Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Centropagidae ( Family )
            Centropages ( Genus )
Centropages violaceus  (Claus, 1863)   (F,M)
Syn.: Ichthyophorba violacea Claus,1863 (p.199, Descr.M, figs.M);
no Centropages violaceus : Brady, 1883 (p.83, figs.F,M); Farran, 1929 (p.255: Rem. for C. bradyi)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.304, 321, 771, figs.F,M); Thompson, 1888 d (p.142); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.57, Rem. F,M); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.78); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.57); Wheeler, 1901 (p.174); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.234, 246); A. Scott, 1909 (p.114, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.356); Pesta, 1920 (p.523); Sars, 1925 (p.206); Mori, 1929 (p.174, figs.F); Candeias, 1926 (1929) (p.39, figs.F,M); Rose, 1929 (p.32); Farran, 1929 (p.209, 255); Sewell, 1932 (p.232, Rem.); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.63, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.206); Rose, 1933 a (p.186, figs.F,M); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.93); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.32); Farran, 1948 (n°11, p.3, figs.F,M); Chiba, 1956 (figs.M, Rem., p.34, 57); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.308); Furnestin, 1960 (p.176, fig.F); Tanaka, 1960 (p.47, Rem. juv.F); Crisafi, 1960 b (p.503, figs.F,M, juv.); Paiva, 1963 (p.56); Björnberg, 1963 (p.44); Vervoort, 1964 b (p.309); 1965 (p.91, Rem.); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.25); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.75, figs.F,M); Park, 1968 (p.557, figs.F,M, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.183); Razouls, 1972 (p.94, Annexe: p.60, fig.F); Marques, 1973 (p.239, fig.F); 1974 (p.17); Björnberg, 1981 (p.644, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.767, Pl. 83, 86: F,M); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.53, 101); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.75, figs.9, 36, 38: shell gland); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.884, 951, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.140, figs.F,M, figs.180, 192); Conway & al., 2003 (p.120, figs.F,M, Rem.); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.97, Pl. 66, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.478, figs.F,M, Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.103, Table 1, molecular biology, phylogeny)
Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Fishery Bull. Fish Wildl. Serv. U.S., 1968, 66 (3). [p.556, Pl.9, Figs.5-11].
Female (tropical Central North Pacific): 5, habitus (dorsal); 6, posterior part of metasome and urosome (lateral right side); 7, idem (ventral); 8, P5.
Nota: The second urosomal segment ventrally lacks the knoblike projection shown in the figure by Giesbrecht (1892).

Male: 9, P5 (anterior); 10, distal part of exopod of left P5; 11, exopod of right P5.


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neifhbouring waters of Japan. S. Shirai ed., Tokyo, 1937; 2nd edit, 1964. [Pl.31, Figs.8-14].
Female: 8, habitus (dorsal); 13, P5; 14, genital segment (ventral).

Male: 9, left P5; 10, habitus (dorsal); 11, right P5; 12, P5.


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.47, E].
Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): E, exopodal segment 2 of P5.


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. V, Figs. 20-24].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 20, urosome (dorsal); 21, P1; 22, P5; 23, P4; 24, habitus (lateral).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. VI, Fig.1].
Female: A1.


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Barthélémy in These Doct. Univ. Provence (Aix-Marseille I), 1999. [Fig.9, E]. Female (from Gulf of Marseille, NW Mediterranean Sea): E, external ventral view genital double-somite.
go = genital operculum; asterisks = atrial cavity.
Scale bar: 0.100 mm.


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.49, C-D].
Male (from Banyuls): C-D, P5 (left and right, respectively).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.18, Figs.8, 15].
Female: 8, proximal segments of A1 (ventral view); 15, Mx1 (posterior view).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.18, Fig.24].
Female: 24, P1 (postrior view).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.17, Fig.44].
Female: 44, exopod of P5 (posterior view).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.18, Fig.1].
Male: 1, right A1 (segments 13 to 19-21; ventral view).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.17, Figs.29, 30].
Male: 29, exopod of right P5 (anterior view); 30, exopod of left P5 (anterior view).


Species Centropages violaceus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.38, Figs.16, 18].
Female: 16, urosome (lateral); 18, urosome (ventral).

Compl. Ref.:
Rose, 1924 d (p.478); 1925 (p.152); Wilson, 1942 a (p.177); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.93, Rem.); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.188); Duran, 1955 (p.52); Cervigon, 1962 (p.181, tables: abundance distribution); Gaudy, 1962 (p.93, 99, Rem.: p.110); Duran, 1963 (p.22, Rem.); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.49); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Shmeleva, 1963 (p.141); Ahlstrom & Thrailkill, 1963 (p.57, Table 5, abundance); Björnberg, 1963 (p.44, Rem.); Mazza, 1964 (p.293, weight); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.224); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.25, Table III); Mazza, 1966 (p.71); 1967 (p.328, 329, 360: Rem.); Kimor & Berdugo, 1967 (p.23); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Mazza, 1967 (p.377); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Séguin, 1968 (p.488); Evans, 1968 (p.12); Delalo, 1968 (p.138); Berdugo & Kimor, 1968 (p.447, Rem.); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.267); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Carli, 1971 (p.372, tab.1); Binet & al., 1972 (p.73); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 358, fig.6); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table II: vertical distribution); Guglielmo, 1973 (p.399); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Vives & al., 1975 (p.47, tab.II, III, IV); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Dessier, 1979 (p.89, 205); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Svetlichnyi, 1980 (p.28, Table 1, passive submersion); Vives, 1982 (p.292); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.84); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4, Rem.); De Decker, 1984 (p.316); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1043); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.33); Brenning, 1985 (p.5, Rem.: p.8); 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, 1985 (p.303, occurrence/abundance in E Mediterranean Sea); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl. II, III, IV, V); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.26, Rem.); Kouwenberg, 1994 (tab.1); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Alvarez- Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,3,4); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.30, 61, 64); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p109); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Siokou- Frangou, 1999 (p.476); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); El-Sherif & Aboul Ezz, 2000 (p.61, Table 3: occurrence); Holmes, 2001 (p.23); Zerouali & Melhaoui, 2002 (p.91, Tableau I); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4); CPR, 2004 (p.53, fig.149); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.37, Rem., chart); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Selifonova & al., 2008 (p.305, Tabl. 2); Raybaud & al., 2008 (p.1765, Table A1); Brugnano & al., 2010 (p.312, Table 2, 3); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.424); Selifonova, 2011 a (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, Table II, fig.6, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Isari & al., 2011 (p.51, Table 2, abundance vs distribution); Mazzocchi & al., 2012 (p.135, annual abundance 1984-2006); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, p.4, Table 2); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Zaafa & al., 2014 (p.67, Table I, occurrence); Bonecker & al., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Ben Ltaief & al., 2017 (p.1, Table III, Summer relative abundance); Marques-Rojas & Zoppi de Roa, 2017 (p.495, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group)
NZ: 19

Distribution map of Centropages violaceus by geographical zones
Species Centropages violaceus - Distribution map 3issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 28 ]. Centropages violaceus (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Species Centropages violaceus - Distribution map 4issued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.37].
Chart of occurrence in Brazilian waters (sampling between 22°-23° S).
Nota: sampling only 4 specimens.
Loc:
South Africa, off NE Tristan da Cunha, Congo, G. of Guinea, Ivorian shelf, off E St. Paul Is., Dakar, Cape Verde Is., Morocco-Mauritania, Cap Ghir, Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Brazil (off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Macaé, off N Trindade Is., off Natal, off Amazon, Yucatan, Caribbean Sea, Cariaco Basin, Jamaica, Caribbean, Venezuela, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda: Station ‘’ S’’ (32°10’N, 64°30’W), off E Cape Cod, Newfundland (SW & E), Ireland (S & W), Bay of Biscay, off Azores, Portugal, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (M'Diq, Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, El Kala shelf, NW Tunisia, Castellon, Baleares, Banyuls, Marseille, Monaco, Genoa, Tyrrhenian Sea, Napoli, Milazzo, Messina, Taranto, G. of Gabes, Malta, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Thracian Sea, Lebanon Basin, W Egyptian coast, Alexandria, W Black Sea), Sharm El-Sheikh, Safaga, Red Sea, Indian, Madagascar, Nicobar Is., Philippines, China Seas, S Korea, Japan, W Alaska, Aleutiean Is., Bering Sea, Bikini, off California, W Baja California, Australia (New South Wales), New Zealand, Fidji Is., off Hawaii (N & E), SW Mexico, off Galapagos, off Peru, NE Easter Is., E Tuamotu Is.
N: 168 (S Atlant.: 20; N Atlant.: 50; Medit.: 69; Black Sea: 3; Red Sea: 2; Indian: 8; Indo-Malaysia: 1; Pacif.: 10)
Lg.:
(16) F: 2,05-1,78; (35) F: 2,04-1,88; M: 1,92; (46) F: 1,92-1,76; M: 1,86-1,77; (72) F: 2,24-2,11; M: 2,17-2,04; (73) F: 1,95-1,93; M: 2,04-2,01; (199) F: 1,98-1,9; M: 1,98-1,9; (237) F: 2,2; M: 1,8; (360) F: 2,144-1,816; M: 2,116-1,874; (449) F: 1,92-1,76; M: 1,86-1,77; (920) F: 2,11; M: 2,1; (927) F: 2,12-2,16 [Fall]; 2,05-2,11 [summer]; M: 2,09-2,11 [Fall]; 2,07-2,13 [summer]; (991) F: 1,76-2,04; M: 1,77-1,92; (1308) F: 2,02; M: 1,82-1,92; {F: 1,76-2,24; M: 1,77-2,17}

The mean female size is 1.989 mm (n = 24; SD = 0.1474), and the mean male size is 1.958 mm (n = 23; SD = 0.1303). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.975 (n = 13; SD = 0.0544).
Rem.: epipelagic; oceanic form. Overall Depth range in Sargasso Sea: 0-500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S"); In vertical tow 4000-3000 m (Harding, 1974, Rem.: possible contaminant species from higher up the water column).
After Benedetti & al. (2018, p.1, Fig.2) this species belonging to the functional group 4 corresponding to small filter feeding herbivorous and mixed feeding omnivorous (mostly broadcasters).

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 02/05/2019
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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2019. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed July 23, 2019]

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