Fiche d'espèce de Copépode
Cyclopoida ( Ordre )
    Sapphirinidae ( Famille )
        Sapphirina ( Genre )
Sapphirina opalina  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Saphirina pachygaster Claus, 1863 (p.152, fig.F); Haeckel, 1864 (p.107);
? Sapphirina darwini Haeckel,1864 [See to the species and remarks below];
Sapphirina opalina-darwini Lehnhofer, 1929 p.295, figs.F,M Rem.) [See remarks below].
Ref.:
Brady, 1883 (p.126, figs.F); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.620, 644, 775, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.123); A. Scott, 1909 (p.257, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.360); Pesta, 1920 (p.642, fig.); Farran, 1929 (p.290) ; Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.296, Rem.); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 290); Rose, 1929 (p.60); 1933 a (p.317, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.210); Farran, 1936 a (p.131); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.126, figs.F); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.109, figs.F,M); Wilson, 1942 a (p.206, fig.F); Chiba & al., 1957 a (p.12); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.566, 569, 584, figs.F,M, Rem.); Crisafi, 1966 (p.658, figs. Juv.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.103); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.116, figs.F,M); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.231, Rem.); Ramirez, 1971 (p.90, fig.M); Chen & al., 1974 (p.48, figs.F,M); Marques, 1976 (p.1004, fig.F); 1982 (p.774); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.123, figs.F,M); Baessa de Aguiar, 1986 (1989) (p.63, figs.F,M); Chae & Nishida, 1994 (p.205, 208, integumental structure, pattern color); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.990, Pl.230: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.230); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Conway & al., 2003 (p.240, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.381, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 1 de figures morphologiquesissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Revta Mus. La Plata, Seccion Zool., 1971, XI. [Lam.III, Fig.2].
Male (from off Mar del Plata): 2, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bar in mm: 1.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 2 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.12, Figs.1-4].
Female (from China Seas): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, A2.

Male: 3, posterior part of body; 4, terminal spines of endopodite segment 3 of P2.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 3 de figures morphologiquesissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.586, Fig.11].
Female (from Strait of Messina): A, habitus (dorsal); B, distal portion of A1.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 4 de figures morphologiquesissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.587, Fig.12].
Male: habitus (dorsal).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 5 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.125, Fig.77].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, caudal rami (dorsal); c, A1; d, A2; e, P2; f, endopod of P2; g, P4.

Male: h, habitus (dorsal); i, caudal rami (dorsal); j, A1; k, A2; l, P2; m, endopod of P2; n, P4.

Scale bars in mm.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 6 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J. Chae & S. Nishida in Mar. Biol., 1994 (119). [p.206, Fig.1].
Male: Transmission electron microscopy photographs.
A, sagittal section of dorsal integument, gaps of different sizes shown (arroheads)
B, sagittal section of dorsal integument at high magnification, showing multilayered-membrane structure.
C, frontal section of integument, showing honeycomb arrangement of dorso-ventrally oriented membrane and gaps (arrowheads).
D, frontal section of integument, showing honeycomb structure and borders of epidermal cells (arrowheads.

bl = basal lamina; c = cuticle; m = mitochondrion; n, nucleus.

Nota: Color observed with reflected (R ) and transmitted light (T): Monotonic violet, occasionally green/orange caudal rami (R); yellow, occasionally brown and orange (T).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 7 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J. Chae & S. Nishida in Mar. Biol., 1994 (119). [p.209, Fig.4).
Schematic representation of the structure of the dorsal integument male in Sapphirinidae. Membrane structures supporting the platelets not shown.
bl = basal lamina; cm = cell membrane; d, platelet diameter; e, epicuticule; m = mitochondrion; mls = multilayer structure; n, nucleus; p, procuticle; t = platelet thicness

Nota: Multilayered, hexagonal platelets exist in the dorsal epidermal cells of the male sapphirinids. The absence of platelets in the female is consistent with the fact that iridescence is observed only in the male and confirms that this structure is responsible for generating the iridescence. Iridescent, integumental structures with multilayered crystals have been well known in various animal taxa, such fishes, amphibians and reptiles, but we know of no other litterature referring to any such structures in the integument of Crustacea, although multilayer structures have been found in the nauplius eyse of copepods (Land, 1984, etc.) including Sapphirina sp. itself (Elofsson, 1969). The causal mechanism of structural colors in animals is explained by the theory of multiple thin-layer interfernce (for explanation p.209-210 in Chae & Nishida, 1994). The fact that only males iridesce, the specific differences in iridescent colors, and the well-developed eyes all suggests that iridescence of sapphirinids has a important role in mate finding, prsumably by the female (Heron, 1973).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 8 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.2].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 2, habitus (dorsal).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 9 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.10-12].
Female: 10, P4; 11, A1; 12, A2.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 10 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.69, Figs.1-5].
Female: 1, A2; 2, endopodite of P2; 3, habitus (dorsal); 4, A1; 5, P4.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 11 de figures morphologiquesissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.295, Fig.29, 3b].
Male: 3b, caudal ramus.
L = length; W = width


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 12 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.46].
Female: 46, habitus (dorsal).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 13 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.52, 54].
Female: 52, posterior body (dorsal); 54, Mx2 (posterior view).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 14 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Figs.4, 22].
Female: 4, A1; 22, Md (posterior view).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 15 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.34].
Female: 34, A2.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 16 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.56].
Female: 56, P4.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 17 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.34].
Female: 34, Mxp.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 18 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.64].
Female: 64, Mx1.


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 19 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.44].
Male: 44, habitus (dorsal).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 20 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.3].
Male: 3, P2 (endopod).


Espèce Sapphirina opalina - Planche 21 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.32-33].
Male: 32-33, Mxp.

Ref. compl.:
Thompson, 1888 d (p.149); Cleve, 1904 a (p.196); Carl, 1907 (p.18); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.43); Sewell, 1948 (p.346); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.323); Pucher, 1952 (p.102); Yamazi, 1958 (p.156, Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.47); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.10, 16); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.14); Deevey, 1971 (p.225); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.558); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Tranter, 1977 (p.596); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1045); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.42); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.108); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.93); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.3,4); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Mageed, 2006 (p.168, Table 4); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.525); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Jerez-Guerrero & al., 2017 (p.1046, Table 1: temporal occurrence); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 18

Carte de distribution de Sapphirina opalina par zones géographiques
Loc:
South Africa (E), Namibia, Angola, off Trindade Is., off S Ascension Is., G. of Guinea, Cape Verde Is., off NW Cape Verde, off Mauritania, Cap Ghir (Morocco), Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Argentina, S Brazil, Barbados Is., Caribbean Sea, Jamaica, Caribbean Colombia, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Medit. (Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, G. of Lion, Ligurian Sea, Napoli, Messina, Malta, N & S Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, W Egyptian coast, Lebanon Basin, Bardawill Lagoon), Red Sea, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Seychelles, Indian, India (Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, W Australia, Indonesia-Malaysia, Ambon Bay, Philippines, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan, Mienhua Canyon, Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, Kamchatka, Bering Sea, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), New Zealand, Bikini Is., Hawaii, Gulf of California, La Paz (Mexico), W Costa Rica, Central America, G. of Panama, Bahia Cupica (Colombia), Galapagos-Ecuador, Peru, Chili (N, Concepcion)
N: 111
Lg.:
(34) F: 3,3; M: 3,9; (35) [Atlant.] F: 2,45-2,35; M: 2,64-2,45; [N-Z] F: 3,9-2,94; M: 3,9-2,55; (46) F: 3,5-3; M: 3,35-3,15; (91) F: ± 3; (104) F: 3,25; M: 2,9; (109) F: 2,25-2,12; M: 2,85-2,7; (180) F: 2,59-2,5; M: 2,87; (332) F: 2,83; M: 2,96-2,33; (333) F: 2,62-1,61; (449) F: 3,5-2,2; M: 3,35-3,15; (458) F: 2,74; 2,64; M: 3,5-2,64; (530) F: 2; (705) F: 4,054-2,866; M: 4,337-3,3; (805) F: 3,59-1,2; M: 3,39-1,4; (866) F: 3,52-2,02; M: 4,04-2,68; (991) F: 1,4-3,39; M: 1,2-3,59; (1023) F: 2,3-3,26; M: 2,9-3,2; {F: 1,200-4,054; M: 1,200-4,340}
Rem.: Sapphirina opalina-darwini Lehnhofer,1929 (F,M)
Syn.: ? Sapphirina darwinii Haeckel, 1864 (p.105)
Ref.: Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.295, Rem., figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.316, Rem. F,M); Sewell, 1947 (p.267); 1948 (p.462); Marques, 1958 a (p.138); Björnberg, 1981 (p.671, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 972, figs.F,M); Ref. compl.: Mazza, 1966 (p.74); Binet & al., 1972 (p.71); Björnberg, 1973 (p.370, 389)
Loc.: Angola, Ivorian shelf, Rio de Janeiro, Médit., Mer Arabe, Is. Laquedives, Is. Maldives, Is. Nicobar (Nankauri Harbour), Chili N
N: 9
Lg.: (618) F: 2,64-2; M: 3,98-2,55; {F: 2,00-2,64; M: 2,55-3,98}
.
Lehnhofer (1929) estime que Sapphirina opalina et Sapphirina darwini correspondent à des variations de la même espèce. Position suivie par Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.653) qui ne retiennent que la dénomination de Sapphirina opalina
Voir aussi les remarques en anglais
Dernière mise à jour : 13/11/2020

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