Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Undinula ( Genus )
Undinula vulgaris  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)
Syn.: Undina vulgaris Dana, 1849; 1852; Brady, 1883 (p.53, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.44); King & Hida, 1955 (p.11);
Calanus vulgaris : Giesbrecht, 1888; 1892 (p.92, 129, 770, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.17, Rem. F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.232, 242); Cleve, 1904 a (p.186); Carl, 1907 (p.16); Willey, 1919 (p.185); Farran, 1929 (p.207, 216); Mori, 1929 (p.168, figs.F); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.204); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.19, figs.F,M); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.306); 1957 a (p.11); Delalo, 1968 (p.137); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2);
Calanus vulgaris plumosus Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.994, figs.F);
Calanus orientalis Marukawa, 1908;
Stephos perplexus C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.341, figs.M)
Ref.:
A. Scott, 1909 (p.16); Sewell, 1912 (p.353, 356: Rem.); 1914 a (p.196, figs.F, Rem.: 3 var.); Früchtl, 1924 b (p.33); Sars, 1925 (p.10); Rose, 1929 (p.9); Sewell, 1929 (p.31, figs.F, juv., Rem.: 2 forms); Wilson, 1932 a (p.29, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.77); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.89, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.7); Vervoort, 1946 (p.72, fig.F, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.20); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.350, fig.M); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.138); Tanaka, 1956 (p.265); 1960 (p.20, Rem.); Fish, 1962 (p.6); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.104, figs.F,M); Cervigon, 1962 (p.181, tables: abundance distribution); Grice, 1962 (p.178, Rem.); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.83, Rem.); Paiva, 1963 (p.14, figs.F); Gaudy, 1963 (p.19, Rem.); Björnberg, 1963 (p.15, figs.F, Juv., Rem.); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.13, figs.F,M); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.31, figs.F,M); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.75); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.32, figs.F,M); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.78); Koga, 1968 (p.17, fig.: egg); Tanaka, 1969 (p.255, Rem.); Shih & al., 1971 (p.37); Ramirez, 1971 (p.83, figs.F,M); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.73, 90, 120, fig.M); Grice, 1972 (p.178, figs.F,M); Kos, 1972 (Vol.I, figs.F,M, Rem.); Marques, 1973 (p.234); Heinrich, 1973 (p.95); Bradford & Jillett, 1974 (p.6, figs.F,M); Marques, 1974 (p.11); 1976 (p.986); Greenwood, 1976 (p.8, fg.F); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.618, figs.F,M); Fleminger, 1985 (p.276, 285, Table 1, 4, fig.M, Rem.: A1); 1986 (p.92, 94, 95, figs.F, Rem.: spéciation); Baessa de Aguiar, 1987 (p.39, figs.F,M); Bradford, 1988 (p.74, 76, Rem.); Nishida, 1989 (p.173, table 2, no M dorsal hump); Blades-Eckelbarger, 1991 (p.250, figs.M,F); He & al., 1992 (p.250); Renon, 1993 (p.239); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.44, figs.F, M, fig. 98); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.739, Pl.64: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.877, 907, figs.F,M); Bucklin & al., 2003 (p.335, tab.2, fig. 4, Biomol.); Conway & al., 2003 (p.151, figs.F,M, Rem.); G. Harding, 2004 (p.5, 33 figs.F, M); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.81: fig.F); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.8, 17, figs.F,M, Rem.); Conway, 2006 (p.9: copepodite stages 1-6, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.905, figs.F,M, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.114, figs.F,M); Lacuna & al., 2013 (p.70, Figs.F,M, Rem.); Fornshell & Ferrari, 2014 (p.101, fig.1: Von Vaupel Klein"s organ)
Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.45, Fig.18];
Female: A, habitus (lateral left side); B, P2; C, P5.
Nota: Only one specimen of the typical form was taken from N Tasman Sea.

Nota: Posterior corners of prosome pointed. Exopodite 2 of P2 with outer proximal edge invaginate.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in Crustaceana, 1974, 27 (1). [p.14, Fig.2,E,K].
Female: E, P2.

Male: K, P5 (L = left, R = right).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.3, 12].
Female (from E China Sea): 12, habitus (dorsal).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.4, 1-5].
Female: 1, habitus (lateral right side); 2, postero-lateral angles of last thoracic segment (lateral left side); 3, P2 (anterior).

Male: 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, P5 (anterior).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Revta Mus. La Plata, Seccion Zool., 1971, XI. [Lam.I, Figs.1,3, 4, 5].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 1, habitus (dorsal); 3, posterior part cephalothorax and genital segment (lateral left side).

Male: 4, P5; 5, habitus (dorsal).

Scale bars in mm: 0.5 (1, 5); 0.1 (3, 4);


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : J.G. Greenwood in Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 1976, 87. [p.9, Fig.3, e]. As Undinula vulgaris forma typica.
Female (from Moreton Bay, E Australia): e, posterior metasomal segment and urosome (lateral left side).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : J.G. Greenwood in Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 1976, 87. [p.9, Fig.3, f]. As Undinula vulgaris forma gisebrechti.
Female (from Moreton Bay, E Australia): posterior metasomal segment and urosome (lateral left side).
Nota: Variety in which last metasomal segment of female with spine on left side is doubled by addition of a ventrally directed spine. Both varieties were represented in Moreton Bay specimens. There was no evidence of two size classes as noted in other regions (see Sewell, 1929; Tanaka, 1960).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Spolia Zeylanica, 1914, 9. [Pl.XVII, Figs.1-2.
Female (from Gulf of Mannar): 1, left posterior thoracic margin (lateral view); 2, idem (dorsal view).]


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.8, Fig.35]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Male: 35, P5 (anterior surface).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1929, X. [p.37, Fig.8].
Female (from Nicobar Is.): a, posterior thoracic margin and urosome , lateral left side (forma minor); b, idem (forma major); c, P2 (forma minor); d, idem (forma major); e, P5 abnormal (hermaphrodite form).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.6, Figs.1-3]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Female: 2, P5; 3, habitus (lateral).

Male: 1, habitus (lateral).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.5, Figs.13-14]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Female: 13, P2; 14, P3.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mauchline in J. mar. biol. Ass, U.K., 1977, 57 (4). [p.980, Fig.4, A].
A, Integumental organs on fused 4th and 5th thoracic segments.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 14 of morphological figures issued from : R. Gaudy in Rec.Trav. Stn mar. Endoume, 1963, 45, Bull. 30 (45). [p.40, Pl.I,, Figs.1-2].
Female (from N-S Brazil): 1, urosme (with anomalies of caudal ramus seta); 2, caudal ramus with anomalies of setae.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. III, Figs. 16-19, 24]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 16, last thoracic and 1st-2nd abdominal segments; 17, P2; 18, P3; 19, last thoracic and 1st abdominal segment; 24, P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IV, Fig.2]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Male: 2, P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1985, 88. [p.284, Fig.6 A].
Male (from Atlantic tropical): Left A1 proximal segments (ventral view);
Nota: see remarks in Calanus s.l. pacificus californicus (Fleminger, 1985, p.275) concerning the dimorphism in the female A1.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.S. Brady in Rep. Scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23). [Pl.XVIII, Fig.6]. As Undina vulgaris.
Female: 6, habitus (lateral).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.S. Brady in Rep. Scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23). [Pl.XV, Figs.12, 13]. As Undina vulgaris.
Female: 12, A1; 13, P2.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.S. Brady in Rep. Scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23). [Pl.XV, Figs.11, 14, 15]. As Undina vulgaris.
Male: 11, A1; 14, P5; 15, urosome.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1967, 1, Part 1: Copepoda. [p.33, Figs.159-160].
Female (from Florida Current): 159: habitus (dorsal).

Male: 160, habitus (dorsal).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1967, 1, Part 1: Copepoda. [p.33, Fig.165].
Female: 165, P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 23 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.16, Fig.43].
Male: 43, P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 24 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.17, Fig.46].
Female: 46, P2.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 25 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.7, Fig.2]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Female: 2, A2 (postrior view).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 26 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 8, Fig.13].
Female: 13, exopodite 1-3 of P2 (posterior view).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 27 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 8, Fig.17]. As Calanus vulgaris.
Female: 17, P5 (anterior view).


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 28 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.197, Fig.71].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a, habitus (dorsal); b-c, urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively); e, P2.

Copepodite.

Male: f, habitus (dorsal); g, same with P5; h, P5.

Body length after the drawings: F = 2.667 mm; M (1! = 2.482 mm; M (2) = 2.293 mm.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 29 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva & C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, Edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999. Vol.2. Copepoda. [p.982, Fig. 7.123].
Male: habitus (lateral); P5 (L = left leg; r = right leg).

Nota: Left P5 highly modified, of complex structure (prehensile). Coxa of P5 with inner edge without teeth. Exopodite 2 of P2 with invaginated outer proximal border.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 30 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.18, Fig.6].
Female (from Indonesian Seas): a, habitus (dorsal); b-f, P1 to P5, respectively.

Male: g, habitus (dorsal); h, P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 31 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.19, Fig.7].
Female: a-g, variations of lert posterior ends of last thoracic segment.

Nota: The subspecies typica is identified by the asymmetrical posterolateral ends of corners as in fig.a, b. The subspecies giesbrechti characterizes by the double spines on the left posterolateral end of posterior thoracic segment, the upper spine projects straightly backwards, while the lower curved downwards; right side as in typica, single and curved downwards (fig.f). The subspecies zeylonica bears double spines on the left posterolateral end as in giesbrechti, but the whole thoracic corner considerably thickened; the spine on the right side is straight and points backwards.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 32 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.H. Wickstead in Parasitology, 1963, 53. [p.294, Fig.1].
Elliobiopsis chattoni on Undinula vulgaris var. major (from Zanzibar Channel).A: Female with six parasites attached. B: young parasite on A1.
length of copepod: 2.78 mm; In B parasite measures 8.3 x 10.9 µ.

Nota: Total individuals parasited: 428 females and 337 males.
After the author it was found that the parasite affected egg production in the ovaries. The suggestion is that it produces a starvation effect on the copepod, this effect being reversible.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 33 of morphological figuresssued from : M.L.D.G. Lacuna, D.C. Sagrado, R.O. Mejorada, D.D. Simyunn & M.J.J. Pueblos in ABAH Bioflux, 2013, 5 (1). [p.71, Fig.23].
Female (from Butuuan Bay, Mindanao): a, habitus (dorsal).

Male: b, habitus (dorsal).

Nota: Both sexes are semi-transperent in coloration in leve specimens.
The posterior margins of the metasome in female are drawn out into a spine


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 34 of morphological figuresssued from : M.L.D.G. Lacuna, D.C. Sagrado, R.O. Mejorada, D.D. Simyunn & M.J.J. Pueblos in ABAH Bioflux, 2013, 5 (1). [p.71, Fig.24].
Female: a, urosome (ventral).

Male: b, urosome (dorsal).

Nota: Caudal rami of females wider comparated to the male, each ramus with 5 setae, 2nd seta the longest, 5th seta shortest among the other setae.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 35 of morphological figuresssued from : M.L.D.G. Lacuna, D.C. Sagrado, R.O. Mejorada, D.D. Simyunn & M.J.J. Pueblos in ABAH Bioflux, 2013, 5 (1). [p.72, Figs.25, 26].
Female: a, left A1; b, right A1.

Male: c, left A1; d, right A1.

Noya: Left A1 female 23-segmented, right A1 with 24 segments. Left A1 male 23-segmented, right A1 where geniculation occurs, much shorter than the left, with 21 segments; the segments associated with the geniculation occurred from 2nd to 6th segments.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 36 of morphological figuresssued from : M.L.D.G. Lacuna, D.C. Sagrado, R.O. Mejorada, D.D. Simyunn & M.J.J. Pueblos in ABAH Bioflux, 2013, 5 (1). [p.73, Fig.27].
Female: a, P1; b, P2 (red arrow indicates a deep notched; c, P3; d, P4; e, P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 37 of morphological figuresssued from : M.L.D.G. Lacuna, D.C. Sagrado, R.O. Mejorada, D.D. Simyunn & M.J.J. Pueblos in ABAH Bioflux, 2013, 5 (1). [p.73, Fig.28].
Male: a, P1; b, P2 (red arrow indicates a deep notched); c, P3; d, P4; e, P5.

Nota: The right P5 shorter, with a 3-segmented exopod and endopod, exopod much longer than endopod; left P5 uniramous, with 2-segmented exopod


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 38 of morphological figuresIssued from : M. Chihara & M. Murano in An Illustrated Guide to Marine Plankton in Japan, 1997. [p.743, Pl. 64, fig.82 a-d].
Female: a, habitus (lateral); c, P5.

Male: b, habitus (lateral); d, P5.

Nota: Numbers show species characteristics.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 39 of morphological figuresIssued from : V.N. Andronov in Russian Acad. Sci. P.P. Shirshov Inst. Oceanol. Atlantic Branch, Kaliningrad, 2014. [p.73, Fig.19, 9]. Undinula vulgaris after Owre & Foyo, 1967.
Male P5.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 40 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Fleminger in UNESCO Techn. papers mar. Sci., 1986, 49. [p.95, Fig.9].
Undinula vulgaris s.l., adult female.
Scatter diagram showing length of the right fifth pediger-bearing thoracic segment (ThV) plotted against standard body length (prosome) in six geographical populations.
Open suares and crosses represent subspecies zeylonica from Pago Pago and the Marshall Islands, respectively.
Filled triangles, filled circles and filled squares represent subspecies giesbrechti from Wallacea north and south of equator, respectively.
Open circles represent subspecies Typica from Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific. Inverted open triangles represent subspecies Typica from Atlantic Ocean.
Small figures on the left are right lateral views of ThV and genital segment; distribution of cuticular glands and openings shown as columnar structures and dots. Shaded area indicates storage of glandular products.
Small figures on right are left lateral and dorsal views of ThV and genital segment.
From the top down, subspecies zeylonica, giesbrechti, typica; the fourth figure down on the left is subspecies typica from the Atlantic.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 41 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.A. Fornshell & F.D. Ferrari in Crustaceana, 2014, 87 (1). [p.105, Fig.1, A-C].
Von Vaupel Klein's organ on right endopodal segment 1 and right basal seta of P1. A, anterior, distal up; B, right basal seta; C, proximal endopodal segment
Scale line; short = 45 µm; long = 65 µm.

The Von Vaupel Klein organ is an association (srtucture) of the distal seta from basis and the proximal endopodal segment of P1.
This structure shows significant variability among many gymnoplean copepods, in the shape of the distodorsal corner of the proximal endopodal segment, presence and location of denticles on the anterior face of the segment, presence and size of denticles along the distal margin of the segment , number of pores on the segment, shape of the seta that originates on the basis, and the morphology of the basis at the origin of the seta.
The function of this complex structure is not known.


Species Undinula vulgaris - Plate 42 of morphological figuresIssued from : M.C. Kos in Field guide for plankton. Zool Institute USSR Acad., Vol. I, 1972. After Brodsky, 1962.
Female: 1-2, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3-4, left corners of the thoracic posterior segment; 5, same on he right side; 6, P2; 7, P5.
Male: 8, habitus (dorsal); 9, P5 (np = right)

Compl. Ref.:
Wilson, 1942 a (p.210); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.322, 325, 357, 381, 390, 395, 403, 407, 414, 422, 433, 442, 450, 456, 459, 463, 465, 489, 491); M.W. Johnson, 1949 (238, fig.2); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.109); Kott, 1957 (p.5, Rem.: p.8); Yamazi, 1958 (p.147, Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.9); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.7, 16); Grice & Hart, 1962 (p.287, table 3); Wickstead, 1963 (p.293, var. major, parasite); De Decker, 1964 (p.16, 25, 27); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.14); Roehr & Moore, 1965 (p.565, vertical distribution); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.18, Table III); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); De Decker, 1968 (p.45); Park, 1970 (p.474); Morris, 1970 (p.2300); Itoh, 1970 (tab.1); Deevey, 1971 (p.225); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II: %, Table IV); Subbaraju & Krishnamurphy, 1972 (p.25, 26 ); Binet & al., 1972 (p.73); Brodsky, 1972 (p.256); Björnberg, 1973 (p.283, 389); Ikeda, 1974 (p.1, respiration, ammonia excretion rate); Patel, 1975 (p.659); Peterson, 1975 (p.25, abundance); Ikeda, 1976 (p.51, respiration rate); Sale P.F. & al., 1976 (p.59, table 3: as Undulina); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, Station "S"); Tranter, 1977 (p.596); Reeve & al., 1977 (p.105, mercury & copper vs. respiration & excretion); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Stephen & Iyer, 1979 (p.228, tab.1, 3, 4, figs.3, 4); Binet, 1979 (p.400, fig.2); Dessier, 1979 (p.49, 201); Gerber & Gerber, 1979 (p.33, fecal pellets); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Svetlichnyi, 1980 (p.28, Table 1, passive submersion); Sreekumaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493); Madhupratap & al., 1981 (p.262, Table 2: abundance vs. thermocline); Madhupratap & al., 1981 (p.266, fig.2d: abundance vs. geographic transect); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); Vidal & Whitledge, 1982 (p.77, respiration vs. latitude); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Smith S.L., 1982 (p.1347, Table 5, grazing); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Tranter & Dagg, 1983 (p.16, 22); Moore E.A. & Sander, 1983 (p.113, fig.1: variation % sex ratio); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); De Decker, 1984 (p.315, 366: chart); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Stephen, 1984 (p.161, 169, Distribution vs thermocline & geographic); Binet, 1984 (tab.3); 1985 (p.85, tab.3); Brenning, 1985 a (p.23, Table 2); Kinzer & Schulz, 1985 (tab.4); Almeida Prado Por, 1985 (p.250); Fleminger, 1986 (p.84, , Rem. p.92); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); M. Lefèvre, 1986 (p.33, 40); Turner, 1986 (p.1, feeding-fecal pellets); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Dessier, 1988 (tabl.1); Williams D. & al., 1988 (p.580); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Le Borgne & al., 1989 (p.341, respiration, exccretion); Echelman & Fishelson, 1990 a (tab.2); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1990 (p.305, fig.6: vertical distribution night/day; fig.7: cluster); Schulz, 1990 (p.188); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 563, Table 1); Lindo, 1991 (tab.3); Dai & al., 1991 (p.47); Hirakawa, 1991 (p.373); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); McKinnon, 1991 (p.471); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Yen & al., 1992 (p.495, tab.1, mechanoreception); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table B1, growth rate, temperature-dependent production); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); C. Park & Landry, 1993 (p.415, egg production); Hirakawa & al., 1995 (tab.2); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.68); Webber & Roff, 1995 a (p.481, Table.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, biomass; production); Webber & al., 1996 (tab.1); Madhupratap & al., 1996 (p.866); Padmavati & Goswami, 1996 a (p.85, fig.2, 3, vertical distribution); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.349); Hwang & al., 1998 (tab.II); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,2,3,4); Hopcroft & al., 1998 (tab.2); Hsieh & Chiu, 1998 (tab.2); Wong & al, 1998 (tab.2); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Smith S. & al., 1998 (p.2369, Table 6, moonsoon effects); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.18, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 45, 47, 64); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p108); Achuthankutty & al., 1998 (p.1, Table 2, seasonal abundance vs monsoon); Stephen, 1998 (p.339, 340, chart); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Hassett & Boehlert, 1999 (p.571); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1999 (p.284, tab.1); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Dolganova & al., 1999 (p.13, tab.1); Lopes & al., 1999 (p.215, tab.1); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 2000 (1247, tab.1); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lenz & al., 2000 (p.337); Madhupratap & al., 2001 (p. 1345, vertical distribution vs. O2, figs.4, 5: clusters); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Greenwood & al., 2002 (p.17, Table 2); Dunbar & Webber, 2003 (tab.1); Osore & al., 2003 (p.69); Hwang al., 2003 (p.193, tab.2); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Hsieh & al. 2004 (p.397,tab. 1); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.490, tab.2); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1, tab.2); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, tab.1,fig.6); Gallienne & al., 2004 (p.5, tab.3); CPR, 2004 (p.64, fig.193); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Wang & Zuo, 2004 (p.1, Table 2, dominance, origin); Kazmi, 2004 (p.230, Rem.: p.232); Dias & Bonecker, 2005 (p.100 + poster); Smith & Madhupratap, 2005 (p.214, tab.4); Prusova & Smith, 2005 (p.76); Lopez-Ibarra & Palomares-Garcia, 2006 (p.63, Tabl. 1, seasonal abundance vs El-Niño, Rem.: p.70); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.162: tab.1); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tab.I); ; Zhang W & al., 2006 (p.553, Table 2, grazing rates); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.33, Rem., chart); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.158, tab.2, 4, Rem.); Cornils & al., 2007 (p.278, Table 2); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.23); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.843: Table.I, p.848: Tab. IV); Rakhesh & al., 2008 (p.154, Table 5, abundance vs stations); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.513, 518); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Waggett & Buskey, 2008 (p.111, Table 1); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.153, Table 2, fig.5, occurrence vs geographic distribution, indicator species); Tseng & al., 2008 (p.402, Table 2); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2008 (p.46, table 2, abundance vs moonsons); Pagano, 2009 (p.116); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl.II); Tseng & al., 2009 (p.327, fig.5, feeding); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); Hwang & al., 2009 (p.49, fig.4, 5); Hernandez-Trujillo & al., 2010 (p.913, Table 2); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Sun & al., 2010 (p.1006, Table 2); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao & al., 2010 (p.179, Table I, II, III, trace metal concentration); Xu & Gao, 2011 (p.514, figs.3, 4, Table 2: optimal salinity); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, table 2, indicator); Pillai H.U.K. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, vertical distribution); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Kâ & Hwang, 2011 (p.155, Table 3: occurrence %); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.317, Table 2, fig.6, indicator of seasonal change); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, abundance %); Hsiao & al., 2011 (p.232, Table 1: abundance, %, Table 2: trace metal concentration, vs transect); Beltrao & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 1, density vs time); Pagano & al., 2012 (p.538, Table 1); Saitoh & al., 2011 (p.85, Table 5); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Mulyadi & Rumengan, 2012 (p.202, Rem.: p.204); Lavaniegos & al., 2012 (p. 11, Table 1, seasonal abundance, Appendix); Jang M.-C & al., 2012 (p.37, abundance and seasonal distribution); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance, indicator species); Teuber & al., 2013 (p.28, Table 1, respiration rates); Teuber & al., 2013 (p.1, Table 1, 2, 3, fig.5, abundance vs oxygen minimum zone, respiration rates, enzyme activity); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2013 (p.1009, Table I, fig.7, abundance vs environmental factors); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Tachibana & al., 2013 (p.545, Table 1, seasonal change 2006-2008); Hsiao & Fang, 2013 (p.175, Hg bioaccumulation); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Rakhesh & al., 2013 (p.7, Table 1, 4, abundance vs stations); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, 5, 6, fig.11, seasonal variation); Anjusha & al., 2013 (p.40, Table 3, abundance & feeding behavior); Jungbluth & Lenz, 2013 (p.630, Table I); Mendoza Portillo, 2013 (p.37: Fig.7, seasonal dominance); Tseng & al., 2013 a (p.1, Table 3, 5, abundance); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Dias & al., 2015 (p.483, Table 2, abundance, biomass, production, Table 4: % vs. season, fig.8); Nakajima & al., 2015 (p.19, Table 3: abundance); Rojas-Herrera & al., 2016 (p.40, Table 2: temporal abundance); Kiko & al., 2016 (p.2241, fig.5, Table 3, respiration, ammonium excretion); Marques-Rojas & Zoppi de Roa, 2017 (p.495, Table 1); Jerez-Guerrero & al., 2017 (p.1046, Table 1: temporal occurrence); Ohtsuka & Nishida, 2017 (p.565, Table 22.1); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones); Dias & al., 2018 (p.1, Tables 2, 4, 5: vertical distribution, abundance vs. season); Acha & al., 2020 (p.1, Table 3: occurrence % vs ecoregions).
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Undinula vulgaris by geographical zones
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 3issued from : R. Stephen in Pelagic Biogeography ICoPB II. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Final report of SCOR/IOC working group 93. 9-14 July 1995. Workshop Rep. No.142. UNESCO, 1998.
P.340, Fig.3: Distribution of Undinula vulgaris in the Indian Ocean.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 4issued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.33].
Chart of occurrence in Brazilian waters (sampling between 22°-23° S).
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 5issued from : J.T. Turner in P. S. Z. N. I: Mar. Ecol?, 1986, 7 (1). [p.6, Fig.4].
Contents of fecal pellets from Undinula vulgaris CV copepodites from Station B-2 (off W Mississipi River) on 11 December 1981.
a: unidentified centric diatom (CD) and Chaetoceros spp spines (Ch); b: Chaetoceros spp. spines (Ch) and fragments of pennate diatoms (PD), Thalassionema nitzschoides (Tn); d, and e: Dactyliosolen sp. (D); f: Prorocentrum sp. cell; g, fragments of Dactyliosolen sp. (D) and Chaetoceros spp. spine (Ch); h: Nitzschia sp. cell (N).
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 6issued from : J.T. Turner in P. S. Z. N. I: Mar. Ecol?, 1986, 7 (1). [p.10, Fig.8].
Contents of a single fecal pellet from Undinula vulgaris female from station off Mississipi River (3 December 1982).
a: whole pellet (background in glass fiber filter); b: high magnification of area in upper box in a., showing peridinium sp. (P) cell; c: high magnification of area in box at right in b., showing cells of a small centric (SC) and a pennate diatom (PD); d: high magnification of area in box at left in b., showing Thalassionema nitzschoides fragment (Tn); e: high magnification of area in middle box in a., showing Thalassiosira fragment (Th); f: high magnification of area in lower box in a., showing Thalassiosira sp. fragments (Th); g: high magnification of area in box in f., showing a small centric diatom (SC).
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 7Issued from : S.-H. Hsiao, J.-S. Hwang & T.-H. Fang in Crustaceana, 2010, 83 (2). [p.184, Table I].
Copepods collected from the sea around northern Taiwan and from southern East China Sea extending to the Okinawa Trough, to study possible spatial heterogeneity. The content of the same metal shows considerable variation both intra- and inter-specifically. The metal concentrations in males are higher than in females. Copepod metal quota display spatial variation: coastal water > southern East China Sea > Kuroshio water, suggesting that the metal contents of copepods are influenced by the water quality of their marine environment.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 8Issued from : S.-H. Hsiao, S. Kâ, T.-H. Fang & J.-S. Hwang inHydrobiologia, 2011, 666. [p.326, Fig.6].
Variations in the most abundant copepod species (mean ± SE) along the transect in the boundary waters between the northern part Taiwan Strait and the East China Sea i March (black bar) and October (grey bar) 2005 (Mann-Whitney U test, sig. ***P <0.001.
See drawings of Hydrological conditions and superficial marine currents in Calanus sinicus.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 9issued from : J. Yen, P.H. Lenz, D.V. Gassie & D.K. Hartline in J. Plankton Res., 1992, 14 (4). [p.502, Fig. 4].
Neural activity from the A1 of Undinula vulgaris from Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii.
Left side: spontaneous background activity. Right side: responses to a variety of mechanical stimuli (tap). All recordings are 40 ms long.
Compare with Labidocera madurae, Euchirella curticauda, Acartia fossae, Pleuromamma xiphias.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 10Issued from : M. Madhupratap & P. Haridas in J. Plankton Res., 12 (2). [p.313, Fig.6].
Vertical distribution of calanoid copepod (mean +1 SE), abundance No/100 m3. 66- Undinula vulgaris.
Night: shaded, day: unshaded.
Samples collected from 6 stations located off Cochin (India), SE Arabian Sea, November 1983, with a Multiple Closing Plankton Net (mesh aperture 300 µm), in vertical hauls at 4 depth intervalls (0-200, 200-400, 400-600, 600-1000 m).
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 11Issued from : C.O. Dias, A.V. Araujo, S.C. Vianna, L.F. Loureiro Fernandes, R. Paranhjos, M.S. Suzuki & S.L.C. Bonecker in J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 2015, 95 (3).
[p.490, Table 2].
In list of copepod from The Campos Basin (20.5 and 24°S off the central Brazilian coast. Abundance, biomass and production od species collected by horizontal subsurface hauls ( 1 m depth) , by a Multinet (200 µm mesh aperture) in dry and and rainy seasons.
For calculations see text p.485. Map (figt.1) see to Clausocalanus furcatus for the sampling stations.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 12Issued from : C.O. Dias, A.V. Araujo, S.C. Vianna, L.F. Loureiro Fernandes, R. Paranhjos, M.S. Suzuki & S.L.C. Bonecker in J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 2015, 95 (3). [p.485].
Calculation of biomass and daily copepod production.
See Table 2 for all species studied.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 13Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.484, Table 1].
Length-weight regression of Scolecithrix danae in oceanic waters of Discovery Bay (Jamaica) in 60- and 200 m vertical hauls, using 200- and 64-µm mesh aperture of plankton nets, from June 1989 to July 1991 (monthly samples).
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 14Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.485, Table 2].
Mean biomass (µg) of copepodite stages for Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica), with standard deviation and n number of individuals measured.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 15Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.485, Table 3].
Stage weight increments (In mmax mmin-1) for Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica), calculated from mean biomass of each stage.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 16Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.487, Table 4].
Stage duration (days) for copepodite stages of Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica). n: number of observations.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 17Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.487, Table 5].
Mean number of eggs per female for Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica) and corrected egg development time in days. n number of observations.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 18Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.488, Table 6].
Estimates of generation (in days) from egg to first egg clutch for Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica) based on minimum and maximum development time of individual life history stages. Centering indicate Max and Min values identical.
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 19Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.484, Table 1].
Growth coefficient (g) and daily specific growth rate (G) for Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica).
Species Undinula vulgaris - Distribution map 20Issued from : M.K. Webber & J.C. Roff in Mar. Biol., 1995, 123. [p.484, Table 1].
Undinula vulgaris from Discovery Bay (Jamaica).
AFDW: ash-free dry weight.
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), Angola (Baia Farta), Congo, Sao Tomé and Principe Is., Angola, Atlant. (central equatorial), Congo, G. of Guinea, off Lagos, Ivorian shelf, Dakar, Cape Verde Is., off NW Cape Verde Is., Morocco-Mauritania, W Azores, New York, Long Island, off Woods Hole, off S Nova Scotia, Argentina, Brazil (off Rio de Janeiro, Campos Basin, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Macaé, Camamu, off Natal, off Amazon), Barbados Is., Caribbean Colombia, Bahia de Mochima (Venezuela), Cariaco Basin, Caribbean Sea, Jamaica, Yucatan, E Costa Rica, Gulf of Mexico, off W Mississipi River, Straits of Florida, Florida, off Miami, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), off Bermuda, Gulf Stream (41°N,58°W), E Medit. (Ionian Sea-Cyprus), G. of Aqaba, Red Sea, G. of Aden, Arabian Gulf, Zanzibar Channel, Somalia, Arabian Sea, Maldive Is., Natal, Zanzibar region, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Rodrigues Is. - Seychelles, Mascarene Basin, India (Goa, Saurasthra coast, off Cochin, Madras, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay, Godavari region, Porto Novo, Kakinada Bay, Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea (Batten Island), W Malay Peninsula (Andaman Sea), W Australia, Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Sarawak: Bintulu coast, SW, Java (Cilacap Bay, Jakarta Bay-Seribu Islands, Lombok Sea, Flores Sea, Ambon Bay, Tioman Is., N Celebes, Thaïland, Philippines, N Mindanao (Butuuan Bay), Viet-Nam (Cauda Bay), G. of Tonkin, Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, E Kuroshio Current), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (S, E, SW, W, NW, off Danshuei River, N, Mienhua Canyon, NE, Kueishan Is.), Okinawa, S Korea, Korea Strait, Japan Sea, Tsushima Straits, Japan (Kuchinoerabu Is., Ariake Bay, Suruga Bay, Tokyo Bay), Bering Sea, Palau Is., Pacif. W (equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, Brisbane River estuary, Moreton Bay, Shark Bay), New Caledonia, Moorea Is. (lagon), Tuamotu, Is. Ahe atoll lagoon, Bikini Is., Hawaii, off S Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, off California, BaJa California (Bahia Magdalena, W), Gulf of California, W Mexico, Acapulco Bay, G. de Tehuantepec, W Costa Rica, W Panama, Clipperton Is., Bahia Cupica (Colombia), Galapagos-Ecuador, Chile, Tuamotu Archipelago (Ahe atoll, Tikehau atoll )
N: 336
Lg.:
(14) F: 2,8-2,1; M: 2,6-2,13; (28) M: 2,5-2,08; (34) F: 3,05-2,4; M: 2,5-2,25; (45) F: 2,85-2,4; M: 2,5-2,25 ; (47) F: 2,8-2,4; M: 2,45-2,3; (73) F: 2,99-2,66; M: 2,72-2,36; (81) F: 2,3-1,9; M: 2,3-1,9; (101) M: 2,04; (104) F: 2,8; M: 2,25; (105) F: 2,83; (125) F: 2,81-2,75; M: 2,69-2,31; (137) M: 2,9; (150) F: 3-2,62; M: 2,52-2,17; (196) F: 2,95; (237) F: 2,5; M: 2; (249) F: 2,7-2,52; M: 2,41-2,18; (334) F: 2,6-1,8; M: 2,3-2; (290) F: 2,95-2,8; M: 2,65-2,4; (530) F: 2,2; M: 2,1; (785) F: 2,86-2,58; M: 3,23-2,48; (786) F: 3-2,8; M: 2,6-2,47; (795) F: 2; (991) F: 2,25-3,25; M: 2,04-2,5; (1122) F: 3,0; M: 2,5; (1130) F: 2,574; M: 2,223; (1230) F: 2,5-3,1; M: 2,1-2,6; {F: 1,80-3,25; M: 2,00-3,23}
Rem.: Epi-mesopelagic.
A relation may exist between populations and terrestrial, near coastal effects; for Vervoort (1963 b, p.84) the occurrence of this species from the Atlantide Expedition seems to bear out Grice's (1962, p.178) conclusion that the species is neritic tendencies; its occurs plentifully in many inshore plankton hauls. Moreover it is a characteristic surface inhabitant. For author, all the female specimens belong to the typical form (U. vulgaris vulgaris (Dana, 1849) = U. vulgaris var. typica Sewell, 1914), with the exception of one female (off Nigeria), which has the spine on the left side doubled and appears to represent U. vulgaris giesbrechti<*em> Sewell, 1914.
Tanaka (1960, p.20) found two size groups in the adult female : forma major and forma minor in the west of the Indian Ocean and off Cape of Good Hope; the forma major measured 2.52-2.81 mm and the male 2.41 mm; forma minor measured 1.86 mm in the female and 1.84-1.87 mm in the male. According to Sewell (1929) forma major has a thickened posterior thoracic margin terminating in two spines on the left side; forma minor is distinguished from the former by a well-marked backwardly pointing spine on the same thoracic margin. Vervoort called attention to the fact that there is in his specimens an intermediate form between f. major and f. minor, the specimen has 2 spines on the left thoracic margin but the lower spine is slightly developed. For Tanaka this species is one of the most common species in Japanese waters.

Undinula vulgaris giesbrechti Sewell,1929 (F)
Syn.: Undinula vulgaris major Vervoort, 1946 (p.73); Tanaka, 1960 (p.20); Wickstead, 1963 (p.293: parasite)
Ref.: Sewell, 1929 (p.31); Vervoort, 1946 (p.73, Rem.); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.109); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.105, figs.F); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.13, fig.F); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.84); Silas, 1972 (p.644); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.120); Greenwood, 1976 (p.9, fig.F); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.228, figs.F, M); Fleminger, 1986 (p.92, figs.F)
Loc.: Australia ( Moreton Bay), Indonesia, Zanzibar Channel, India, Caribbean, NW Pacif.
Lg.: (28) F: 3-2,5; (66) F: 2,81-2,52; M: 2,41; (795) F: 2,5; M: 2
Undinula vulgaris plumosus (Wolfenden,1906) (F)
Syn.: Calanus vulgaris plumosus Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.994, figs.F)
Ref.: Sewell, 1912 (p.353, 356); 1929 (p.31); 1948 (p.407); Silas, 1972 (p.644).

Undinula vulgaris typica Sewell,1929 (F,M) Syn.: Undinula vulgaris minor : Sewell, 1929 (p.37); Tanaka, 1960 (p.20)
Ref.: Sewell, 1929 (p.31); Vervoort, 1946 (p.73, Rem.); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.105, fig.F); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.13, fig.F); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.84, Rem.); Björnberg, 1963 (p.16, Rem.); Silas, 1972 (p.644); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.120); Greenwood, 1976 (p.9, fig.F), Goswami & al., 1977 (tab.3); Sazhina, 1985 (p.30, figs.Nauplius); Fleminger, 1986 (figs.F, p.92)
Loc.: G. de Mannar, Is. Seychelles, Inde W
Lg.: (28) F: 3,05-2,25; (29) F: 2,189-1,868; (66) F: 1,86; M: 1,87-1,84
Undinula vulgaris zeylanica Sewell,1929 (F)
Syn.: Undinula vulgaris major : Sewell, 1929 (p.37) Ref.: Sewell, 1929 (p.32, 37); Vervoort, 1946 (p.73, Rem.); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.105, fig.F); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.13, Rem.); Silas, 1972 (p.644); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.120); Fleminger, 1986 (p.92, figs.F)
Loc.: G. de Mannar
Lg.: (28) F: 2,75-2,35.

Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is a fine-filter feeder


See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
: R. Stephen, 2007 : Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line).

For Itoh (1970 a, fig.2, from co-ordonates) the Itoh's index value from mandibular gnathobase = 380.
Last update : 31/07/2020
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