Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Spinocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Spinocalanidae ( Family )
            Spinocalanus ( Genus )
Spinocalanus spinosus  Farran, 1908   (F,M)
Syn.: no Spinocalanus spinosus : Farran, 1929 (p.208, 227); Tanaka, 1956 c (p.390, figs.F); Vervoort, 1965 b (p.395)
Ref.:
Farran, 1908 b (p.27, Descr.F, figs.F); 1926 (p.244); Rose, 1933 a (p.86, fig.F); Vervoort, 1946 (p.153, Rem.); Farran & Vervoort, 1951 g (n°39, p.3, figs.F); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223, 231: Rem.); Harding, 1966 (p.29: Rem.); Park, 1970 (p.475, 485, figs.F); Damkaer, 1975 (p.36, fig.F, Rem.); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.264, figs.F, Rem.); Schulz, 1989 (p.189, Descr.M, figs.M); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.105, figs.F, fig.101); Lapernat, 1999 (p.28, 55); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.838, figs.F,M, Rem.); Andronov, 2014 (p.11, fig.: P1); Bode & al., 2017 (p.600, Table I, fig. 2, 3, 4, morphology vs genetic).
Species Spinocalanus spinosus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : D.M. Damkaer in NOAA Technical Report NMFS CIRC-391, Seattle, 1975. [p.40, Fig.84].
Female: 84, P1.


Species Spinocalanus spinosus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.486, Figs;37-42].
Female (from caribbean Sea and G. of Mexico): 37, habitus (dorsal); 38, idem (lateralright side); 39, basipod of Mxp; 40, P2 (posterior); 41, P3 (posterior); 42, P4 (posterior).
Nota: Prosome about 3 times length of urosome. Head and 1st thoracic segment separate, 4th and 5th separate. Lateral side of metasome covered by spinules. A1 slithtly longer than body. Exopod of A2 7-segmented (1st with 1 seta, 2nd with 3 setae. basis and 1st endopodal segment of Md each with 4 setae. Mx1: 2nd and 3rd lobes with 6 and 4 setae, respectively, basis 5 setae, endopod 4 + 5 + 7 setae.


Species Spinocalanus spinosus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Schulz in Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst., 1989, 86. [p.204, Figs.33-43].
Male (from off Mauritania): 33,habitus (dorsal); 34, idem (lateral left side); 35, Md (mandibular palp);36,Mx1; 37, Mx2; 38, Mxp; 39, P1 (anterior); 40, P2 (posterior); 41, P3 (posterior); 42, P4 (posterior); 43, P5.
Nota: Prosome/Urosome = 2/1. A1 with 1st segment bearing stellate bundle of spinules on antero-dorsal surface, segments 20 and 21 fused on left side, separate on right, segment 25 more or less reduced. Exopodal segment 1 of P1 with a very small distal outer spine. Endopodal segment of P1 with spinules. Anal segment short.


Species Spinocalanus spinosus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II [1908]. [Pl. I, Fig.10].
Female from SW Ireland): 10, spinulation on carapace.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.347, 513, 545, 549); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Grice, 1963 a (p.495); M.W. Johnson, 1963 (p.89, Table 1, 2); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.14); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Oyashio region); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.14); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 a (p.329, 331: Rem.); Björnberg, 1973 (p.322, 389); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Roe, 1984 (p.356); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.58); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.74); Lapernat & Razouls, 2001 (p.123, tab.1); Holmes, 2001 (p.42); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Sano & al., 2013 (p.11, Table 6, Rem.: p.21, food habits); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones); Hirai & al., 2020 (p.1, Fig. 5: cluster analysis (OTU), spatial distribution).
NZ: 12 + 3 doubtful

Distribution map of Spinocalanus spinosus by geographical zones
Loc:
? Antarct. (Weddell Sea), South Africa (E), E Atlant. (24°N-13°S), off E Cape Verde Is., Canary Is., Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, G. of Mexico, off E Cape Cod, off W Cape Finisterre, Bay of Biscay, off W Ireland, Medit. (Ligurian Sea, off Malta, Ionian Sea), W Indian, Molucca Sea, China Seas (South China Sea , in W. Zhang & al., 2010), ? Japan (in Furuhashi, 1966 b, p.302, 308), Arctic: Polar Basin, Pacif. (subtropical), New Zealand, off N Marquesas Is., Chile
N: 32
Lg.:
(13) F: 1,9-1,67; (24) F: 1,9; (28) F: 2,4-1,8; (38) F: 1,86-1,8; (88) F: 1,86-1,8; (199) F: 1,98-1,37; (340) F: 1,45; (546) F: 1,85; 1,79; M: 1,9; (1252) F: 1,83-2,03; {F: 1,37-2,40; M: 1,90}
(1252) F: Pr/Ur = 2,8-4,1.
Rem.: meso-bathypelagic; 500-1000 m. In vertical tow 4000-3000 m (Harding, 1974). 400-1000 m (in Bode & al., 2017). In horizontal tow from 2000 m off Malta.
For Grice & Hulsemann (1965, p.231) the presence of integumental spines is apparently a variable character as some specimens were entirely devid of them. Vervoort (1946) noted that the spinulation of the integument in his eastern Pacific specimens also varied.
Schulz (1989, p.189) points to the females agree with Damkaer (1975) and Park (1970) except that the distal outer spine of exopodal segment 1 of P1 is distinctly smaller than that of exopodal segments 2 and 3.
After Lapernat & Razouls (2002, p.19) the value of the Itoh's index are for masticatory edge of the left Md (442.1, number of teeth: 8) and for masticatory edge of the right Md (396.1, number of teeth: 9).
Last update : 09/12/2020
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed April 13, 2021]

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