Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Calanus ( Genus )
Calanus euxinus  Hulsemann, 1991   (F,M)
Syn.: Calanus finmarchicus pontica Karawaiew (= Karavaev); 1893 (p.3);
Calanus helgolandicus ponticus Jashnov, 1955 (p.1216, figs.F,M); Vucetic, 1965 (p.419, Tableau I: Rem.); Kovalev & al., 1975 (p.195, fig. caryotype); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.162); Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1987 (p.47, 75: Rem.);
Calanus ponticus : Vinogradov & Nalbandov, 1990 (p.769); Vinogradov & al., 1991 (p.447); Shushkina & Vinogradov, 1991 (p.719); Vinogradov & al., 1992 (p.447, vertical distribution-oxycline);
Calanus helgolandicus : ? Beldescu & al., 1956 (p.63, Table, Size-weight), Dimov, 1964 b (p.33, Tableau 1); Petipa, 1964 (p.470, fat metabolism); 1964 a (p.1440, feeding rhythm); 1965 (p.102, food selectibity); 1967 (p.44, production); Kovalev, 1969 (p.82, Table, fig.1, 2); Petipa & Makarova, 1969 (p.191, feeding); ? Vyshkvartzeva, 1972 a (p.165, fig.F); ? Minkina, 1983 (p.38, speed swimming); ? Petipa & Ostravskaya, 1984 (p.631, energy expenditure), Arashkevich & Drits, 1984 (p.247, feeding, fecal pellet length); 1984 a (p.513, ingestion rate v.s. food particle size); Musayeva, 1985 (tab.1); Vinogradov & al., 1985 (p.95); Svetlichny & Umanskaya, 1991 (p.566, respiration vs locomotion);
Ref.:
Hulsemann, 1991 (p.620, Rem.); Papadopoulos & al., 2005 (p.1353, phylogeography, molecular biology); Unal & al., 2006 (p.1961, genetic analysis, Rem., phylogeography); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, Rem: p.3, Table 1, 4, fig.2); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2014 (p.5: Rem.: problematic taxa).
Species Calanus euxinus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1477, Fig.28, I].
Female: I, urosome (left: ventral); right: dorsal). Pore signature schematic by pooled samples (symbols are considerably larger than pores): Filled circle: 100 % presence; open circle: 95-99 % presence; triangle: 50-89 % presence. n = 100 (percentages not differentiated).


Species Calanus euxinus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : N.V. Vyshkvartzeva in Issled. Fauny Moreï, 1972, 12 (20). [p.165, Fig.4, b]. As Calanus helgolandicus.
Femele Md (masticatory edge, lateral):


Species Calanus euxinus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : A.V. Bogorov in Gidrobiol. Zh., 1968 4 (3). [p.84, Fig.1].
Morphological characters of calanus helgolandicus during ontogenese copepodites I to V, Female (F) and male (M).
Nota: Probably as Calanus euxinus because the samples from Sebastopol (Black Sea).
Note the number of thoracic and urosomal segments for distinguish the different copepodids stages.

Compl. Ref.:
Selifonova, 2000 (p.68, tab.1); Shushkina & al., 2004 (p.524, tab.2); Mutlu, 2003 (p.517); Zagorodnyaya & al;, 2003 (p.52); Besiktepe & Telli, 2004 (p.571): Svetlichny & al., 2006 (p.52, oil sac volume vs habitat conditions); Isinibilir & al., 2008 (p.745: Tab.1, Rem.); Selifonova & al., 2008 (p.305, Tabl. 2); Shmeleva & al., 2008 (p.31, Table 1); Svetlichny & al., 2009 (p.199, development, growth); 2010 (p.127, Rem.: salinity tolerance); Isinibilir, 2010 (p.233, abundance %); Vogedes & al., 2010 (p.1471, lipid sac area vs lipid content); Castellani & al., 2011 (p.104: Rem.); Stefanova & al., 2012 (p.403, Table 2, interannual abundance); Pasternak & al., 2012 (p.377, feeding rate); Coolen & al., 2013 (p.8609, Rem.: 8612: gene indicator, fig.1 E); Svetlichny & al., 2016 (p.77, fig.8: respiration rate, Rem.); Record & al., 2018 (p.2238, Table 1: diapause);
NZ: 1

Distribution map of Calanus euxinus by geographical zones
Species Calanus euxinus - Distribution map 3issued from : A.V. Bogorov in Vest. Zool., 1969, 3. [p.83, Table].
Variations of morphologic characters during ontogenese of Calanus helgolandicus from Sebastopol (Black Sea).
A: Stages; B, Body length; C: Cephalothoracic length; D, maximal length of the cephalosome section; E: Maximal width of the cephalotorax; F: Urosome width; G: A1 length; H: Maximal width of the cephalosome (in % maximal width of the cephalothorax.
% : in % of body length.
Species Calanus euxinus - Distribution map 4Issued from : C.B. Miller in Biological Oceanography 2004/2005, Blackwell Publishing. [p.157, Table 7.1]. From Petipa, 1967.
Calanus helgolandicus (= Calanus euxinus) dominant zooplankters in the Black Sea. Data characterize the season of peak production. Mostly taken from Landry (1978): 28 mgC m-2 day-1.
Miller underlines the difficulties of the production estimations for single species, and virtually none for whole systems, but we would like to know how much food the oceans produces for animals we harvest like herring, anchovy, cod, and pollack. See Huntley & Lopez, 1992: model); Kleppel, Davis & Carter, 1996; Huntley, 1996; Hirst & Sheader, 1997; Hirst & Lampitt, 1998; Vidal, 1980.
Loc:
E Medit. (Marmara Sea, Black Sea, Black River estuary))
N: 37
Lg.:
(131) F: 3,8-3,1; M: 3,4-3,2; (1102) F: 3,209-3,171; M: 3,107-3,073; (1127) F: 3,1-3,6; M: 3,2-3,4; {F: 3,10-3,80; M: 3,20-3,40}.

After Beldescu & al. (1956, in The Black Sea), Lg: F = 3,3-4,7; weight F = 0,952-1,006 mg;
Rem.: After Unal & al. (2003, p.157, In : 3 rd International Zooplankton Production Symposium, 20-23 May, Gijon, Spain) the morphological and genetical differences are very weak between this species and Calanus helgolandicus.
For Isinibilir & al. (2009, p.403) the small-sized males and females in the Marmara Sea are actually not C. helgolandicus but Black Sea C. euxinus after accelerated development in an environment with higher temperature and salinity.
After Svetlichny & al. (2010, p.128) in the Marmara Sea, C. euxinus migrating vertically will experience prinounced salinity changes from 18 to 38.5 psu. Therefore, C. euxinus either adapted to living in a salinity gradient or is confined within a narrow brackish subsurface layer.
After Vucetic (1965) the number of teeth on coxopodite is for the females 24-26 (23-35), and 16-20 for males, and in C. helgolandicus var. ponticus (Yashnov, 1955) (= Calanus euxinus 24-29 (18-37) for females, and 11-21 for males.
Last update : 24/10/2020
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2022. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed May 17, 2022]

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