figs]

[14] Monstrillopsis longilobata  Lee, Kim & Chang, 2016   (M)    [Figs]

[15] Monstrillopsis nanus  Surarez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014   (M)    [Figs]

[16] Monstrillopsis paradoxa  Jeon, Lee, Soh & Eyun, 2020   (M)

[17] Monstrillopsis planifrons  Delaforge, Suarez-Morales, Walkusz, Campbell & Mundy, 2017   (F)    [Figs]

[18] Monstrillopsis reticulata  (Davis, 1949)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[19] Monstrillopsis sarsi  Isaac, 1974   (M)    [Figs]

[20] Monstrillopsis zernowi  Dolgopol'skaya, 1948   (F,M)    [Figs]

[21] Monstrillopsis sp.  Huys & Boxshall, 1991   (M)    [Figs]
Strilloma Isaac, 1974
Rem.: The maintenance of this genus is questionable considering the quality of the illustrations. Type : Strilloma longa Isaac,1974. Suarez-Morales & Gasca (2004, p.292) confirm the non-validity of this genus.
Strilloma grandis    Giesbrecht, 1891   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf Monstrilla grandis
Strilloma lata    Desai & Bal, 1963   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla lata
Strilloma longa    Isaac, 1974   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla longa
Strilloma scotti    Isaac, 1975   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla scotti.

Thaumaleus Kröyer, 1849
Rem.: Type: Thaumaleus typicus Kröyer, 1849. Cf. Cymbasoma et Monstrilla
Thaumaleus bernardensis    Willey, 1920   (M)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla bernardensis
Thaumaleus boxshalli    Suarez-Morales, 1993   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma boxshalli
Thaumaleus bullatus    A. Scott, 1909   (M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma bullata
Thaumaleus claparedi    Giesbrecht, 1892   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma claparedei
Thaumaleus filogranarum    Malaquin, 1896   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla filogranarum
Thaumaleus frondipes    T. Scott, 1904   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma frondipes
Thaumaleus germanicus    Timm, 1893   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma rigidum
Thaumaleus gigas    A. Scott, 1909   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma gigas
Thaumaleus longispinosus    Bourne, 1890   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma longispinosum
Thaumaleus malaquini    Caullery & Mesnil, 1914   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma malaquini
Thaumaleus pallidus    Isaac, 1974   (F,M)
Rem.: Cymbasoma pallida
Thaumaleus quadridens    Davis, 1947   (M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma quadridens
Thaumaleus quintanarooensis    Suarez-Morales, 1994   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma quintanarooensis
Thaumaleus reticulatus    Giesbrecht, 1892   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma reticulatum
Thaumaleus rostratus    T. Scott, 1904   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma rostrata
Thaumaleus similirostratus    Isaac, 1974   (M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma similirostratum
Thaumaleus striatus    Isaac, 1974   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma striatum
Thaumaleus tenuis    Isaac, 1974   (M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma tenuis
Thaumaleus thompsoni    Giesbrecht, 1892   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma thompsoni
Thaumaleus tropicus    Wolfenden, 1905   (F)
Rem.: Cf. ? Cymbasoma thompsoni
Thaumaleus tumorifrons    Isaac, 1974   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma tumorifrons
Thaumaleus typicus    Kröyer, 1845   (F)
Rem.: espèce douteuse. Cf. Monstrilla typica
Thaumaleus zetlandicus    T. Scott, 1904   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Cymbasoma zetlandica ou Monstrilla zetlandica (du fait de la structure du mâle)

Thaumatoessa Kröyer in Gaimard, 1842-1845 ?
Rem.: In spite of the priority rule, Grygier (1994) proposes the maintenance of Monstrilla over Thaumatoessa and over Thaumaleus (this genus being considered as later established).
Thaumatoessa typica    Kröyer in Gaimard, 1842   (juv. F)
Syn.: Thaumaleus typicus Kröyer,1849; ? Monstrilla longicornis : Sars,1921 (p.11); ? Monstrilla clavata Sars, 1921 (p.14)
Ref.: Grygier, 1994 (p.235, Redescr., figs.juv.F); 1995 a (p.77)
Loc: Norvège
Rem.: Cf. Monstrilla typica
(0) Thaumatohessia Giard, 1900 (? Monstrillidae )
Rem.: Total : 1 sp.
This genus, created to understand an entirely original species (Thaumatohessia armoricana (Hesse,1868) does not correspond to the diagnosis of the family, but may belong to a neotenic form of a species of the preceding genera. This atypic form, presenting rudimentary mouth parts, has never been re-encountered in Brest (among the corals: Griffithsia corallina)

[1] Thaumatohessia armoricana  (Hesse, 1868)   (F)
Rem.: This atypical form, which presents rudimentary mouthparts, was never re-encountered and could correspond to a neotenic form.

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