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Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamille )
        Heterorhabdidae ( Famille )
            Paraheterorhabdus ( Genre )
                Paraheterorhabdus ( Sous-Genre )
Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)
Syn.: Heterochäta vipera Giesbrecht,1889; 1892 (p.373, 383, figs.F, no M);
Heterorhabdus tenuis Tanaka, 1964 a (p.20, Descr.M, figs.M); ? Roe, 1975 (p.346, fig.M, Rem.); ? Nishida & Ohtsuka, 1996 (p.620, figs.F: Md ); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) compactus : Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.819, Pl.122: M);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera : Chihara & Murano, 1997;
Heterochäta vipera Giesbrecht,1889; 1892 (p.373, 383, figs.F, no M);
Heterorhabdus vipera Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.116, Rem. F, no M); Pearson (1906, p.26); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.303); Farran, 1926 (p.284); Rose, 1933 a (p.205, figs.F, non M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.36); Farran, 1948 e (n°16, p.3, figs.F, non M); Tanaka, 1964 a (p.17, figs.F); Park, 1970 (p.523, figs.F,M, Rem); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Roe, 1975 (p.346, No fig.M); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab., Rem.: p.165); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.70); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.883, 944, figs.F,M); Hernandez-Trujillo & Esqueda-Escargera, 2002 (in Appendix); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.310, figs.F,M, Rem.);
Heterorhabdus tenuis Tanaka, 1964 a (p.20, Descr.M, figs.M); ? Roe, 1975 (p.346, fig.M, Rem.); ? Nishida & Ohtsuka, 1996 (p.620, figs.F: Md ); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.312, figs.M, Rem.);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) compactus : Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.819, Pl.122: M);
Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera : Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.820, Pl.122: F,M).
Ref. compl.: Sewell, 1932 (p.300); 1948 (p.503, 522, 548, 558, 561, 567, 568); Morris, 1970 (p.2301); Park, 1970 (p.477); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Vives, 1982 (p.293); Greze & al., 1985 (p.7); Lapernat, 2000 (tab.3); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1);
Paraheterorhabdus vipera : Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV);
Ref.:
Park, 2000 (p.83, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 1 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Park Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.206, Fig.54].
Female: a, habitus (left side); b, urosome (dorsal); c, d, forehead (left, dorsal, respectively); e, f, genital somite (left, ventral, respectively); g, masticatory edge of right Md (posterior); h, masticatory edge of left Md (posterior); i, left Mx2 (posterior); j, right Mxp (anterior).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 2 de figures morphologiquesissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.207, Fig.55].
Female: a, exopod of P1 (anterior); b, P5 (anterior).

Male: c, urosome (dorsal); d, P5 (anterior); e, right P5 (with endopod omitted), anterior; f, right P5 (posterior); g, basipod of right P5 (anterior); h, left P5 (with exopod omitted), anterior; i, left P5 (with endopod omitted), posterior; j, second exopodal segment of left P5 (anterior).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 3 de figures morphologiquesissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (1). [p.20, Fig.183]. As Heterorhabdus tenuis.
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, Mxp; c, Md (biting edge); d, P5.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 15:17:18:15:10:25 = 100. Right A1 extends about to the end of the 2nd urosome segment. The furcal rami slightly asymmetrical (left ramus: longer).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 4 de figures morphologiquesissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (1). [p.18, Fig.181].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, A1; c, last thoracic segment and genital somite); (lateral left side); d, genital somite (ventral); eMd (biting edge); f, Mx2; g, P5.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 39:16:14:8:23 (left) = 100. A1 extends to the end of the anal segment (when fully reflexed).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 5 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.521, Figs.245-246]. As Heterorhabdus vipera.
Female (from Caribbean Sea & G. of Mexico): 245, habitus (lateral right side); 246, idem (dorsal).
Nota: Posterolateral corner of metasome in dorsal view triangularly produced.


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 6 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.522, Figs.247-249]. As Heterorhabdus vipera.
Female: 247, Mx2; 248, Mxp; 249, P5 (anterior).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 7 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : T. S. Park in Bull. Mar. Sc., 1970, 20 (2). [p.522, Figs.250-252]. As Heterohabdus vipera.
Male (from Caribbeann Sea & G. of Mexico): 250, habitus (lateral left side); 251, idem (dorsal); 252, P5 (anterior).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 8 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 39, Fig. 41]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 41, habitus (dorsal).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 9 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20, Fig.5]. As Heterochätaviperai.
Female: 5, endopod of Mx1.


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 10 de figures morphologiquesissued from : H.S.J. Roe in Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool., London, 1975, 28 (7). [p.345, Fig.23, g]. As Heterorhabdus tenuis.
Male (Cape Verde Islands): g, P5.
Bar scale 0.1 mm.
The present males agree with the descriptions of Tanaka (1964) and Park (1970, as H. vipera male. The differences in P5 between H. tenuis and H. vipera can be seen clearly by comparing Figs. 23 g and 23 f. In H. tenuis the basipodite 2 of the left leg has a haired inner margin and the exopodite 3 of the right leg has a haired inner margin and the exopodite 3 of the right leg is a totally different shape to that of H. vipera. Both endopodites have 3 segments and are omitted for clarity.


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 11 de figures morphologiquesissued from : H.S.J. Roe in Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Zool., London, 1975, 28 (7). [p.345, Fig.23, f]. As Heterorhabdus vipera. Dobtful.
Male (Cape Verde Islands): f, P5.
Bar scale: 0.1 mm.
Nota: For Roe (1975, p.346) the males of H. vipera and H. tenuis Tanaka (1964 have been confused. park (1970) described the male of H. tenuis as H. vipera (Roe (1972), and since the present material includes both species it seems advisable to illustrate the differences in their P5. The present specimen differ slightly from that of Giesbrecht (1892) by having 1 spine on the basipodite 2 of both legs, and by having an outer edge spine on the 2nd exopodite of the right leg.


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 12 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.20, Figs.12, 13]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 12, right Md (mamandibular edge); 13, left Md (mandibular edge).
Nota: Same scale.


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 13 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.20, Fig.20]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 20, Basipodite segments 1 and 2 of Mxp (anterior surface).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 14 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 20 , Fig.27 ]. As Heterochäta vipera.
Female: 27, exopd of P5.
Re = exopod; Si = inner seta.


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 15 de figures morphologiquesParaheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera female:
1 - Left caudal ramus distinctly longer than right and completely fused with anal segment (Fig.54-b)
2 - Dorsally, posterolateral corners of prosome angular (Fig.54 a-b).
3 - Laterally, 2nd urosomal somite (Fig.54-a) without a swelling along ventral margin.
4 - Laterally, posterior slope of genital prominence straight (Fig.54-e).
5 - Genital somite distinctly longer than wide (Fig.54-b).


Espèce Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera - Planche 16 de figures morphologiquesParaheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera female:
1 - Left caudal ramus distinctly longer than right and completely fused with anal segment; setation in both rami as in female (Fig.55-c).
2 - Basis of right P5 with wide, rectangular inner lobe (Fig.55-g).
3 - Exopod of right P5 tapering distally into a single ptocess (Fig.55-e); 2nd lobe of Mx2 (Fig.54-i) with a short seta.

Ref. compl.:
Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions)
NZ: 14

Carte de distribution de Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) vipera par zones géographiques
Loc:
E South Africa, off Tristan da Cunha E, off Ascension Is., off SW St. Helena Is., Cape Verde Is., off NW Cape Verde, Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Brazil (off Rio de Janeiro), off Amazon, Caribbean Sea, G. of Mexico, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), off E Cape Cod, off Madeira Is., Portugal, Bay of Biscay, off N Azores N, W Ireland , W Medit. (Alboran Sea), Natal, Mozambique Channel, Laquedive Is., N Indian, Indian (E equatorial), China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW, E), Japan (Sagami Bay), Pacif. (W equatorial), Salomon Is., Pacif. (tropical central: N-S), Pacif. (E tropical: N-S), off Hawaii (S, N), Chile (S)
N: 31
Lg.:
(38) F: 2,63; M: 2,68; (46) F: 2,8; (88) F: 2,4-2,16; (121) F: 2,16; (199) F: 2,66-2,36; M: 2,51-2,43; ? (199') M: 2,51-2,28; ? (808) F: 2,53-2,35; {F: 2,16-2,80; M: 2,43-2,68}
Rem.: méso-bathypélagique.
Park (2000) n'évoque pas les références de Roe (1975) et de Nishida & Ohtsuka (1996).
Voir aussi les remarques en anglais
Dernière mise à jour : 09/05/2016

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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2019. - Diversité et répartition géographique chez les Copépodes planctoniques marins. Sorbonne Université, CNRS. Disponible sur http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr [Accédé le 19 avril 2019]

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