Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina gemma  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Sapphirina Edwardsii Haeckel, 1864 (p.103, figs.);
no S. gemma : Brady, 1883 (p.127, figs.F);
? Sapphirina gemma : Mori, 1929 (p.204, figs.M);
no S. gemma : Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.125, figs.F,M)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.618, 640, 775, figs.F,M); Wheeler, 1901 (p.191, Rem., figs.F); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.360); Pesta, 1920 (p.638, fig.F); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 287); Rose, 1929 (p.59); Wilson, 1932 a (p.368, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.319, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.107, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.43); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.310); 1957 a (p.12); Tanaka, 1960 (p.73, Rem.F); Tanaka, 1964 (p.14); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.566, 569, 577, figs.F,M, Rem.); Crisafi, 1966 (p.655, figs.Juv.); Shih & al., 1971 (p.57); Razouls, 1972 (Annexe: p.122); Chen & al., 1974 (p.46, figs.F,M); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.128, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.990, Pl.227: F,M); Avancini & al., 2006 (Pl. 108, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.372, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.10, Figs.1-5].
Female (from China Seas): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, A2.

Male: 3, habitus (dorsal); 4, P2; 5, P4.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.579, Fig.6].
Female (from Strait of Messina): A-B, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.579, Fig.7].
Male: habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.580, Fig.8].
Male: A, A2; B, Mxp (posterior); C, 3rd segment endopodite of P2.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.128, Fig.79].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, caudal rami ( (dorsal); c, A2; d, P2; e, exopod of P2; f, P4.

Male: g, habitus 'dorsal); h, caudal rami ((dorsal); i, A2; j, P2; k, endopodite 3 of P2; l, P4.

Scale bars in mm.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Figs.4-5]. With doubt.
Male (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 4, caudal rami (dorsal); 5, A2.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.298, Fig.33, 4b, 5b].
Male: 4b, endopodite 3 of P2; 5b, P4.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.4, 22 ].
Female: 4, habitus (dorsal); 22, caudal ramus.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.64 ].
Female: 64, Mx2 (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.3 ].
Male: 3, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.62 ].
Male: 62, Mx2 (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.19 ].
Male: 19, Md.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.31 ].
Male: 31, A2


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.61 ].
Male: 61, P4.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.10, 12 ].
Male: 10, P2 (endopodite 3); 12, P1 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.46 ].
Male: 46, Mx1.


Species Sapphirina gemma - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.32 ].
Female: 32, A2 (endopod).

Compl. Ref.:
Thompson, 1888 d (p.149); Cleve, 1904 a (p.196); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.105, Rem.); Wilson, 1932 (p.50); 1950 (p.320); Yamazi, 1958 (p.155,Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.46); Duran, 1963 (p.26); Delalo, 1968 (p.139); Salah, 1971 (p.320); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.558); Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 599); Dessier, 1979 (p.208); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.7, as gema); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Sazhina, 1985 a (p.491, tab.3); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.:p.42); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Lozano, 1991 (p.173); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Boxshall, 1998 (p.229); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.112); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Hwang & al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.398, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Kazmi, 2004 (p.231, Rem.: p.232); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.154, tab.2, Rem.); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.25); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Chaouadi & Hafferssas, 2018 (p.913, Table II: occurrence); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Sapphirina gemma by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E, off Cape of Good Hope), off S Ascension Is., Congo, off S Cape Verde Is., off Mauritania, Canary Is., Portugal, S Brazil, Venezuela, Cuba, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, off Marthas Vineyard S, Chesapeake Bay, off Nantucket, Bay of Fundy, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Habibas Is., W Basin, Ligurian Sea, Napoli, Messina, Malta, N & S Adriatic Sea, Lebanon Basin, Egypt), Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Indian, G. of Thailand, W Australia, Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (E, S, SW, N: Mienhua Canyon, NE), Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, Bikini Is., Hawaii, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (New South Wales), N New Zealand, W Baja California, La Paz, Gulf of California, W Mexico, Galapagos-Ecuador, Peru (inAbanto, 2001), Chile (in Björnberg, 1973, p.369, 389, as S. ovatolanceola-gemma)
N: 99
Lg.:
(35) M: 3,72; (45) F: 3,15-1,9; M: 3,15-2,15; (46) F: 3,1-1,9; M: 3,1-2,15; (66) F: 2,95; (104) F: 2; M: 3,3; (109) F: 2,9-1,8; M: 3,4-3; (114) F: 3,4-2,65; M: 4,15; (449) F: 3,1-1,9; M: 3,1-2,15; (705) F: 3,507-1,98; M: 4,262-2,904; (794) F: 2,6-1,4; M: 3; 2,5; (805) F: 2,79-1,4; M: 2,39-2; (864) F: 2,6; (866) F: 2,7; M: 3,4-3; (1023) F: 2,6; M: 2,6-3,01; {F: 1,400-3,507; M: 2,000-4,260}
Rem.: Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.298) considers this form as a variation of Sapphirina ovatolanceolata, position followed by Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.653).
After Tanaka (1960, p.73) the females from South Africa present in the first specimen (measuring 2.95 mm) the anterior and posterior regions of the body in the proportional lengths as 62 to 38. The anterior region is 1.9 times as long as broad. The eyes small, situated ventrally. The head is 1.14 times as long as broad. The posterior region has the segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 14 : 20 : 12 : 11 : 13 : 30 = 100. Caudal rami about 2.1 times as long as broad, the median dorsal seta is situated on the distal 2/5 of the ramus. A1 5-segmented; segments in the proportional lengths 18 : 40 : 18 : 11 : 13 = 100. The A2 has the segments in the proportional lengths 31 : 44 : 11 : 24 = 100. In the P2 the 3rd endopodal segment has a single outer marginal, 2 terminal and 1 inner marginal spines; the exopod has 3 outer marginal setae on the 3rd segment.P4 has 2 outer marginal setae on the 3rd segment of the exopod; the endopod has 2 outer marginal and 1 inner marginal spines on the 3rd segment. Another female specimen (measuring 3.25 mm) has a proportional lengths of the anterior and posterior regions of the body as 63 to 37. The anterior region 2.2 times as long as broad (81 : 36). The posterior region has the segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 14 : 21 : 14 : 12 : 13 : 26 = 100. The caudal rami about 2 times as long as broad. The A1 has the sehments in the proportional lengths 17 : 41 : 20 : 9 : 13 = 100. In other respects the specimen has the similar characters as in the foregoing.
Last update : 13/11/2020
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed September 28, 2021]

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