Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina nigromaculata  Claus, 1863   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Sapphirina inaequalis : Brady, 1883 (p.124, figs.F,M);
S. lomae Esterly, 1905 (p.223, Descr.M, figs.M); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.);
? Sapphirina nigromaculata-scarlata : Björnberg, 1963 (p.88, Rem.);
Ref.:
Claus, 1863 (p.152, Descr.M, figs.M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.619, 643, 775, figs.F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.240, 287); A. Scott, 1909 (p.256, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.361); Pesta, 1912 a (p.60, fig.F); 1913 (p.34); 1920 (p.641, figs.F,M); Farran, 1926 (p.298, fig.F); 1929 (p.210, 289); Mori, 1929 (p.204, figs.M); Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.301, figs.F,M); Rose, 1929 (p.60); Wilson, 1932 a (p.372, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.312, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.209); Farran, 1936 a (p.130); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.129, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.109, figs.M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.43); Sewell, 1947 (p.267, no fig.M); Pucher, 1952 (p.101); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.73, Rem.); Marques, 1958 a (p.137, figs.F); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.310); 1957 a (p.12); Fish, 1962 (p.24); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.601, figs.F,M, Rem.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.104); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.116, figs.F,M); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.228, Rem.); Razouls, 1972 (p.95, Annexe: p.121); Chen & al., 1974 (p.47, figs.F,M); Marques, 1975 (p.52); 1976 (p.1003); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.672, figs.F,M); Marques, 1982 (p.773); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.118, figs.F,M); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.264, figs.F,M); Chae & Nishida, 1994 (p.205, 208, integumental structure, pattern color); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.990, Pl.229: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.230); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 973, figs.F,M, p.876: chart); Al-Yamani & Prusova, 2003 (p.128, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.239, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Avancini & al., 2006 (Pl. 108, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.380, figs.F,M, Rem.); Al-Yamani & al., 2011 (p.110, figs.F,M)
Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.10, Figs.9-10].
Female (from China Seas): 9, habitus (dorsal); 10, A2.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.11, Figs.1-3].
Male: 1, habitus; 2, A2; 3, P2.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : F.Y. Al-Yamani & I. Prusova in Common Copepods Northwestern Arabian Gulf : Identification Guide. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, 2003. [p.129, Fig.49].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, urosome (dorsal); C, A2; D, P4.

Male: E, habitus (dorsal); F, caudal rami; G, A2; H, endopod of P2.
Nota: Endopod 3 of P2 with 2 foliaceous spines and 1 spine with denticulate margin on the outer side only.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.603, Fig.24].
Female (from Strait of Messina): habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.603, Fig.25].
Male: A, habitus (dorsal); B, 3rd segment endopodite of P2.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.119, Fig.73].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, caudal rami (dorsal); c, A2; d, P2; e, P4.

Male: f, habitus (dorsal); g, caudal rami (dorsal); h, A2; i, P2; j, endopod of P2; k, P4.

Scale bars in mm.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.223, Fig.60]. As Sapphirina lomae.
Male (from San Diego Region): a, Mxp; b, A1 (bristles omitted); c, 3rd segment of endopod of P2; d, A2.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Figs.3].
Male (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 3, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.13-16].
Male: 13, P4; 14, A1; 15, A2; 16, P2..


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Biscayan Plankton collected during a Cruise of H.M.S. 'Research', 1900.- Part XIV. The Copepoda. (Linn. Journ. Zoology, XXXVI, 1926). [p.304, Pl.9, Fig.17].
Female: 17, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 70, Figs.7, 11-13].
Female: 7, habitus (dorsal); 11, caudal rami; 12, endopodite of P2; 13, A1.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 70, Fig.8].
Male: 8, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 70, Figs.6, 9, 10, 14].
Male: 6, P4; 9, endopodite of P2; 10, A2; 14, A1.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.305, Fig.41].
Female: 1, A2.

Male: 2, A2; 3, endopodite 3 of P2 (anterior and posterior view, respectively).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.303, Fig.40, a-b].
Female: a-b, caudal rami.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.32, 35].
Female: 32, anal segment and caudal ramus (dorsal); 35, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.13].
Female: 13, A1.:


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Figs.36, 48].
Female: 36, A2; 48, P4.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.40].
Female: 40, Mxp (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.68].
Female: 68, Mx1.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.43].
Male: 43, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.26].
Male: 26, A2.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.6, 37].
Male: 6, P2 (endopod); 37, Mxp.


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 24 of morphological figuresissued from : Y. Al-Yamani, V. Skryabin, A. Gubanova, S. khvorov & I. Prusova in Marine Zooplankton Practical Guide for the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, 2, 2011. [p.111, Fig.255].
Female (from Kuwait): a, habitus (dorsal); b, urosome (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : Y. Al-Yamani, V. Skryabin, A. Gubanova, S. khvorov & I. Prusova in Marine Zooplankton Practical Guide for the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, 2, 2011. [p.111, Fig.256].
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, posterior part of urosome with caudal rami (dorsal).

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.196); Carl, 1907 (p.17); Rose, 1924 (p.10); 1925 (p.152); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.104, Rem.); Wilson, 1942 a (p.206); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Wilson, 1950 (p.323); Duran, 1955 (p.52); Yamazi, 1958 (p.156, Rem.); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.10, 16); Fagetti, 1962 (p.47); Duran, 1963 (p.26); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.59); Gaudy, 1963 (p.32, Rem.); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); De Decker, 1964 (p.16, 24, 27); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Shmeleva, 1963 (p.141); M-O. Soyer, 1965 (1966) (p.243: parasite); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.34, Table III); Mazza, 1966 (p.74); 1967 (p.361, 377); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.743, geographic distribution, Rem.); Evans, 1968 (p.14); Delalo, 1968 (p.139); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.269); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Subbaraju & Krishnamurphy, 1972 (p.25, 26 ); Binet & al., 1972 (p.71); Björnberg, 1973 (p.369, 389); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Vives & al., 1975 (p.57, tab.II, IV); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.558); Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 599); Dessier, 1979 (p.208); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1045); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.8, Rem.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.42); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl.I, II, III, IV, V); Sazhina, 1985 a (p.491, tab.3); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); M. Lefèvre, 1986 (p.33, 40); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1, as nigromarculata); Lozano, 1991 (p.174); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.93); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Chae & al., 1996 (p.20); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Sharaf & Al-Ghais, 1997 (tab.1); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.89, 104); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,2,3,4); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); El-Serehy, 1999 (p.172, Table 1, occurrence); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Zerouali & Melhaoui, 2002 (p.91, Tableau I); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Hwang & al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, fig.6); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.91, Rem., chart); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.154, tab.2, Rem.); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.25); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.153, Table 2, occurrence vs geographic distribution); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.525); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Rakhesh & al., 2008 (p.154, Table 5: abundance vs stations); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl.II); Tseng & al., 2009 (p.327, fig.5, feeding); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, table 2, indicator); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, seasonal distribution); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Dias & al., 2015 (p.483, Table 2, abundance); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Ben Ltaief & al., 2017 (p.1, Table III, Summer relative abundance); Marques-Rojas & Zoppi de Roa, 2017 (p.495, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group); Chaouadi & Hafferssas, 2018 (p.913, Table II: occurrence); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 19

Distribution map of Sapphirina nigromaculata by geographical zones
Species Sapphirina nigromaculata - Distribution map 4issued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.338, Fig.66].
Zoogeographical distribution of S. nigromaculata.
Loc:
Antarct. (exceptional), South Africa (W and E), off SE Ascension Is., Angola, Baia Farta, Congo, G. of Guinea, ivorian shelf, Cape Verde Is., Morocco, Cap Ghir, Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda, Brazil (S, off Rio de Janeiro, Campos Basin, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Macaé, off Natal), Argentina, Barbados Is., Caribbean Colombia, Bahia de Mochima (Venezuela), Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, off SE Cape Cod, Flemish Cape, Bay of Biscay, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Habibas Is., El Kala shelf, Sidfi Fredj coast, Castellon, Baleares, Banyuls, Marseille, Monaco, Napoli, G of Gabes, Tyrrhenian Sea, Messina, N & S Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Lebanon Basin, W Efyptian coast, Alexandria), Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf (UAE coast, Kuwait), Laccadive Is., Maldive Is., Sri Lanka, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Seychelles, Indian, India (G. of Mannar, Porto Novo, Lawson's Bay, Kakinada Bay), Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is. (Nankaurie Harbour), G. of Thailand, Indonesia-Malaysia, Ambon Bay, W Australia, Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea,Taiwan Strait, South China Sea), Taiwan (E, S, SW, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon, NE), Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), Moorea Is. (lagon), Bikini Is., Oregon (warm water intrusions), California, W BaJa California, La Paz, Gulf of California, W Mexico, G. of Tehuantepec, W Costa Rica, Clipperton Is., G. of Panama, Galapagos-Ecuador, Peru, N Chile
N: 195
Lg.:
(34) M: 2,16-2,05; (35) F: 1,9-1,8; M: 1,68; (38) F: 1,98-1,8; M: 2,28-2,16; (45) F: 2-1,9; M: 2,45-2,05; (46) F: 2-1,9; M: 2,45-2,05; (91) F: 2-1,2; M: 2,45-2; (104) M: 2,3; (109) F: 2-1,6; M: 2,4-2,1; (142) M: 3,2; (180) F: 1,8-1,55; (332) F: 2,78-1,63; M: 2,38-2,12; (333) F: 2,13-1,38; (449) F: 2,1-1,8; M: 2,45-2,05; (530) F: 2; M: 1,9; (618) F: 2,36; 2,06; M: 2,37; 1,87; (648) F: 2,81-1,55; M: 3,04-1,71; (651) F: 1,94-1,36; (705) F: 2,432-1,32; M: 2,602-2,07; (785) F: 1,75; 1,73; M: 2,5; 2,35; (786) F: 2,34-2,16; M: 2,57-1,81; (794) F: 2,7-1,4; M: 3,7-2,1; (805) F: 3,79-1,2; M: 4,15-1,4; (866) F: 2,64-1,35; M: 2,72-1,68; (864) F: 2,5; (937) F: 1,71-2,10; M: 1,93; (991) F: 1,2-2,81; M: 1,71-3,04; (1023) F: 1,43-1,57; M: 1,53-1,96; {F: 1,20-3,79; M: 1,40-4,15}
Rem.: epiplagic.
According to Chae & Nishida (1994, p.208, table 2) the color observed with reflected (R ) and transmitted light (T): Metallic gold; urosome strong blue (R); light blue, urosome red occasionally (T).
After Benedetti & al. (2018, p.1, Fig.2) this species belonging to the functional group 1 corresponding to large sac-spawning carnivorous.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 09/12/2020
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