Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Pontellidae ( Family )
            Pontellina ( Genus )
Pontellina plumata  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)
Syn.: Pontella plumata Dana,1849; Brady, 1883 (part., p.92, figs.1-10); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270);
Calanops messinensis Claus, 1863 (p.212);
no Pontella plumata : Brady, 1883 (p.93, Pl.37, figs.11);
? Pontellopsis speciosus Brady, 1915;
? Pontellopsis aequalis Mori,1932 a (p.172, figs.M);
no Pontellina navalium Oliveira, 1946 (p.472); Vervoort, 1965 (p.191);
Pontella plumata : Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1);
Pontellina plumata s.l. : Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.497, 774, figs.F,M); Thompson, 1888 d (p.143); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.149, Rem.); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.236, 253); Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1022); A. Scott, 1909 (p.175, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.362); Sewell, 1912 (p.354); 1914 a (p.240); Sars, 1925 (p.355); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 280); Rose, 1929 (p.46); Sewell, 1932 (p.391); Wilson, 1932 a (p.156, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.265, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.118); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.100, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.99, figs.F); Wilson, 1942 a (p.204, fig.M); Chiba, 1956 (p.61, figs.F); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.42); Sewell, 1947 (p.251); Chiba & al., 1957 a (p.12); Fish, 1962 (p.19); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.147, figs.M); Voronina, 1962 a (p.68); Grice, 1962 (p.240, figs.F,M); Gaudy, 1963 (p.29); Paiva, 1963 (p.74); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.59, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.270); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.109, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.190, Rem.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.84); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.99, figs.F,M); Vidal, 1968 (p.45, figs.F); Park, 1968 (p.569, figs.F, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.204, Rem., figs.F,M); Ramirez, 1971 (p.88); Shih & al., 1971 (p.44); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1974) (p.847, figs.F,M, Rem.); Marques, 1973 (p.245, figs.F); 1974 (p.18); Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1974 (p.71, figs.F,M); Fleminger, 1975 (p.395); Hulsemann & Fleminger, 1975 (p.174, figs.Juv. V & F,M), Rem.: development); Silas & Pillai, 1976 (p.847, Rem., figs.F,M); Marques, 1976 (p.996); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.659, figs.F,M); Marques, 1982 (p.765); Chahsavar-Archad & Razouls, 1982 (p.32, figs.F); Lakkis, 1984 (p.297); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.257, figs.F,M); Kimmerer & al., 1985 (p.428); Hulsemann & Fleminger, 1990 (p.99, figs.F); Ohtsuka & Onbé, 1991 (p.214); Ianora & al., 1992 (p.401, fig.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.873, Pl.161: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 960, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.205, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.186, 194); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.157, figs.F,M, Rem.); Conway & al., 2003 (p.135, figs.F,M, Rem.).; G. Harding, 2004 (p.16, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.516, figs.F,M, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.100, figs.F,M); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.1, Table 103, Biol. mol, phylogeny)
Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : T.S. Park in Fishery Bull. Fish Wild. Serv. U.S., 1968, 66 (3). [p.568, Pl.13, Figs.15-16].
Female: 15, habitus (dorsal); 16, P5. Nota: The right and left endopods are slightly unequal, and each is single-pointed, not forked.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.206, Fig.153].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, P5. Nota: The endopod shows the distal part forked contrary to Park (1968).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.48, 9-12].
Female (from E China Sea): 9, habitus (dorsal); 10, right P5 (posterior).

Male: 11, habitus (dorsal); 12, P5 (posterior).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Revta Mus. La Plata, Seccion Zool., 1971, XI. [Lam.II, figs.2, 8].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 2, P5; 8, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bars in mm: 0.05 (2); 0.5 (8).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.54, figs.1-2].
Female (from Canarias Is.): 1, P5.

Male: 2, P5.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : E.G. Silas & P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1973 (1976), 15 (2). [p.849, Fig.35, a-b].
Female (from Indian Ocean): a, rostrum (anteriorl view); b, genital segment with spermatophore (ventral).
Scale as in Calanopia minor.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : E.G. Silas & P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1973 (1976), 15 (2). [p.848, Fig.34].
Female: a, urosome (dorsal); b, P5.

Male: c, A1; d, P5.
Scale as in Calanopia minor.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Figs.51, 52, 53].
Female: 51, urosome (ventral); 52, forehead (lateral); 53, habitus (dorsal).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.49].
Female: 49, Th5 and urosome (lateral).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Fig.14].
Female: 14, Md (mandibular blade, postrior view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Fig.18].
Female: 18, Mxp (anterior view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Fig.36].
Female: 36, P5 (anterior view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Fig.4];
Male: 4, right A1 (ventral view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Figs.9, 12].
Male: 9, Md (mandibular blade); 12, Md (mandibular palp, anterior view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Figs.20, 21].
Male: 20, Mx1 (posterior view); 21, idem (anterior view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.25, Fig.26].
Male: 26, P5 (posterior view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.50].
Male: 50, Th5 and urosome (lateral).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Fishery bulletin, 1974, 72 (1). [p.72, Fig.3].
Female (from different seas): a, Th 4-5 and genital segment; b, habitus (lateral right side; other specimen); c, rostral filaments; d, range of variation observed in Th 4-5 (lateral view); e, Th 4-5 and urosome (dorsal; same specimen as a); f, range of variation observed in Th 4-5 (dorsal); g, habitus (dorsal; same specimen as b); h, lateral margin of right caudal ramus of various specimens (dorsal).
Nota: Right caudal ramus fused to anal segment, lateral margin with small pointed projection somewhat variable in shape and size just anterior to base of outermost seta, ratio of length to width: median 1.53, range = 1.28-1.74:1, showing apparent overlap only with the equatorial Atlantic congeners; left caudal ramus not fused and longer than right one. P5 with inner margin of exopod lacking hair, endopod polymorphic with 1 or 2 apical spines fused to segment, spines on left and right endopod may differ in number in same specimen; exopod 2 to 3 times longer than endopod (median: 2.37:1, range = 1.97-3.08:1), differing strongly from Indian and Pacific congeners.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Fishery bulletin, 1974, 72 (1). [p.74, Fig.4].
Female: a, P5 (anterior view); b, endopod of P5 of other specimens; c, enlargement of P5 apex; d, enlargement of distal process endopod P5.

Male: e, habitus (lateral right side); f, Th 4-5 and part of urosome and P5 (lateral right side); g, variation observed in Th 4-5 (lateral view); h, habitus (dorsal; same as e); i, P5 (posterior view; same as f); j, P5 chela (lateral view; same as f); k, Md (masticatory edge of the gnathobase; lateral view).
Nota: Right caudal ramus not fused to anal segment, about equal in length to left ramus; ratio of length to width: median = 2.30:1, range = 2.0-2.53:1, but showing more overlap with congeners than found among females. Left P5 with proximal segment of exopod short relative to other congeners.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Fishery bulletin, 1974, 72 (1). [p.101, Fig.33, a-b].
Female: Th 4-5 and urosome with attached spermatophore (dorsal and lateral respectively).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Fishery bulletin, 1974, 72 (1). [p.111, Table 19].
List of identified particles from microscopic analysis of stomach contents in adulte female.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Bull. Mar. Sci., 1975, 25 (2). [p.178, Fig.8];
Female: P5.
l = left leg; r = right leg; B2 = 2nd basal segment; Re = exopod, Se 1-4 = 1st to 4th seta, Si = medial seta, St = terminal seta.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 23 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Bull. Mar. Sci., 1975, 25 (2). [p.181, Figs.16-17].
Male: 16, P5 (posterior view); 17, chela of chela in lateral view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 24 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1990, 105. [p.101, Fig.1, a].
Female: a, genital segment (dorsal view).
Nota: Scanning electron microscope examination revealed on the genital segment many patches of small spinules ornamenting the integument dorsally and laterally. The spinules are flattened, triangular, non-articulated, rigid structures rising from the integument, usually pointing obliquely posteriad.
Nota: The adaptative value of spinules in Pontellina spp. remains obscure. Position and mutually arrangment of the prominent lateral clusters on the genital segment may be construed as functioning during courtship, by providing a specialized site for the male to grasp or stroke. Blades & Youngbluth (1979) report such activity by male Labidocera aestiva prior to spermatophore transfer.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1990, 105. [p.102, Fig.2, a].
Female: a, genital segment (right lateral view).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1990, 105. [p.104, Fig.4].
Female: genital segment (dorsal, lateral and ventral patterns separated by dotted line). Integument cut dorsally and laid out flat, showing positions of integumental organs: peg sensilla (o) and pores of integumental glands (filled circle); symbols are larger than organs.

Nota: Character divergence in pore signature pattern of the We may reason that a character contributing to a prezygotic reproductive barrier should occur in strongly divergent states among geographically overlapping species. The facts concerning pore signature pattern and geographical relationships match our expectations. Fleminger & Hulsemann (1974) found Pontellina plumata and P. morii to be sympatric across much of the equatorial Indian and Pacific Oceans and P. plumata and P. sobrina to overlap in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Differences in the pore signature pattern of the two pairs of sympatric species are of the magnitude that distinguishes the two Pontellina species groups. The other geographycally linked species of Pontellina that are allopatric or parapatric in the same region, i.e. P. platychela and P. plumata in the equatorial Atlantic, and P. morii and P. sobrina in the eastern equatorial present weakly differenciated pore signature pattern.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 27 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1990, 105. [p.104, Fig.5-7].
Female: genital segment (left to right: dorsal view, right latera viewl and ventral view).Generalized distribution of peg sensilla (o) and pores of integumental glands (filled circle); symbols are larger than organs. Organs shown occurred in at least 40 % of specimens examined (n = 25).


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 28 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann & A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1990, 105. [p.105, Fig.8].
Female: genital segment (left to right: dorsal view, right latera viewl and ventral view) illustrating geographical variation of pore signature pattern; idealized view of integumental organ types, numbers and arrangment. Organs shown are those appearing in at least 40 % of specimens from one regional sample. . Top: dorsal view; middle: right lateral view; bottom: ventral view. Left: types of organs inferred from several intact specimens stained in chlorazole black E and cleared in lactophenol. Symbols: peg sensilla (o); pores of integumental glands (filled circle); symbols are larger than organs. Symbols used for regional samples: (black circle) organs present in 100 % of specimens examined; (clear circle) 80 to 99 %; (black triangle) 60 to 79 %; (white triangle) 40 to 59 %.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 29 of morphological figuresissued from : S. Ohtsuka & R. Huys in Hydrobiologia, 2001, 453/454. [p.448, Fig.4, F].
Male (from Japan): modified elements on geniculate A1 of compound segment XXI-XXIII.
Scale bar = 0.01 mm


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 30 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (2nd edit., 1964). [Pl.48, Figs.1-12].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, Mxp; 3, P5; 8, P1; 9, A2.

Female immature: 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, P5; 6, P4; 7, Mxp.

Male: 10, habitus (dorsal); 11, P5; 12, right A1.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 31 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (2nd edit., 1964). [Pl.47, Figs.8-11].
Male: 8, 11, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 9, A2; 10, P5


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 32 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (2nd edit., 1964). [Pl.47, Fig.7].
Male: 7, P1.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 33 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.238, Pl.34, Figs.11-15].
Female (from equatorial Pacific): 11, habitus (dorsal); 12, P5.
Right caudal ramus fused to the anal segment.

Male: 13, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 15, P5.
Nota: Posterior lateral margins of the last thoracic segment rounded.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 34 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Treubia, 2002, 32. [p.158, Fig.59].
Female (from Indonesian waters): a, habitus (dorsal); b, metasomal somite 5 and urosome (dorsal); c, P5; d, variation observed in lateral margin of right caudal ramus (dorsal view).

Male: e, P5; f, habitus (dorsal).

The present female specimens have various shape of endopd similar to those reported from Pacific Ocean.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 35 of morphological figuresissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.16].
Female & Male.

Nota: Female P1 3-segmented. male P5 uniramous.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 36 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.185, Fig.59].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a, habitus (dorsal); b, urosome (dorsal); c, P5.

Male: d-e, habitus (dorsal and lateral respectively); f, P5.

Body length after the drawings: F = 1.440 mm; M = 1.444 mm.


Species Pontellina plumata - Plate 37 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva, C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999, Vol. 2, Copepoda; [p.1072, Fig. 7.399: Pontellina plumata]. r = right leg; l = left leg.

Female characters (from key, p.960):
- Posterior prosome corners extend more than 1/2 way along genital segmen; P5 basis seta extends well short of base of 1st outer edge spine on terminal segment.

Male characters (from key, p.960):
- Posterolateral corners of prosome, in lateral view, angular and bearing denticle; right chela exopodal segment1-2 extending distally as relatively slender, digitiform process opposing apex of narrow, curved exopodal segment 3.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.195); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.98, Rem.); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.392); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.303); Hoenigman, 1955 (p.49); Yamazi, 1958 (p.152, Rem.); Demir, 1959 (p.176); Fagetti, 1962 (p.36); Cervigon, 1962 (p.181, tables: abundance distribution); Grice & Hart, 1962, (p.287, 295: Rem.); Duran, 1963 (p.24); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.54); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Sherman, 1963 (p.216: fig.2, p.220: fig.8, p.223: fig.13, p.224: fig.14); Gaudy, 1963 (p.29, Rem.); Björnberg, 1963 (p.61, Rem.); De Decker, 1964 (p.16, 24, 28); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Heinrich, 1964 (p.89: fig.6, 91: fig.7); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.225); Mazza, 1966 (p.72); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Evans, 1968 (p.14); Delalo, 1968 (p.138); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.78, 80); Omori, 1969 (p.5, Table 1); Morris, 1970 (p.2301); Park, 1970 (p.478); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Salah, 1971 (p.320); Brodsky, 1972 (p.256); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 370); Heinrich, 1973 (p.95, fig.2); Björnberg, 1973 (p.352, 388); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Weikert, 1975 (p.140, chart); Patel, 1975 (p.660); Lakkis, 1976 (p.84: Rem.); Tranter, 1977 (p.596); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Grice & Gibson, 1978 (p.23, tab.8); Dessier, 1979 (p.207); Turner & al., 1979 (p.289, 292, Tab.3, Rem.); Turner & Collard, 1980 (p.527, Tab.1); Svetlichnyi, 1980 (p.28, Table 1, passive submersion); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.1); Sreekumaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493), Vives, 1982 (p.295); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.5); De Decker, 1984 (p.317, 361: carte); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1045); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.38); Almeida Prado Por, 1985 (p.250); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); M. Lefèvre, 1986 (p.33); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Brenning, 1987 (p.30, Rem.); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.60); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.1); 1989 a (tab.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Dessier, 1988 (tabl.1); Echelman & Fishelson, 1990 a (tab.2); Othman & al., 1990 (p.565, Rem.); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Mizushima, 1990 (fig.2, 3, tab.2); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.99, 107); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1994 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.72); Webber & al., 1996 (tab.1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.103); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.349); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.2,4); Hsieh & Chiu, 1998 (tab.2); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.8, 64); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.478); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Madhupratap & al., 2001 (figs.4, 5); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Dalal & Goswami, 2001 (p.22, fig.2); Hidalgo & Escribano, 2001 (p.159, tab.2); Hidalgo & Escribano, 2001 (p.158, fig.5); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Hwang & al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Alvarez-Silva & al., 2003 (p.737: tab.2); Osore & al., 2003 (p.69); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.489, tab.2); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, fig.6); Gallienne & al., 2004 (p.5, tab.3); CPR, 2004 (p.61, fig.181); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Alvarez-Silva & al., 2005 (p.39); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.163: tab.1); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.124: Tab.2, 4, Rem.); Lopez-Ibarra & Palomares-Garcia, 2006 (p.63, Tabl. 1, seasonal abundance vs El-Niño); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.25): Cornils & al., 2007 (p.278, Table 2); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.153, Table 2, occurrence vs geographic distribution); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.46, table 2, abundance vs moonsons); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Rakhesh & al., 2008 (p.154, Table 5: abundance vs stations); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.521); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.427); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Kâ & Hwang, 2011 (p.155, Table 3: occurrence %); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, table 2, indicator); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Pillai H.U.K. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, vertical distribution); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, fig.6, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Jang M.-C & al., 2012 (p.37, abundance and seasonal distribution); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Lavaniegos & al., 2012 (p. 11, Appendix); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, seasonal abundance); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Beltran Castro, 2014 (p.46, Table 1, 2: molecular CO1); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Lopez-Ibarra & al., 2014 (p.453, Table 2, biogeographical affinity); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Jerez-Guerrero & al., 2017 (p.1046, Table 1: temporal occurrence) ; Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group)
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Pontellina plumata by geographical zones
Species Pontellina plumata - Distribution map 3issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Fishery bulletin, 1974, 72 (1). [p.76, Fig.5].
Geographical distribution of captures recorded during the present study.
Species Pontellina plumata - Distribution map 4issued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.100, Table 46].
Vertical distribution of Pontellina plumata at the ''40-Mile station'' in the Florida Current (± 25°35'N, 79°27'W).
SL 53: 18 V 1958; SL 55: 21 VII 1958. A: during midday; B;: during midnight.
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), off Angola, Congo, off S St. Helena Is., off S Ascension Is., G. of Guinea, off E St. Paul Is., Morocco-Mauritania, N Argentina, Brazil, off Rio de Janeiro, off Natal, off Amazon, Dakar, off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Azores, Barbados Is., Venezuela, Cariaco Basin, Caribbean Colombia, Caribbean Sea, Yucatan, Jamaica, Yucatan (Ascension Bay), G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda: Station ‘’ S’’ (32°10’N, 64°30’W), Woods Hole, off Cape Cod, off S Nova Scotia, S Ireland (rare), Ibero-moroccan Bay, Gibraltar, Medit. (Alboran Sea, NW Basin, G. of Lion, Marseille, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Napoli, Messina, Malta, Adriatic Sea, Mljet Is., Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin, Alexandria), G. of Suez, G. of Aqaba, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Lakshadweep Is., Maldive Is., Sri Lanka, Natal, Mascarene Basin, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Rodrigues Is. - Seychelles, India (Saurashtra coast, W, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay), E India (cosatal, Kakinada Bay), Bay of Bengal, Burma, Andaman Sea (Barren Island), W Malay Peninsula (Andaman Sea), Straits of Malacca, G. of Thailand, W Australia, Indonesia-Malaysia (java: off Surabaya, NE Celebes: Manado Bay), Philippines, Gulf of Tonkin, Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Taiwan Strait, South China Sea), Taiwan (S, E, SW, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon, NE), Okinawa, S Korea, Korea Strait, Japan Sea, Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, off SE Japan, Bikini, off N Carolines Is., Australia (Shark Bay, G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), W Pacif. (equatorial), New Caledonia, off New Zealand (N & NE), Moorea Is., Pacif. (N central subtropical), California, W Baja California, Bahia Magdalena, Gulf of California, Bahia de La Paz, Bahia de los Angeles, Islas Marias, G. of Tehuantepec, Zihuatanejo Bay, W Mexico, Clipperton Is., Central America, W Costa Rica, Bahia Cupica (Colombia), off Ecuador, Peru, Chile (N-S, Mejillones Peninsula)

Type locality: 05°N, 21°E.
N: 282
Lg.:
(16) F: 1,93-1,5; M: 1,73-1,45; (34) F: 1,72-1,68; M: 1,5-1,45; (45) F: 1,75-1,6; M: 1,65-1,5; (46) F: 1,75-1,7; M: 1,62-1,55; (72) F: 1,94; (73) M: 1,6; (91) F: 1,75-1,6; M: 1,65-1,5; (101) F: 1,84-1,43; M: 1,59-1,49; (104) F: 1,89; (151) M: 1,6; (180) F: 1,87-1,79; M: 1,68-1,6; (187) F: 1,94; (199) F: 1,67; (237) F: 1,5-1,9; M: 1,8; (244) F: 1,7; (256) F: 1,6-1,49; M: 1,6-1,26; (275) F: 1,94-1,44; M: 1,92-1,34; (290) F: 1,7-1,85; M: 1,45-1,55; (332) F: 1,7; (334) F: 1,9-1,6; M: 1,65-1,5; (335) F: 1,78-1,64; M: 1,63-1,49; (336) F: 1,78-1,67; M: 1,67-1,5; (530) F: 1,5; M: 1,3; (785) F: 1,58-1,03; (786) F: 1,85-1,75; M: 1,58-1,43; (807) F: 1,56; ? 1,62; (?) F: 1,7-1,8; (991) F: 1,43-1,94; M: 1,34-1,92; (1087) F: 1,45-1,55; M: 1,25-1,30; {F: 1,03-1,94; M: 1,25-1,92}
Rem.: epi-mesopelagic. Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S"); Circumglobal distribution in warm water (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1974).
After Roehr & Moore (1965) the speies show an inversed nychthemeral cylcle.
Silas & Pillai (1973, p.848-849) note: Grice (1962) from equatorial Pacific Ocean recorded the females of this species possessing P5 with endopod forked on one leg and single and pointed on the other. Recently, Park (1968) described the females with unequal, acuminate endopod with no distal forks from central north Pacific Ocean. However, the specimens collected from the various localities in the Indian Seas were with apically bifid endopod. The male P5 showed slight differences in the specimens collected from the neritic waters off the west coast of India and from Laccadive Sea. In the oceanic specimens the movable finger of male P5 is provided with a spatulate tip, while the specimens from neritic waters does not show any such modification. The distal outer marginal seta on the finger is spinuous in the neritic form while in the oceanic specimens it is more slender and setose.
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is omnivorous.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 05/04/2018
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