issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps institution Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.195, Fig.43]. Female: a, habitus (left side); b, urosome (left side); c, idem (dorsal); d, forehead (left side); e, idem (dorsal); f, genital somite (ventral); g, idem (left side); h, left A1; i, left A2 (posterior).
issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps institution Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.196, Fig.44]. Female: a, left Md (posterior); b, masticatory edge of right Md (posterior); c, left Mx1 (posterior); d, left Mx2 (posterior); e, right Mxp (anterior; asp: anterior spine; psp: posterior spine); f, first leg (anterior); g, idem with distal segments of rami omitted (posterior); h, second leg (anterior); i, third leg (anterior); j, fourth leg (anterior); k, fifth leg (anterior)
issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps institution Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.197, Fig.45]. Male: b, urosome (dorsal view); c, A1; d, leg5 with endopods omitted (posterior); e, leg5 with distal exopodal segments omitted (anterior); f, basipod of right 5th leg; g, two distal exopodal segments of right 5th leg (posterior); h, exopod of right 5th leg (anterior); i, exopod of left 5th leg (anterior); j, second exopodal segment of right 5th leg (anterior); k, exopod of 5th leg (anterior); l, idem (posterior)
issued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (1). [p.19, Fig.182]. As Heterorhabdus robustus. Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (left lateral side); c, d, biting part of Md; e, Mx2; f, Mxp; g, P5. Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 34:15:13:12:26 = 100; thre is a row of small denticles on the periphery of the genital opening (lateral view).
Male: h, P5. Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 19:15:15:17:8:28 (left) = 100. Right A1 reaches back to the end of the anal segment. left A1 modified into a grasping organ.
issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.86, Fig.53]. As Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) robustus. Female: A, genital somite (left lateral side); B, Mxp (basipod 1); C, P5.
Male: D, P5.
Issued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.LXI, figs.1-16]. As Heterorhabdus robustus. Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side); 3, rostrum; 4, A2; 5, Md; 6, left Md (biting edge); 7, Mx1; 8, Mx2; 9, Mxp; 10, P1; 11, P2; 12, P3; 13, P5; 14, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal).
Male: 15, habitus (dorsal); 16, P5.
Issued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.347, Fig.243]. As Heterorhabdus robustoides. Female (from NW Pacific): habitus (dorsal and lateral left side); R, rostrum; M Ri, Md (biting edge, right side view); M Le, Md (biting edge, left side view); Mp2, Mxp; S1, P1; S3, P3; S5, P6.
Male: S5, P5 (Le = left leg; Ri = right leg).
issued from : M.V. Heptner in Trudy. Inst. Okeanol., 1971, 92. [p.157, Fig.39]. As Heterorhabdus robustus. Female & Male (from Kuril-Kamchatka Trench).
issued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II . [Pl. VII, Figs.1-10]. As Heterorhabdus robustus. Female (from W Ireland): 1-2, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal); 4, left Md (biting edge); 5, right Md (biting edge); 6, Mx2; 7, Mx1 ( exopod and endopod); 9, P5; 10, P2.
issued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II . [Pl. VII, Fig.8]. As Heterorhabdus robustus. Male: 8, P5.
Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) robustus female: 1 - Left caudal ramus distinctly longer than right and completely fused with anal segment (Fig.43-c) 2 - Dorsally, posterolateral corners of prosome angular (Fig.43-c). 3 - Laterally, 2nd urosomal somite (Fig.43-b) without a swelling along ventral margin. 4 - Laterally, posterior slope of genital prominence straight (Fig.43-g). 5 - Genital somite about as long as wide (Fig.43-c). 6 - Ventrally, genital operculum (Fig.43-f) wider than long.
Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) robustus female: 1 - Left caudal ramus distinctly longer than right and completely fused with anal segment (Fig.45-b). 2 - Basis of right P5 with conical inner lobe (Fig.45-e). 3 - P5 with relatively slender exopods (Fig.45-d); medial projection of 2nd exopodal segment of right P5 without a lobe on distal side. 4 - Medial projection of 2nd exopodal segment of right P5 toothlike (Fig.45-j). 5 - In 3rd exopodal segment of left P5(Fig.45-d), inner spine much higher in position than outer spine.
Atlant. (South tropical), G. of Guinea, off Lagos, off Mauritania, Canary Islands, Azores, off Ireland ( S & W), off Cap Finisterre, Bay of Biscay, S Davis Strait, Iceland, Faroe Is., G. of Mexico, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Sargasso Sea, off E Cape Cod, ? off Newfoundland E, Ibero-moroccan Bay, off W Tangier, Mozambique Channel, SW Indian, Malay Archipelago, Philippines, Japan (Sagami), Nansei Is., Kuril-Kamchatka, Bering Sea, Pacif. (central, subarctic), S Aleutian Is., ? G. of Alaska (Icy Strait), off British Columbia, S California, off Colombia, Chile N & S (sub-Antarctic), New Zealand (SW North Island), Tasman Sea, ? Antarctic (in Farran, 1929)
Chiba S. & al., 2015 (p.971, Table 1: Total length female (June-July) = 4.1 mm [optimal SST (°C) = 7.4].
meso-bathypelagic. Overall depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 500-2000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S"); 2000-1000 m (Harding, 1974). 815-1340 m at Station S 2 in S Bösö (E middle Japan). For Brodsky (1950) (1967, p.348) H. robustoides resembles E. robustus (= Paraheterorhabdus robustus) by shorter anal segment, longer caudal rami, and in structural details of P5 male, also by the size. According to Tanaka (1964, p.20) there are two size groups; Brodsky's H. robustoides may perhaps be identical with the larger specimens (females: 4.8-5.0 mm; male: 4.6-4.8 mm) of robustus; For Vervoort (1965, p.118) thinks that the antarctic localities mentioned by Farran (1929, p.266) for H. robustus in realty refer to
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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. and Desreumaux N., 2005-2020. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 20, 2020]