Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Calanus ( Genus )
Calanus sinicus  Brodsky, 1965   (F,M)
Syn.: Calanus pacificus Brodsky, 1948 (part.); 1950 (1967) (part., p.90, figs.F,M); Shen & Bai, 1956 (part., p.218, Pl.I: figs.1-3: F);
Calanus finmarchicus : Mori, 1929; Tanaka, 1956 (p.252, small forms); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution vs mixing Oyashio/Kuroshio region);
Calanus finmarchicus sinicus : Kun, 1969 (p.995, fig.F, Rem., chart);
Calanus pacificus japonicus : Yamada, 1971;
? Calanus syunpuensis Kurasige, 1931 (p.221, figs.F);
Calanus helgolandicus : Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.14, figs.F,M); ? Anraku & Azeta, 1965 (p.13, Table 2, fish predator)
Ref.:
Brodsky, 1962 a (p.1416, nomen nudum ); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.26, figs.F,M); Brodsky, 1965 (p.2, 5); 1972 (1975) (p.9, 66, 82, 118, figs.); Bradford & Jillett, 1974 (p.6); Jaschnov, 1975 (p.34, figs.F,M); Vyshkvartzeva, 1976 (p.14); 1977 a (p.97, figs.); Li & Fang, 1983 (p.110, figs.juv.); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.170, figs.F, M, Rem.); van der Spoel & Heyman, 1983 (p.62, fig.79); Bradford, 1988 (p.74, 76, Rem.); Nishida, 1989 (p.173, table 2, 3, dorsal hump); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.225, figs.F,M); Hirose & al., 1992 (p.186, egg, ultrastucture); Hulsemann, 1994 (p.1462, figs. F,M, Rem.); Bucklin & al., 1995 (p.658); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.739, Pl.67: F,M); Hill & al., 2001 (p.279, fig.2: phylogeny); Tan & al., 2003 (p.87, Rem.: molecular biology); Nishida & Nonomura, 2011 (p.801, figs. F, Rem.: caudal exocrine glands); Minxiao & al., 2011 (p.1, mitochondrial genome, phylogeneticrelationship); Kozol & al., 2012 (p.1, genetic analysis, Rem.); Zhang H. & al., 2013 (p.57, RNA-extraction method); Kim S. & al., 2013 (p.64, fig.3: mitochondrial genome); Ning & al., 2013 (p.1, transcriptome sequencing); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2014 (p.5: Rem.: problematic taxa)
Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.1, 1-7].
Female (from E China Sea): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral right side); 3, P5 (posterior); 4, serrate inner margin of 1st basipod of P5.

Male: 5, urosome (dorsal); 6, P5 (posterior); 7, distal segment of exopod of left P5.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1463, Fig.1].
Female: (from NW Pacific): 1, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bar = 0.5 mm.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1464, Fig.3].
Female: (from NW Pacific): 2, habitus (lateral).
Scale bar = 0.5 mm.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1466, Fig.9].
Female: (from NW Pacific): 9, forehead (lateral).
Scale bar = 0.2 mm.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1467, Figs.11, 13].
Female: (from NW Pacific): 11, genital segment (ventral); 13, idem (lateral).


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1476, Figs.22-24].
Female: (from NW Pacific), schematic, showing sites of integumental organs: 22, urosome (dorsal); 23, idem (lateral); 24, idem (ventral).
Filled circle: 100 % presence; open circle: 95-99 % presence; triangle: 40-49 % presence; dot: 30 % or less presence. n = 53.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1465, Fig.5].
Male: (from NW Pacific): 5, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bar = 0.5 mm.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1466, Fig.7].
Male: (from NW Pacific): 7, habitus (lateral.
Scale bar = 0.5 mm.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1468, Fig.15].
Male: (from NW Pacific): 15, P5 (posterior).
Scale bar = 0.2 mm.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1471, Fig.17].
length of 1st basal segment of right P5 (bB1P5) plotted against prosome (P) length of males of Calanus sinicus (open circles) and C. jashnovi (filled circles). n = 23.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1470, Table 2]. Number of teeth on inner margin of 1st basipodal segment of P5 males of Pacific and southern Calanus species.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.1, Figs.1-9]. As . After Hulsemann, 1994 (p.1462).
Female: 1, habitus (lateral); 3, idem (dorsal); 6, P5; 7, P1; 8, P2; 9, P3.

Male: 2, habitus (lateral); 4, idem (dorsal); 5, P5.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.2, Figs.1-8]. As Calanus helgolandicus. After Hulsemann, 1994 (p.1462).
Female: 1, P4; 2, A2; 3, Md; 4, Mx1; 5, urosome (ventral); 6, Mx2; 7, head (lateral); 8, Mxp.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : S. Ohtsuka & R. Huys in Hydrobiologia, 2001, 453/454. [p.451, Fig.6].
Female (from Japan): A, pedigers 2-5, lateral, dorsolateral patch of minute ridges arrowed (not clearly seen in pedigers 4 and 5, but similar patches present); B, dorsolateral patch of minute ridges on pediger 3; C, magnification of dorsolateral ridges.
Scale bars: 0.1 mm (A, B); 0.001 mm (C).


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : S. Ohtsuka & R. Huys in Hydrobiologia, 2001, 453/454. [p.452, Fig.7, A].
Male (from Japan): A, terminal exopodal segment of left P5.
Scale bar 0.1 m.

Nota: The male may scrape off an empty spermatophore, and the terminal serrated and ridged processes on the 2nd exopodal segment of left P5, compensate for the loss of the female P5.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : S. Nishida & T. Nonomura in J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 2011, 91 (4). [p.801, fig.1, B, D; 802, fig.2].
Female (adult from Sagami Bay): Fig.1 (above); B, posterior urosomal somites and caudal rami (dorsal), showing inner and outer glands, granules in inner gland (gr) and discharged granules (dgr); D, anal segment and caudal rami (ventral), showing pores of inner gland (black arrows) and outer gland (white arrows). Fig. (below): abdominal somites and caudal rami (lateral), showing granules in inner gland and discharged granules (dgr). Lines indicate locations of cross-section for histological analysis (see in publication fig.3).
Light microscopy in Fig.1 B; Scanning electron microscopy photograph in D and fig.2.
Nota: The mechanical disturbance of the live specimens kept in seawater failled to excite luminescence from the copepods. No autofluorescence was observed from the caudal glands of live specimens under UV excitation. Alternative possible functions include secretion of defensive substances (predator avoidance) or substances that might enhance swarm formation and/or the possible functions of the glands for egg and sex pheromone. A survey of preserved copepod collections indicated presence of similar glands in others species in Calanus, Cosmocalanus, Mesocalanus and Nannocalanus genera.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : H. Toda & E. Hirose Scanning electron micrographs of two types of Calanus sinicus eggs.
E-G: egg A-type; F-H: egg B-type.

Nota: Egg A-type:(diameter: average 0.175 mm, range = 0.157-0.187, C/N ratio : 4.6). Egg B-type: diameter: 0.165 mm, range = 0.158-0.173, C/N ratio: 5.10.
Both types of eggs started to develop immediately after release, and hatched into nauplii within one day;
A-type eggs observed were similar to the eggs of Calanus from Troms reported by marshall & Orr (1955), whereas B-type eggs resembled those of calanus helgolandicus. The bulky blister observed in A-type eggs would correspond to the outer membrane mentioned in their book.. No intermediate form of eggs between these two types appear.


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Hirose, H. Toda, Y. Saito & H. Watanabe in J. Crustacean Biol., 1992, 12 (2). [p.187, Fig.1]
Fertilization envelope in the embryo of Calanus sinicus (from 3437'N, 13857'E).
1A: blastula embryo with fully developed envelope (phase contrast); 1B: developing blister (SEM); 1C: developed blister (SEM).
Scale bar = 50 .


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : M. Sano, K. Maki, Y. Nishibe, T. Nagata & S. Nishida in Progr. Oceanogr., 2013, 110. [p.19, Figs. 8 i, 9 i].
Second maxilla (Mx2) and maxilliped (Mxp) for Calanus sinicus from Sagami Bay (Japan) in April 2009.
Scale bars: Mx2 & Mxp = 200 m.

Compare appendage structure and setal armement with Euchirella rostrata, Undeuchaeta major, Chirundina streetsii, Scaphocalanus echinatus, Spinocalanus magnus, Scottocalanus securifrons, Pleuromamma xiphias for interpreted particles catching..


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodsky, N.V. Vyshkvartzeva, M.S. Kos & E.L. Markhaseva in Opred. Faune SSSR, 1983, 135. [p.172, Fig.75].
Female and male (after Brodsky, 1965 and 1972).


Species Calanus sinicus - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodsky, N.V. Vyshkvartzeva, M.S. Kos & E.L. Markhaseva in Opred. Faune SSSR, 1983, 135. [p.173, Fig.75 (continuation)].
Female and male.

Compl. Ref.:
Brodsky, 1972 (p.256); Omori, 1978 a (p.261, Table 1, 2, 3: chemical composition); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.794); Hirota, 1981 (p.19, Table 1, length-weight-CHN); Uye S-i., 1982 (p.149, relation length-weight-C-N); Lin & Li, 1984 (p.111, annual cycle); McLaren & al., 1988 (p.275, Table 3: DNA content), Uye, 1988 (p.285, temperature v.s. growth, development); Wang X; & al., 1988 (p.173, length-weight-CHN contents); Gigure & al., 1989 (p.522, Table 1, formaldehyde preservation); Uye & al. 1990 (p.389, ontogenic vertical migration); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Hirakawa, 1991 (p.373); Toda & Hirose, 1991 (p.613, figs. eggs, ultrastructure); Dai & al., 1991 (p.47, tab.1); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table A1, egg-adult weight, temperature-dependent production); He & al., 1992 (p.250); Hwang & Choi, 1993 (tab.3); Huang & al., 1993 (p.1229); Huang & al., 1993 a (p.289, ontogenic diel vertical migration); Myung & al., 1994 (tab.1); Uye & Kaname, 1994 (p.43, length vs. fecal pellet volume); Hirakawa & al., 1995 (tab.2); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.68); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Mauchline, 1998 (p.506); Hwang & al., 1998 (tab.II); Hsieh & Chiu, 1998 (tab.2); Wong & al, 1998 (tab.2); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Dolganova & al., 1999 (p.13, tab.1); Uye, 2000 (p.1850, distribution); Huggett & Richardson, 2000 (p.1843, tab.2); Hunt & al., 2001 (p.374, tab.1, 2); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Wang & al., 2003 (p.169, occurrence vs. hydrological condition); Liu & al., 2003 (p.291, abundance vs. tidal front); Hsieh & al. 2004 (p.396, tab. 1, p.399, tab.2); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1, tab.2); Kang & al., 2004 (p.1525); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); C. Li & al., 2004 (p.149, feeding, respiration); Pu & al., 2004 (p.1, effects temperature, food supply); Pu & al., 2004 (p.1059, life history); Wang & Zuo, 2004 (p.1, Table 2, dominance, origin); Yoshida & al., 2004 (p. 505, vertical migration vs light intensity ); Shimode & al., 2005 (p.113 + poster); Zhang G.-T. & al., 2005 (p.135, seasonal reproduction vs. body size); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.162: tab.1); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tab.I); Zhang W & al., 2006 (p.553, Table 2, grazing rates); Wang M.-h & al., 2007 (p.679, trophic transfer); Zhang G.-T. & al., 2007 (p.179, reproduction); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Kang J.-H. & al., 2007 (p.82, fig.2, temporal variation vs. temperature & predation effect); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 4, 5); Zuo & al., 2008 (p.1174, figs.3, 4); Huo Y.-Z. & al., 2008 (p.723, feeding, egg production); Yoshiki & al., 2008 (p.97, nauplius vs pressure); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations, Table 2: indicator species, Rem.: p.71); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.153, Table 2, fig.5, occurrence vs geographic distribution, indicator species); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.46, table 2, abundance vs moonsons, table 3: indicator species); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Zhang W & al., 2009 (p.261, table 2); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); Jiang Z.-B. & al., 2009 (p.196, Table 1, 2); Hwang & al., 2009 (p.49, fig.4, 5); Zhang G.-T. & al., 2010 (p.492, Table 1, 2); Sun & al., 2010 (p.1006, Table 2); Chen M.-R. & al., 2010 (p.851, feeding); Zhang G.-T. & Wong, 2011 (p.277, fig.7, indicator); Zhaoli & al., 2011 (p.84, interannual abundance); Chen H; & al., 2011 (p.84, spatial & temporal variations); Itoh & al., 2011 (p.129, vertical distribution); Zhang D. & al., 2011 (p.86, pH effects); Yin & al., 2011 (p.1447, abundance vs distribution & season); Gao X. & al., 2011 (p.591, p.597: occurrence); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, fig.9, table 2, abundance vs spatial distribution; indicator); Yoshiki & al., 2011 (p.63, egg production, development vs pressure); K & Hwang, 2011 (p.155, Table 3: occurrence %); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.317, Table 2, 3, fig.6, indicator of seasonal change); Beltrao & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 1, 3, density vs time); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Chen M.-R. & al., 2012 (p.14, behaviour vs food & light); Huo & al., 2012 (p.1, Table 1: dominance); Lee D.B. & al., 2012 (p.88, co-occurrence, abundance, feeding); Youn & al., 2012 (p.33, seasonal composition); Lee J. & al., 2012 (p.95, Table 2: abundance, annual & seasonal distribution); Jang M.-C & al., 2012 (p.37, abundance and seasonal distribution); Moon & al., 2012 (p.1, Table 1); Li C. & al., 2013 (p.101, feeding); Ning & al., 2013 (p.109, RNA:DNA ratios, distibution geographic); Tachibana & al., 2013 (p.545, Table 1, seasonal change 2006-2008); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker); Sano & al., 2013 (p.11, Table 2, figs.5, 8, 9, feeding habits, vertical distribution); Suzuki, K.W. & al., 2013 (p.15, Table 2, 3, 4, estuaries, annual occurrence); Seo & al., 2013 (p.448, Table 1, occurrence); Park E.-O. & al., 2013 (p.165, Fig.5, distribution vs stations); Oh H-J. & al., 2013 (p.192, Table 1, occurrence); Wiacek & al., 2013 (p.78, protein vs environmental changes); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance)
NZ: 3

Distribution map of Calanus sinicus by geographical zones
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 2issued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1473, Table 3].
Seasonal occurrence of in NW Pacific Ocean.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 3issued from : K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1474, Fig.18]
Distribution of calanus sinicus (unshaded) and C. jashnovi (shaded) in the NW Pacific Ocean. Type localities of C. sinicus (1) and C. jashnovi (2).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 4issued from : C. Huang, S. Uye & T. Onb in J. Plankton Res., 1993, 15 (11). [p.1234, Fig.3].
Monthly change in geographical distribution of copepodites and adults in Kii Channel and its neighboring waters (Inland Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean).
Nota: In the Inland Sea of Japan, this species is the second most important component following Paracalanus sp. in terms of biomass and production (see in Uye & al., 1986). The species occurred throughout the year in the study area. This means that the reproduction takes place continuously and the population is devoid of diapause in the seasonal life cycle. This species is regarded as one of the most important components of zooplankton in the shelf waters by virtue of its enormous abundance and large body size, and plays a significant role in the conversion of primary production into diet for carnivores, including fishes.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 5issued from : C. Huang, S. Uye & T. Onb in J. Plankton Res., 1993, 15 (11). [p.1235, Fig.3 continued].
Monthly change in geographical distribution of copepodites and adults in Kii Channel and its neighboring waters (Inland Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 6issued from : C. Huang, S. Uye & T. Onb in J. Plankton Res., 1993, 15 (11). [p.1236, Fig.3 continued].
Monthly change in geographical distribution of copepodites and adults in Kii Channel and its neighboring waters (Inland Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 7issued from : Y. Lin & S. Li in J. Xiamen Univ. (Nat. Sci.), 1984, 23 (1). [p.112, Fig.1].
Life cycle of Calanus sinicus at Xiamen Harbour (2426'N, 11810'E).
A: Annual abundance of different life stages from nauplius to adults. N = number per cubic meter.
B: percentage of different life stages, naumlius (N) copepodids and adults.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 8issued from : Y. Lin & S. Li in J. Xiamen Univ. (Nat. Sci.), 1984, 23 (1). [p.114, Fig.3].
Annual cycle of temperature (T C), different classes of size of prosome of adult females (D), prosome mean lengths of adult females (Lg) at Xiamen Harbour during November 1979 to June 1980.

Nota: It is concuded from analysis of the age composition, adult sexual ratio and female cephalothorax lengths that there is three main breeding periods, i-e 3 generations in the harbour (Dec.-mid-Feb., end of Mar.-Apr. and Mid-May, respectively.
The first generation was reproduced by the immigrating population in the coastal current in winter, the 2nd generation was produced by the previous generation in spring and the 3rd generation's nauplii disappeared at the begining of June.
Water temperature (T) seems to be dominant factor affecting generation lengths and female cephalothorax lengths (Lg). A negative relationship was found between T & Lg. Lg = - 0.0666 T + 3.3718 with r = - 0.8764.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 9Issued from : R. Wang, T. Zuo & K.E. Wang in J. Plankton Res., 2003, 25 (2). [p.170, Fig.1].
Seasonal variation in abundance of C. sinicus in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea [redrawn from Anon, 1977].
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 10Issued from : M. Sano, K. Maki, Y. Nishibe, T. Nagata & S. Nishida in Progr. Oceanogr., 2013, 110. [p.20, Fig.10].
Vertical distribution of eight copepod species across 0-1000 m in Sagami bay in 21-27 April 2009.
White and black boxes denote daytime and nighttime distributions. Scaphocalanus echinatus is taken from Kuriyama & Nishida (2006).
Plankton and water samples collected from a fixed station (3500'N, 13920'E) using MTD horizontal closing nets (0.33 mm mesh aperture) at 15 depths (0, 50, 95, 100, 150, 195, 200, 295, 300, 395, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000 m) during both day and night.

Atomic C:N ratio (mean SD) = 5.6 0.4, n = 3.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 11Issued from : D. Zhang, S. Li, G. Wang & D. Guo in Acta Oceanol. Sin., 2011, 30 (6). [p.89, Fig. 1 a].
Influence of seawater acidification on survival rate in Calanus sinicus.
Average pH of each pCO2 seawater culture. Control (380) 8.16-8.17; (800) : 7.84-7.85; (2000): 7.39-7.37; (5000): 7.19-7.24; (10 000): 6.92-6.94.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 12Issued from : D. Zhang, S. Li, G. Wang & D. Guo in Acta Oceanol. Sin., 2011, 30 (6). [p.90, Fig. 2 a].
Influence of seawater acidification on egg producton rate in Calanus sinicus.
Average pH of each pCO2 seawater culture. Control (380) 8.16-8.17; (800) : 7.84-7.85; (2000): 7.39-7.37; (5000): 7.19-7.24; (10 000): 6.92-6.94.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 13Issued from : J. Yin, L. Huang, K. Li, S. Lian, C. Li & Q. Lin in Continental Shelf Res., 2011, 31. [p.1453, Fig.8].
Abundance distribution of Calanus sinicus (ind. m3) in the northwest continental shelf between Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula (South China). a- spring; b- summer; c- autumn; d- winter.
C. sinicus was identified to the level of the copepodites stages of CIV and CV and adults.

Nota: C. sinicus made up 34.28% and 12.34% of all copepods in spring and summer, respectively
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 14Issued from : J. Yin, L. Huang, K. Li, S. Lian, C. Li & Q. Lin in Continental Shelf Res., 2011, 31. [p.1454, Fig.10].
Abundance of Calanus sinicus in relation to surface temperature (a) and salinity (b).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 15Issued from : M.-R. Chen, S. K & H.-S. Hwang in Crustaceana, 2010, 83 (7). [p.855, Fig.1].
Gut fullness of copepodites (CV), females and males of Calanus sinicus in the morning (10:00 AM), afternoon (4:00 PM), and at midnight (00:00 AM) in northern coastal waters of Taiwan during the northeast monsoon.
Error bar shows SD.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 16Issued from : M.-R. Chen, S. K & H.-S. Hwang in Crustaceana, 2010, 83 (7). [p.855, Fig.2].
Total food composition of copepodites (CV), females and males of Calanus sinicus in northern coastal waters of Taiwan during the northeast monsoon.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 17Issued from : M.-R. Chen, S. K & H.-S. Hwang in Crustaceana, 2010, 83 (7). [p.858, Fig.4].
Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of gut contents of Calanus sinicus showing: a, fragments of Thalassiothrix sp. (pennate diatom); b, spins of Chaetoceros spp. (centric diatom); c, Delphineis surirella (pennate diatom); d, Coscinodiscus sp. (centric diatom); e, Thalassiosira sp. (small centric diatom).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 18Issued from : M.-R. Chen, S. K & H.-S. Hwang in Crustaceana, 2010, 83 (7). [p.859, Fig.5].
Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of gut contents of Calanus sinicus showing: a, fragment of a dinoflagellate; b, Bacillus; c, fragment of a coccolith; d, spins of the protozoan, Sticholonche zanclea.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 19Issued from : T. Yoshiki, T. Ono, A. Shimizu & T. Toda in Mar. Ecol. Orog. Ser., 2011, 430. [p.69, Fig.5 a].
Depth ranges experienced during early life stages (from egg to nauplius; dotted line).

Nota: Yoshiki & al. (2006) previously examined the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the egg development time and hatching success of calanus sinicus. Although egg development time was not influenced by hydrostatic pressure, the egg hatching success rate decreased with increasing pressure. Unhatched eggs were still alive after being removed from the pressure chamber after exposure to elevated pressure, and they subsequently died without hatching even though nauplii had formed in the eggs. Also, even when eggs hatched under high-pressure conditions, most nauplii showed abnormalities (Yoshiki & al., 2006; 2008).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 20Issued from : T. Yoshiki, T. Toda, T. Yoshida & A. Shimizu in J. Plankton Res., 2006. [p.567, Fig. 5].
Hatching success of em eggs. [Adult females collected off the coast of Manazuru Peninsula (3509'55''N: 13910'78''E)].

Nota: The hatching success of C. sinicus eggs at 1 arm was generally higher than 80% within the temperature range from 5 to 25C. Under higher pressure conditions at 10, 50 , and 100 atm, the hatching successes ranged from 0 to 55, from 0 to 36, and from 0 to 21%, respectively. Highly significant decreases in egg hatching success occurred as pressure increased.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 21Issued from : T. Yoshiki, T. Toda, T. Yoshida & A. Shimizu in J. Plankton Res., 2006. [p.567, Fig. 4].
Egg development time of Calanus sinicus under high-pressure conditions compared with atmospheric pressure.

Nota: At atmospheric prssure, the egg development time obtained was fitted to the Belehrdek's function asindicated in Fig. 4, d), where D is the development time (days) and T is the temperature in C.
The egg development times under different experimental pressure conditions (10, 50, and 100 atm) were similar to that at 1 atm (Fig.4 d).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 22Issued from : T. Yoshiki, T. Toda, T. Yoshida & A. Shimizu in J. Plankton Res., 2006. [p.565, Table I].
Experimental number of eggs, hatched eggs, and hatching success of Calanus sinicus at various temperature and pressure conditions.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 23Issued from : T. Yoshiki, T. Toda, T. Yoshida & A. Shimizu in J. Plankton Res., 2006. [p.566, Fig. 3].
Experimental rate of pressure increase and egg sinking rate of Calanus sinicus.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 24Issued from : T. Yoshiki, T. Toda, T. Yoshida & A. Shimizu in J. Plankton Res., 2006. [p.567, Table II].
Two-way ANOVA without replication.

Nota: The hatching success of C. sinicus eggs at 1 atm was generally higher than 80 % within the temperature range from 5 to 25 C. Under higher pressure conditions at 10, 50 and 100 atm, the hatching success ranged from 0 to 55, from 0 to 36, and from 0 to 21 %, respectively. Highly significant decreases in egg-hatching success of C. sinicus occurred as pressure increased.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 25Issued from : T. Yoshiki, B. Yamanoha, T. Kikuchi, A. Shimizu & T. Toda in Mar. Biol., 2008, 156. [p.101, Fig.2].
Egg hatching successes of Calanus sinicus.
Eggs were incubated at 10 atm/min (a) and 0.1 atm/min (b) pressurizing rate.
Control experiments were conduced at 1 atm. B Blastula stage and L Limb-bud stage before hatch.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 26Issued from : T. Yoshiki, B. Yamanoha, T. Kikuchi, A. Shimizu & T. Toda in Mar. Biol., 2008, 156. [p.101, Fig.3].
Deformity frequency of calanus sinicus eggs.
Eggs were incubated at 10 atm increased by 10 atm/min (a) and 0.1 atm/min (b)
Control experiments were conduced at 1 atm.
B Blastula stage and L Limb-bud stage before hatch.
0 Deformation was not observed.
* P < 0.05; there was significant difference statistically between 16-cell stages of two pressurizing rates.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 27Issued from : T. Yoshiki, B. Yamanoha, T. Kikuchi, A. Shimizu & T. Toda in Mar. Biol., 2008, 156. [p.104, Table 4].
Egg development time and egg sinking rate of three Calanus species.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 28Issued from : S.-H. Hsiao, S. K, T.-H. Fang & J.-S. Hwang inHydrobiologia, 2011, 666. [p.326, Fig.6].
Variations in the most abundant copepod species (mean SE) along the transect in the boundary waters between the northern part Taiwan Strait and the East China Sea in March (black bar) and October (grey bar) 2005 (Mann-Whitney U test, sig. ***P <0.001.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 29Issued from : S.-H. Hsiao, S. K, T.-H. Fang & J.-S. Hwang inHydrobiologia, 2011, 666. [p.321, Fig.2].
Monthly average sea surface chlorophyll a and temperatures (SSTs) derived from averages hourly recordings (AVHRRs) in March and October 2005.
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 30Issued from : S.-H. Hsiao, S. K, T.-H. Fang & J.-S. Hwang inHydrobiologia, 2011, 666. [p.319, Fig.1].
Schematic showing the Taiwan Strait circulation in a winter, b spring, c summer and d fall, after Jan & al. (2002).
Species Calanus sinicus - Distribution map 31Issued from : H. Saito & A. Tsuda in Deep-Sea Res. I, 47. [p.2146, Table I].
Egg diameter, carbon contents and prosome length (PL) of females of Calanus sinicus after Uye, 1988 and pers. comm.
Nota: Compare with N. cristatus and N. flemingeri and others species in genus Calanus.
Loc:
Gulf of Tonkin, China Seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Hong Kong, Changjian River estuary, Xiamen Harbour, Jiaozhou Bay), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (W, SW, NW, N, NE, off Danshuei River), Okinawa, Korea (W, S & E, Chunsu Bay, Asan Bay, Seomjin estuary, Yongsan River estuary Muan Bay), Geumo Is., Korea Strait, Japan Sea, Tsushima Straits, Japan (Ariake Bay, Kuchinoerabu Is., Nagasaki, Sagami Bay, Tokyo Bay, Inland Sea, Shimoda, Fukuyama, Kii Channel, Suruga Bay, Seonaikai, south estuaries), off SE Japan, E Kuril Is.
N: 110
Lg.:
(125) F: 3,1-2,38; M: 2,8-2,45; (126) F: 3,6-2,15; M: 3,5-2,07; (131) F: 3,2-2,15; M: 3-2,7; (290) F: 3,5-2,7; M: 3,5-2,6; (866) F: 2,1-3,3; M: 2-3,5; {F: 2,10-3,60; M: 2,00-3,50}

The mean female size is 2.818 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.5914), and the mean male size is 2.812 (n = 10; SD = 0.5631). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.999 (n = 5; SD = 0.0435).
Rem.: For Hulsemann (1994, p.1468-1469) the type specimens of C. syunpuensis are no available for re-examination. Thus conspecificity with C. sinicus cannot be proven. Consequently, it is proposed that C. sympuensis Kurasige, 1931, be treated as a nomen dubium. the species of Kurasige are stage V copepodids. However, in the description of C. syunpuensis the body length is given as 4-5.5 mm. This length is twice that reported for stage V copepodids of C. sinicus, which range between 2.10 and 2.70. If the length stated by Kurasige were due to an error in scale, the two species would be considered conspecific.
For Hulsemann (1994, p.1469) this species resembles C. jashnovi , but differs in several features: 1- Total length; 2- Length of A1; in C. sinicus females A1 reaches the end of the caudal rami of 2 segments beyond; that of C. jashnovi females reaches only to the distal end of urosomal segment 3; 3- The forehead of C. sinicus is somewhat higher and more narrowly vaulted than that of C. jashnovi, which is recognisable in lateral and dorsal view; 4 - In dorsal view the genital segment of females of C. sinicus is about as long as wide (length : width ratio 0.93-1.07, mean = 1.00; in C. jashnovi it strongly bulges laterally and is slightly wider than long (length : width ratio 0.84-0.92, mean 0.88); the orientation of the spermathecae is nearly horizontal and they appear relatively elongate in ventral view in C. sinicus; 5- Differences in the number of integumental perforations are found in the genital and the 2nd urosomal segment of females; one mid-dorsal site on both is typically present in C. jashnovi, but lacking in C. sinicus; 6- In the left P5 males, the 1st and 2nd exopodal segments of C. jashnovi are relatively wider than in C. sinicus; The relative length of the 1st basal segment of the right P5 of C. jashnovi is slightly shorter than in C. sinicus when compared to the prosome length (see fig.17). The number of teeth on the inner margin of the 1st basipodal segment in the male P5 reflects the geographical division of Pacific and southern members of Calanus s. str. (Table 2); the populations of C. pacificus show the highest number of teeth, those of C. sinicus and C. jashnovi show an intermediate number, and the southern species show the lowest numbers of teeth.
See Remarks in Calanus agulhensis after Cheng F. & al. (2013, p.125).
After Yin & al. (2011, p.1451) C. sinicus prefers warm temperatures and is one of the most dominant species in the inshore waters of both the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. It may be transported northeasterly to both the east and west coasts of Honshu in Japan or southerly to the north coastal waters of the South China Sea (SCS). Throughout the year, C. sinicus was distributed in the northern and central regions of the Taiwan Strait and its connected northern seas. The species appears seasonally in south of the Taiwan Strait and its connected southern seas and is occasionally transported by coastal currents from the East China Sea during winter and spring. C. sinicus has been considered a biological indicator of the coastal current
Last update : 16/10/2018
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