Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Phaennidae ( Family )
            Xanthocalanus ( Genus )
Xanthocalanus echinatus  Sars, 1907   (F,M)
Sars, 1907 a (p.14, Rem.F); 1925 (p.135, figs.F); Tanaka, 1960 a (p.97, Descr.M, figs.M); Campaner, 1978 a (p.968, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.71); Markhaseva & Schnack-Schiel, 2003 (p.112, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 b (p.630, tab.1)
Species Xanthocalanus echinatus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publ. Sero Mar. Biol. Lab., 1960, VIII (1). [p.98, Fig.88].
Male (from Suruga Bay, Japan, from haul 0-1000 m): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, last thoracic segment with P5 and urosome (lateral left side); d, rostrum (anterior aspect); e, Mx2; f, Mxp; g, P1; h, P2; i, endopod of P3; j, P4; k, distal joint of left P5.

Nota: Head and 1st thoracic segment fused, 4th and 5th separate (5th short and truncated in dorsal aspect).
Rostrum with a wide base to which 2 slender filaments attached.
The abdominal segments and caudal rami in the proportions 16 : 24 : 24 : 20 : 4 : 12 = 100.
Caudal rami parallel, longer than wide.
Mx1 with 7 long and 2 short setae on the outer lobe; 5 setae on the exopodite; 7 setae on the endopodite; 5 setae on the 2nd basal segment.
Mx2 has a denticulated spine on the 5th lobe, the distal segment of endopodite with long vermiform setae.
Mxp slender, 1st basal segment with 2 long vermiform filaments and a short bud-like filament.
P5 slender and composed of 5 segments on each side; distal segment of right leg slender and long; terminal segment of left leg short, and truncated at the distal margin which is furnished with 2 apical spines of equal lengths, and short hairs on the outer margin.

Species Xanthocalanus echinatus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XXXVII, figs.10-18].
Female: 10, habitus (dorsal); 11, idem (lateral left side); 12, Mx2; 13, Mxp; 14, P1; 15, P2; 16, P3 (exopod missing); 17, P4; 18, P5.

Species Xanthocalanus echinatus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publ. Sero Mar. Biol. Lab., 1960, VIII (1). [p. 98].
Male: Proportional lengths of segments of A1.

Nota: A1 reaches back to the distal margin of the 2nd abdominal segment; segments 8 to 12 and 13-14 fused, segmets 20-21 fused on the right side.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.501)
NZ: 2

Distribution map of Xanthocalanus echinatus by geographical zones
Species Xanthocalanus echinatus - Distribution map 2
Chart of 1996
off SW Azores, Japan (Suruga Bay)
N: 2
(1) F: 2,1; (4) M: 1,75; {F: 2,10; M: 1,75}
Rem.: This species is only known from one individual female observed in the north Atlantic (by 3465 m) and an individual male observed in Japan (vertical sample 0-1000 m); similar case in Chiridiella brachydactyla. For Tanaka (1960, p.99) the Japan's specimen agrees well with the Sars' female (size, structure of the mouth appendages, similar arrangement of spinules on the posterior surface of the joints of the endopod and exopod of P2 to P4).
Last update : 02/02/2015
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2024. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed July 17, 2024]

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