Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamily )
        Heterorhabdidae ( Family )
            Heterorhabdus ( Genus )
Heterorhabdus clausi  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)
Syn.: Heterochäta clausii Giesbrecht, 1889; 1892 (p.372, 382, 773, figs.F,M);
Heterorhabdus (Heterorhabdus) clausii : Vervoort, 1965 (p.121, Rem.)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.115, Rem. F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.235, 249); Esterly, 1905 (p.185, fig.M; A. Scott, 1909 (p.130, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.303); Sewell, 1932 (p.299, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.204, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.36); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.353, figs.F,M); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.239, fig.F); Vervoort, 1957 (p.134); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.364, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.883, 944, figs.F,M, as clausii); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.79, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.174, 191); Park, 2000 (p.121, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.310, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.240, Fig.88].
Female: a, habitus (left side); b, c, urosome (left, dorsal, respectively); d, e, genital somite (left, right, respectively). gfl = genital flange.

Nota: Length ratios of 4 urosomal somites and left caudal ramus 37.3 : 17.1 : 14.5 : 8.8 : 22.3 = 100.
Dorsal appendicular seta of left caudal ramus approximately 1.5 times length of that of right ramus. Each caudal ramus with 2 pores on anterior surface.


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.241, Fig.89].
Female: a, genital somite with operculum open (left side); b, genital somite (ventral); c, genital somite with operculum open (right).
Genital field with about 9 pores on right side and normally 2 pores on left side.

Male: d, P5 (anterior); e, basipod of left P5 (anterior).


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1932, X (continued). [p.301, Fig.98, c-d].
Female (from off SE Sri Lanka): c, exopod of P2; d, exopod of P3.


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs. Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.185, Fig.39].
Male (from San Diego Region): P5.

Nota: 2nd basal of the right P5 with a long lamellar process, the 2nd segment of the exopod with a shorter projection on the inner border, 3rd relatively longer ( especially on the left P5).


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Wilson in Bull. U.S. natn Mus., 100, 14 (4). [Pl.11, Fig.120].
Female (from off Honshu, Japan and Philippines): 120, P5.


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20, Fig.28 ]. As Heterochäta clausii.
Female: 28, P5 (endopod and exopod).


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20, Fig.2]. As Heterochäta clausii.
Male: 2, A1 (distal segments).


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20, Figs.37, 38]. As Heterochäta clausii.
Male: 37, left P5 (anterior view); 38, right P5 (anterior view).
B2 = basipod 2 (= basis); Ri = endopod; Re = exopod.


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 9 of morphological figuresHeterorhabdus clausii female:
1 - See key to species groups of Heterorhabdus: ''abyssalis'' Group (p.90, 114).
2 - Genital somite without a conical projection mediodorsally (Fig.88- a, b).
3 - Laterally, genital somite without a tubercular outgrowth posteriorly on dorsal margin (Fig.88-b).
4 - Laterally, genital operculum far short of reaching posterior end of somite (Fig.88-d).
5 - Laterally, right and left genital flanges asymmetrical (Fig.88-d, e).
6 - Laterally, left genital flange low, smoothly arched.
7 - Laterally, genital somite relatively short, typically with a length-depth ratio of 100:89 (Fig.88-d).


Species Heterorhabdus clausi - Plate 10 of morphological figuresHeterorhabdus clausii male:
1 - See key to species groups of Heterorhabdus: ''abyssalis'' Group (p.90, 114).
2 - Basis of left P5 with a well-developed inner lobe (Fig.89-c).
3 - Basal inner lobe of left P5 wide (Fig.89-c).

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.503, 521, 547, 558); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.224); 1967 (p.18); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Vives, 1982 (p.293); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.109); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Holmes, 2001 (p.16); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, pers. comm.); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones)
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Heterorhabdus clausi by geographical zones
Loc:
sub-Antarct. (S Tasmania), E South Africa, off E Tristan da Cunha, G. of Guinea, Canary Islands, Brazil, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), off SW Ireland, off E Scotland, Greenland, Faroe Is., W Medit. (Ligurian Sea in Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010), Minicoy Is., Indian, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, China Seas (East China Sea), Taiwan (N: Mienhua Canyon), Japan (off Honshu), W Pacif. (equatorial), Pacif. tropical central & E (N-S), off British Columbia, California, San Diego, off Galapagos (E & W)

Type locality: 99°-108°W, 0°-3°S.

For Park (2000, p.122), besides its type locality in the equatorial Pacific and in the eastern and central equatorial waters of the Pacific between 17°50' S and 10°05' N, and between 164° 14' W and 110°18' W, the species has been recorded from off San Diego (Esterly, 1905), the Malay Archipelago (A. Scott, 1909), the Indian Ocean (Sewell, 1932), the Gulf of Guinea (Vervoort, 1965), and the South Atlantic (Wolfenden, 1911). However, none of these records outside the type locality is accompanied by reliable species descriptions, and their validity therefore cannot be confirmed.
N: 27
Lg.:
(16) F: 2,65-2,6; M: 2,41-2,2; (22) F: 2,4; M: 2,5-2,2; (46) F: 2,4; M: 2,4-2,2; (142) M: 2,5-2; (824) F: 2,64-2,32; M: 2,4-2,24; {F: 2,32-2,65; M: 2,00-2,50}
Rem.: Abyssalis" Group.
bathypelagic. Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-2000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
Sampling depth (sub-Antarct.) : 0-750 m.
For Park (2000, p.123) H. prolixus, H. clausi, H. tuberculus are morphologically very close to one another and can be distinguished from one another by carefully comparing the shape of the female genital somite and the male P5.
Last update : 07/12/2020
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 21, 2021]

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