Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina iris  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Sapphirina salpae Claus, 1859; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.618, 641, 775, figs.F,M)); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.240); Thompson, 1903 a (p.34); Cleve, 1904 a (p.197); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.361); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 287); Wilson, 1942 a (p.206, fig.F); 1950 (p.324); Fagetti, 1962 (p.48); Furuhashi, 1966 b (p.123, figs.F,M, Rem.);
S. gemma : Brady, 1883 (p.127, figs.F);
S. longifurca A. Scott, 1909 (p.259, figs.F); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.321, figs.F,M)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1895 (p.261); Esterly, 1905 (p.219, figs.F,M); Sars, 1921 (p.114, figs.F,M); Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.279, figs.F,M, Rem.); Rose, 1929 (p.59); 1933 a (p.310, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.131); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.44); Sewell, 1947 (p.266, fig.M); Crisafi, 1966 (p.662, figs. juv.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.103); Paiva, 1971 (p.36, figs.F); Shuvalov, 1976 (in Kos, 1976, Vol. II, figs.F, Rem.Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.671, figs.F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.230); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 972, 973, figs.F,M); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.374, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Sars G.O. in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. VII. Copepoda Supplement. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1921. [Pl. LXXV].
Female. L: labrum.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Sars G.O. in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. VII. Copepoda Supplement. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1921. [Pl. LXXVI].
Male. o: eyes; gen teg: genital tagma.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in The John Murray Expedition, 1933-34, Scientific Reports, VIII (1), 1947. [p.265, Fig.68, B].
Male (from S coast of Arabia): B, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.220, Fig.57].
Female (from San Diego Region): b, habitus (dorsal); c, caudal ramus (dorsal).

Male: a, habitus (dorsal); d, exopod of P4.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Wilson in Bull. U.S. natn Mus., 1950, 100, 14 (4). [Pl.32, Figs.490-493].
As Sapphirina longifurca.
Female (from Philippines): 490, habitus (dorsal); 492, anal somite and caudal rami (dorsal).

Male: 491, habitus (dorsal); 493, last urosomal segments and caudal rami (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.280, Fig.9].
Female: 1, caudal ramus; 2, A2.

Male: 3, endopodite 3 of P4.
Sth = pilose terminal seta.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.2, 18 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Female: 2, habitus (dorsal); 18, caudal ramus.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.45, 51 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Female: 45, Mxp (posterior view); 51, Mx2 (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892, Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.1, 19 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Male: 1, habitus (dorsal); 19, caudal ramus.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.27 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Male: 27, P5 and Genital segment (ventral).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.49 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Male: 49, Mxp.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.9, 13, 15 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Female: 9, P2 (endopodite 3); 13, P1 (endopod); 15, P1 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.59 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Female: 59, Mx1.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.23, 24 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Female: 23, Md (posterior view); 24, A2.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.60 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Female: 60, P4 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.16, 19 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Male: 16, P3 (endopodite 3); 19, P2 (endopodite 3).


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.57 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Male: 57, Mx1.


Species Sapphirina iris - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.7 ]. As Sapphirina salpae.
Male: 7, A1 (ventral view)

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.393, 462); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.320); Hoenigman, 1955 (p.49); Mazza, 1966 (p.74); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.743, geographic distribution, Rem.); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.269); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.42); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Chaouadi & Hafferssas, 2018 (p.913, Table II: occurrence).
NZ: 18 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Sapphirina iris by geographical zones
Species Sapphirina iris - Distribution map 3issued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.323, Fig.55].
Zoogeographical distribution of S. iris.
Loc:
South Africa (W), off W Tristan da Cunha, G. of Guinea, Atlant. (equatorial), Cape Verde Is., off Mauritania, Cap Ghir (Morocco), Canary Is., Argentina, Brazil, off Bermuda, Azores, off E Newfoundland, off Cabo Finisterre, off W Ireland, S Iceland, ? Norway, North Sea, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Habibas Is., El Kala shelf, NW Basin, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Napoli, N & S Adriatic Sea, Mljet Is., Aegean Sea, Alexandria), ? Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Sri Lanka, Indian, G. of Bengal, Nicobar Is., Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, Viet-Nam, China Seas (South China Sea), Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (Great Barrier), off New Zealand, Pacif. (NE tropical), California, G. of Panama, Chile
N: 50
Lg.:
(5) F: 5,5; (34) F: 6-5,78; M: 5,3; (35) F: 6,84-6,22; M: 6,6; (46) F: 7,5-5,6; M: 7,5-5,9; (132) F: 7,4; M: 7,1; (137) F: 5,5; M: 6; (142) F: 7-5; M: 8-7; (310) F: 6,09-5,23; M: 5,5; (530) F: 5,6-4,9; M: 5,3; (648) F: 5,2; {F: 4,90-7,50; M: 5,30-8,00}; (805) F: 2,19-1,2; M: 2,35
Rem.: epipelagic.
This species is often associated with salp swarms.
For Furuhashi (1966 a) the synonymy between this species and S. gemma of Brady and Wilson is not guaranteed.
The dimensions given by Rajaram & Krishnaswamy (1980 a, p.155) are very inferior to sizes given by other authors.
Last update : 14/04/2020
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