Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Candaciidae ( Family )
            Candacia ( Genus )
Candacia tenuimana  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace tenuimana Giesbrecht, 1889; 1892 (p.424, 439, 771, figs.F);
C. gracilimana Farran, 1908 b (p.85, figs.M); T. Scott, 1911 (p.118); Sewell, 1948 (p.483)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.128, Rem. F); A. Scott, 1909 (p.155, Rem.); Pesta, 1920 (p.539); Farran, 1926 (p.292, Rem.M); Rose, 1933 a (p.252, figs.F,M); Grice & Jones, 1960 (p.228, figs.F,M); Grice, 1962 (p.228, figs.F,M); 1963 (p.179, figs.F,M); Crisafi, 1963 (p.115, figs.F,M, juv.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.174, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.200, fig.F, Rem.); Bradford, 1970 a (p.362, figs.F,M); Razouls, 1972 (p.95, Annexe: p.89, figs.F,M); Lawson, 1977 (p.71, tab.2,3, fig.5); Mulyadi, 1997 a (p.100, Redescr.M, figs.M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 956, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.174, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.183,193); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.98, figs.M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.455, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.175, Fig.125].
Female: A, urosome (dorsal); B, idem (left lateral side); C, P5.

Male: D, last thoracic segments and urosome (dorsal); E, urosome (right side); F, right A1; G, detail of segment proximal to ''knee'' joint on right A1; H, P5.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1970, 4 (4). [p.361, Figs 75-77].
Female (off Kaikoura, New Zealand): 76, P5.
Male: 75, last thoracic segment and genital segment; 77, P5.
Scale bars represent 0.1 mm.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.52, fig.9].
Female: 9, P5.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Thèse Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.53, I, K].
Female (from Banyuls-sur-Mer, NW Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea): I, P5; K, ending of distal segment of P5..


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Thèse Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.54, D].
Male: D, P5.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 6 of morphological figures issued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II [1908]. [Pl. IX, Figs.7-14]. As Candacia gracilimana.
Female (from W Ireland): 7, P4 (3rd segment of exopodite); 8, P3 (3rd segment of exopodite); 9, P2 (3rd segment of exopodite); 10, Mx1; 11, last thoracic segment, genital segment and 2nd urosomal segment (dorsal); 12, A1 (hinge); 13, Mx2; 14, P5.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.229, Pl.28, Figs.13-18].
Female (from 00°00'S, 149°38'W): 13-14, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 15, posterior part of thorax and urosome (dorsal); 16, genital segment (lateral); 17, Md (biting edge); 18, P5.
Nota: Genital segment slightly asymmetrical, the right side being more produced than the left.
Basal tooth of Md with 2 unequal cusps.
The innermost spine-like protrusion of the distal segment of P5 considerably longer than the other two.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.230, Pl.29, Figs.1-4].
Male: 1, habitus (lateral); 2, posterior part of thorax and urosome (dorsal); 3, left P5; 4, right P5.
Nota: The spine-like protrusion on the right posterior thoracic margin with a bifid tip.
Genital segment produced to the right in the form of a narrow, curved, spine-like process.
Right P5 chelate.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.53, I, K].
Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): I, P5; K, distal portion of P5 (enlarged).


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.99, Fig.55].
Male (from 07°29'S, 121°05'E): A, habitus (dorsal); B, posterior part of last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); C, Mx2; D, P1; E, P3; F, P5; G, Md (gnathobase).

Nota: The male resembles C. longimana, but is distinguishable by the right posterolateral end of 5th metasomal somite and process on right margin of urosomite 1.


Species Candacia tenuimana - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva, C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999, Vol. 2, Copepoda; [p.1066, Fig. 7.373: Candacia tenuimana ]. Gns = segment genital.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.187); Wilson, 1942 a (p.175); Sewell, 1948 (p.408, 417, 418, 427, 460, 462, 468, 470, 475, 477, 506); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.182); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.31); Mazza, 1966 (p.72); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table III: occurrence); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 366); Björnberg, 1973 (p.349, 385); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Vives & al., 1975 (p.52, tab.II, III); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Dessier, 1979 (p.206); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.1); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.37); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Rudyakov, 1986 (tab.1); Valentin & al., 1987 (p.1202); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.60); Echelman & Fishelson, 1990 a (tab.2); Hajderi, 1995 (p.542); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.69); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.102); Holmes, 2001 (p.30); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Osore & al., 2004 (p.195); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 ( Tab.2, 4, Rem); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.843: Tab.1); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.424); Miloslavic & al., 2012 (p.165, Table 2, transect distribution); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013 ; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones)
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Candacia tenuimana by geographical zones
Species Candacia tenuimana - Distribution map 3issued from : T.J. Lawson in Marine Biology, 1977, 43. [Fig.5, p.83].
Distribution map for the Indian Ocean.
Species Candacia tenuimana - Distribution map 4issued from : Mulyadi in Treubia, 1997, 31 (2). [p.109, Fig.16].
Distribution of Candaciidae in Indonesian waters. 11: C. tenuimana
.
Loc:
South Africa (E), Namibia, G. of Guinea, off Lagos, Brazil (Cabo Frio), off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., off Madeira, Baie Ibéro-marocaine, off W Ireland, Lübeck Bay (in Falconetti & Séguin, 1977, p.188), Bay of Biscay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Banyuls, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Strait of Messina, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin, Marmara Sea), G. of Aqaba, Red Sea, Kenya, Indian , W Australia (North West Cape), Indonesia-Malaysia, Flores Sea, China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), off N Marshall Is., off S Hawaii, Pacif. (W equatorial), New Zealand, Kermadec Is, Tasman Sea, S Tasmania, S Galapagos, E Tuamotu Is., California, N Chile
N: 53 (S Atlant.: 7; N Atlant.: 11; Medit.: 14; Red Sea: 3; Indian: 5; Indonesia-Malaysia: 3; Pacif.: 10)
Lg.:
(16) M: 2,2; (24) M: 2,25; (38) F: 2,34-2,28; M: 2,16; (46) F: 2,05; (101) F: 2,07; M: 2,2; (180) F: 2,4; (199) F: 2,13; M: 2,2-1,9; (313) F: 2,4; M: 2,29; (342) F: 2,032; M: 2,03-1,989; (432) F: 2,29-2,2; (449) F: 2,05; (778) M: 2,07; (909) F: 2,05-2,2; M: 2,25; (1122) M: 2,07; {F: 2,03-2,40; M: 1,90-2,29}

The mean female size is 2.192 mm (n = 13; SD = 0.1387), the mean male size is 2.134 mm (n = 12; SD = 0.1205). The size ratio (male : female is about 0.97.
Rem.: mesopelagic.
Mainly in tropical and subtropical regions.
The occurrence of this species in the Lübeck Bay (Baltic Sea) requires confirmation.
Last update : 05/02/2020
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 25, 2021]

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