Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamily )
        Heterorhabdidae ( Family )
            Paraheterorhabdus ( Genus )
                Paraheterorhabdus ( Sub-Genus )
Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)
Syn.: Heterochäta vipera Giesbrecht,1889; 1892 (p.373, 383, figs.F, no M);
Heterorhabdus tenuis Tanaka, 1964 a (p.20, Descr.M, figs.M); ? Roe, 1975 (p.346, fig.M, Rem.); ? Nishida & Ohtsuka, 1996 (p.620, figs.F: Md ); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) compactus : Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.819, Pl.122: M);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera : Chihara & Murano, 1997;
Heterochäta vipera Giesbrecht,1889; 1892 (p.373, 383, figs.F, no M);
Heterorhabdus vipera Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.116, Rem. F, no M); Pearson (1906, p.26); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.303); Farran, 1926 (p.284); Rose, 1933 a (p.205, figs.F, non M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.36); Farran, 1948 e (n°16, p.3, figs.F, non M); Tanaka, 1964 a (p.17, figs.F); Park, 1970 (p.523, figs.F,M, Rem); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Roe, 1975 (p.346, No fig.M); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab., Rem.: p.165); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.70); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.883, 944, figs.F,M); Hernandez-Trujillo & Esqueda-Escargera, 2002 (in Appendix); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.310, figs.F,M, Rem.);
Heterorhabdus tenuis Tanaka, 1964 a (p.20, Descr.M, figs.M); ? Roe, 1975 (p.346, fig.M, Rem.); ? Nishida & Ohtsuka, 1996 (p.620, figs.F: Md ); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.312, figs.M, Rem.);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) compactus : Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.819, Pl.122: M);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera : Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.820, Pl.122: F,M).
Ref. compl.: Sewell, 1932 (p.300); 1948 (p.503, 522, 548, 558, 561, 567, 568); Morris, 1970 (p.2301); Park, 1970 (p.477); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Vives, 1982 (p.293); Greze & al., 1985 (p.7); Lapernat, 2000 (tab.3); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1);
Paraheterorhabdus vipera : Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV);
Ref.:
Park, 2000 (p.83, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.206, Fig.54].
Female: a, habitus (left side); b, urosome (dorsal); c, d, forehead (left, dorsal, respectively); e, f, genital somite (left, ventral, respectively); g, masticatory edge of right Md (posterior); h, masticatory edge of left Md (posterior); i, left Mx2 (posterior); j, right Mxp (anterior).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.207, Fig.55].
Female: a, exopod of P1 (anterior); b, P5 (anterior).

Male: c, urosome (dorsal); d, P5 (anterior); e, right P5 (with endopod omitted), anterior; f, right P5 (posterior); g, basipod of right P5 (anterior); h, left P5 (with exopod omitted), anterior; i, left P5 (with endopod omitted), posterior; j, second exopodal segment of left P5 (anterior).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (1). [p.20, Fig.183]. As Heterorhabdus tenuis.
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, Mxp; c, Md (biting edge); d, P5.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 15:17:18:15:10:25 = 100. Right A1 extends about to the end of the 2nd urosome segment. The furcal rami slightly asymmetrical (left ramus: longer).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (1). [p.18, Fig.181].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, A1; c, last thoracic segment and genital somite); (lateral left side); d, genital somite (ventral); eMd (biting edge); f, Mx2; g, P5.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 39:16:14:8:23 (left) = 100. A1 extends to the end of the anal segment (when fully reflexed).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.521, Figs.245-246]. As Heterorhabdus vipera.
Female (from Caribbean Sea & G. of Mexico): 245, habitus (lateral right side); 246, idem (dorsal).
Nota: Posterolateral corner of metasome in dorsal view triangularly produced.


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.522, Figs.247-249]. As Heterorhabdus vipera.
Female: 247, Mx2; 248, Mxp; 249, P5 (anterior).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.522, Figs.250-252]. As Heterohabdus vipera.
Male (from Caribbeann Sea & G. of Mexico): 250, habitus (lateral left side); 251, idem (dorsal); 252, P5 (anterior).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 39, Fig. 41]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 41, habitus (dorsal).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20, Fig.5]. As Heterochätaviperai.
Female: 5, endopod of Mx1.


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : H.S.J. Roe in Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool., London, 1975, 28 (7). [p.345, Fig.23, g]. As Heterorhabdus tenuis.
Male (Cape Verde Islands): g, P5.
Bar scale 0.1 mm.
The present males agree with the descriptions of Tanaka (1964) and Park (1970, as H. vipera male. The differences in P5 between H. tenuis and H. vipera can be seen clearly by comparing Figs. 23 g and 23 f. In H. tenuis the basipodite 2 of the left leg has a haired inner margin and the exopodite 3 of the right leg has a haired inner margin and the exopodite 3 of the right leg is a totally different shape to that of H. vipera. Both endopodites have 3 segments and are omitted for clarity.


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : H.S.J. Roe in Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool., London, 1975, 28 (7). [p.345, Fig.23, f]. As Heterorhabdus vipera. Dobtful.
Male (Cape Verde Islands): f, P5.
Bar scale: 0.1 mm.
Nota: For Roe (1975, p.346) the males of H. vipera and H. tenuis Tanaka (1964 have been confused. park (1970) described the male of H. tenuis as H. vipera (Roe (1972), and since the present material includes both species it seems advisable to illustrate the differences in their P5. The present specimen differ slightly from that of Giesbrecht (1892) by having 1 spine on the basipodite 2 of both legs, and by having an outer edge spine on the 2nd exopodite of the right leg.


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.20, Figs.12, 13]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 12, right Md (mamandibular edge); 13, left Md (mandibular edge).
Nota: Same scale.


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.20, Fig.20]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 20, Basipodite segments 1 and 2 of Mxp (anterior surface).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20 , Fig.27 ]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 27, exopd of P5.
Re = exopod; Si = inner seta.


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 15 of morphological figuresParaheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera female:
1 - Left caudal ramus distinctly longer than right and completely fused with anal segment (Fig.54-b)
2 - Dorsally, posterolateral corners of prosome angular (Fig.54 a-b).
3 - Laterally, 2nd urosomal somite (Fig.54-a) without a swelling along ventral margin.
4 - Laterally, posterior slope of genital prominence straight (Fig.54-e).
5 - Genital somite distinctly longer than wide (Fig.54-b).


Species Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Plate 16 of morphological figuresParaheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera female:
1 - Left caudal ramus distinctly longer than right and completely fused with anal segment; setation in both rami as in female (Fig.55-c).
2 - Basis of right P5 with wide, rectangular inner lobe (Fig.55-g).
3 - Exopod of right P5 tapering distally into a single ptocess (Fig.55-e); 2nd lobe of Mx2 (Fig.54-i) with a short seta.

Compl. Ref.:
Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions)
NZ: 13

Distribution map of Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera by geographical zones
Loc:
E South Africa, off Tristan da Cunha E, off Ascension Is., off SW St. Helena Is., Cape Verde Is., off NW Cape Verde, Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Brazil (off Rio de Janeiro), off Amazon, Caribbean Sea, G. of Mexico, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), off E Cape Cod, off Madeira Is., Portugal, Bay of Biscay, off N Azores N, W Ireland , W Medit. (Alboran Sea), Natal, Mozambique Channel, Laquedive Is., N Indian, Indian (E equatorial), China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW, E), Japan (Sagami Bay), Pacif. (W equatorial), Salomon Is., Pacif. (tropical central: N-S), Pacif. (E tropical: N-S), off Hawaii (S, N), Chile (S)
N: 31
Lg.:
(38) F: 2,63; M: 2,68; (46) F: 2,8; (88) F: 2,4-2,16; (121) F: 2,16; (199) F: 2,66-2,36; M: 2,51-2,43; ? (199') M: 2,51-2,28; ? (808) F: 2,53-2,35; {F: 2,16-2,80; M: 2,43-2,68}
Rem.: meso-bathypelagic. After Pearson (1906, p.26): vertical range down to 3.800 m. Sargasso Sea: 500-1500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S"); In vertical tow 4000-3000 m (Harding, 1974).
According to Park (1970, p.525) the structure of the fifth pair of legs as compared to the description by Giesbrecht (1892) shows differences, but rather agree with the description of H. tenuis Tanaka (1964).
First occurrence in Chilean waters by Hidalgo & al. (2010).
Last update : 07/12/2020
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