Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina opalina  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Saphirina pachygaster Claus, 1863 (p.152, fig.F); Haeckel, 1864 (p.107);
? Sapphirina darwini Haeckel,1864 [See to the species and remarks below];
Sapphirina opalina-darwini Lehnhofer, 1929 p.295, figs.F,M Rem.) [See remarks below].
Ref.:
Brady, 1883 (p.126, figs.F); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.620, 644, 775, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.123); A. Scott, 1909 (p.257, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.360); Pesta, 1920 (p.642, fig.); Farran, 1929 (p.290) ; Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.296, Rem.); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 290); Rose, 1929 (p.60); 1933 a (p.317, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.210); Farran, 1936 a (p.131); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.126, figs.F); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.109, figs.F,M); Wilson, 1942 a (p.206, fig.F); Chiba & al., 1957 a (p.12); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.566, 569, 584, figs.F,M, Rem.); Crisafi, 1966 (p.658, figs. Juv.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.103); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.116, figs.F,M); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.231, Rem.); Ramirez, 1971 (p.90, fig.M); Chen & al., 1974 (p.48, figs.F,M); Marques, 1976 (p.1004, fig.F); 1982 (p.774); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.123, figs.F,M); Baessa de Aguiar, 1986 (1989) (p.63, figs.F,M); Chae & Nishida, 1994 (p.205, 208, integumental structure, pattern color); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.990, Pl.230: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.230); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Conway & al., 2003 (p.240, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.381, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Revta Mus. La Plata, Seccion Zool., 1971, XI. [Lam.III, Fig.2].
Male (from off Mar del Plata): 2, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bar in mm: 1.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.12, Figs.1-4].
Female (from China Seas): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, A2.

Male: 3, posterior part of body; 4, terminal spines of endopodite segment 3 of P2.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.586, Fig.11].
Female (from Strait of Messina): A, habitus (dorsal); B, distal portion of A1.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.587, Fig.12].
Male: habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.125, Fig.77].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, caudal rami (dorsal); c, A1; d, A2; e, P2; f, endopod of P2; g, P4.

Male: h, habitus (dorsal); i, caudal rami (dorsal); j, A1; k, A2; l, P2; m, endopod of P2; n, P4.

Scale bars in mm.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Chae & S. Nishida in Mar. Biol., 1994 (119). [p.206, Fig.1].
Male: Transmission electron microscopy photographs.
A, sagittal section of dorsal integument, gaps of different sizes shown (arroheads)
B, sagittal section of dorsal integument at high magnification, showing multilayered-membrane structure.
C, frontal section of integument, showing honeycomb arrangement of dorso-ventrally oriented membrane and gaps (arrowheads).
D, frontal section of integument, showing honeycomb structure and borders of epidermal cells (arrowheads.

bl = basal lamina; c = cuticle; m = mitochondrion; n, nucleus.

Nota: Color observed with reflected (R ) and transmitted light (T): Monotonic violet, occasionally green/orange caudal rami (R); yellow, occasionally brown and orange (T).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Chae & S. Nishida in Mar. Biol., 1994 (119). [p.209, Fig.4).
Schematic representation of the structure of the dorsal integument male in Sapphirinidae. Membrane structures supporting the platelets not shown.
bl = basal lamina; cm = cell membrane; d, platelet diameter; e, epicuticule; m = mitochondrion; mls = multilayer structure; n, nucleus; p, procuticle; t = platelet thicness

Nota: Multilayered, hexagonal platelets exist in the dorsal epidermal cells of the male sapphirinids. The absence of platelets in the female is consistent with the fact that iridescence is observed only in the male and confirms that this structure is responsible for generating the iridescence. Iridescent, integumental structures with multilayered crystals have been well known in various animal taxa, such fishes, amphibians and reptiles, but we know of no other litterature referring to any such structures in the integument of Crustacea, although multilayer structures have been found in the nauplius eyse of copepods (Land, 1984, etc.) including Sapphirina sp. itself (Elofsson, 1969). The causal mechanism of structural colors in animals is explained by the theory of multiple thin-layer interfernce (for explanation p.209-210 in Chae & Nishida, 1994). The fact that only males iridesce, the specific differences in iridescent colors, and the well-developed eyes all suggests that iridescence of sapphirinids has a important role in mate finding, prsumably by the female (Heron, 1973).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.2].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 2, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.10-12].
Female: 10, P4; 11, A1; 12, A2.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.69, Figs.1-5].
Female: 1, A2; 2, endopodite of P2; 3, habitus (dorsal); 4, A1; 5, P4.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.295, Fig.29, 3b].
Male: 3b, caudal ramus.
L = length; W = width


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.46].
Female: 46, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.52, 54].
Female: 52, posterior body (dorsal); 54, Mx2 (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Figs.4, 22].
Female: 4, A1; 22, Md (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.34].
Female: 34, A2.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.56].
Female: 56, P4.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.34].
Female: 34, Mxp.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.64].
Female: 64, Mx1.


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.44].
Male: 44, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.3].
Male: 3, P2 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina opalina - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.32-33].
Male: 32-33, Mxp.

Compl. Ref.:
Thompson, 1888 d (p.149); Cleve, 1904 a (p.196); Carl, 1907 (p.18); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.43); Sewell, 1948 (p.346); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.323); Pucher, 1952 (p.102); Yamazi, 1958 (p.156, Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.47); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.10, 16); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.14); Deevey, 1971 (p.225); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.558); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Tranter, 1977 (p.596); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1045); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.42); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.108); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.93); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.3,4); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Mageed, 2006 (p.168, Table 4); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.525); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Jerez-Guerrero & al., 2017 (p.1046, Table 1: temporal occurrence); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Sapphirina opalina by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E), Namibia, Angola, off Trindade Is., off S Ascension Is., G. of Guinea, Cape Verde Is., off NW Cape Verde, off Mauritania, Cap Ghir (Morocco), Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Argentina, S Brazil, Barbados Is., Caribbean Sea, Jamaica, Caribbean Colombia, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Medit. (Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, G. of Lion, Ligurian Sea, Napoli, Messina, Malta, N & S Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, W Egyptian coast, Lebanon Basin, Bardawill Lagoon), Red Sea, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Seychelles, Indian, India (Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, W Australia, Indonesia-Malaysia, Ambon Bay, Philippines, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan, Mienhua Canyon, Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, Kamchatka, Bering Sea, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), New Zealand, Bikini Is., Hawaii, Gulf of California, La Paz (Mexico), W Costa Rica, Central America, G. of Panama, Bahia Cupica (Colombia), Galapagos-Ecuador, Peru, Chili (N, Concepcion)
N: 111
Lg.:
(34) F: 3,3; M: 3,9; (35) [Atlant.] F: 2,45-2,35; M: 2,64-2,45; [N-Z] F: 3,9-2,94; M: 3,9-2,55; (46) F: 3,5-3; M: 3,35-3,15; (91) F: ± 3; (104) F: 3,25; M: 2,9; (109) F: 2,25-2,12; M: 2,85-2,7; (180) F: 2,59-2,5; M: 2,87; (332) F: 2,83; M: 2,96-2,33; (333) F: 2,62-1,61; (449) F: 3,5-2,2; M: 3,35-3,15; (458) F: 2,74; 2,64; M: 3,5-2,64; (530) F: 2; (705) F: 4,054-2,866; M: 4,337-3,3; (805) F: 3,59-1,2; M: 3,39-1,4; (866) F: 3,52-2,02; M: 4,04-2,68; (991) F: 1,4-3,39; M: 1,2-3,59; (1023) F: 2,3-3,26; M: 2,9-3,2; {F: 1,200-4,054; M: 1,200-4,340}
Rem.: Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
Sapphirina opalina-darwini Lehnhofer,1929 (F,M)
Syn.: ? Sapphirina darwinii Haeckel, 1864 (p.105)
Ref.: Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.295, Rem., figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.316, Rem. F,M); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.59); Björnberg, 1963 (p.88, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.267); 1948 (p.462); Marques, 1958 a (p.138); Björnberg, 1981 (p.671, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 972, figs.F,M); Ref. compl.: Mazza, 1966 (p.74); Binet & al., 1972 (p.71); Björnberg, 1973 (p.370, 389)
Loc.: Angola, Ivorian shelf, Rio de Janeiro, Médit., Arabian Sea, Laquedives Is., Maldives Is., Nicobar Is. (Nankauri Harbour), Chili N
N: 9
Lg.: (618) F: 2,64-2; M: 3,98-2,55; {F: 2,00-2,64; M: 2,55-3,98}
.
Lehnhofer (1929) considers that Sapphirina opalina and Sapphirina darwini correspond to variations in the same species. Position followed by Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.653) who only hold the designation of Sapphirina opalina.
See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 13/11/2020
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