Fiche d'espèce de Copépode
Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamille )
        Aetideidae ( Famille )
            Gaetanus ( Genre )
Gaetanus miles  Giesbrecht, 1888   (F,M)
Syn.: no Gaetanus secundus Esterly, 1911 (p.317, figs.F); Sewell, 1948 (p.556, 562);
no G. ferox With, 1915 (p.111, figs.M); Sewell, 1948 (p.499);
no Gaetanus miles : Park, 1975 a (p.19, figs.F,M);
G. ferox : ? Vives, 1982 (p.291)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.219, 224, 772, Descr.F, figs.F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.32, Rem. F); Farran, 1908 b (p.36); A. Scott, 1909 (p.44, figs.F, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.231); With, 1915 (p.107, figs.F); Sars, 1925 (p.54, fig.F); Farran, 1926 (p.251, Rem.); Sewell, 1929 (p.102); Rose, 1929 (p.18); Wilson, 1932 a (p.51, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.figs.F); Jespersen, 1934 (p.61); Farran, 1936 a (p.89, Rem. juv); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.16); Sewell, 1947 (p.57, 58); Brodsky , 1950 (1967) (p.169, fig.F); Vervoort, 1952 e (n°46, p.3, fig.F); Tanaka, 1957 b (p.174, figs.F); Fagetti, 1962 (p.18); Grice, 1962 (p.192, figs.F, juv.M); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.45, fig.F); ? Tanaka & Omori, 1970 (p.139); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.130, Rem.); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.79, 91, 277); Bradford & Jillett, 1980 (p.48, 51, figs.F,M, distribution chart); Gardner & Szabo,1982 (p.228, figs.F, M); Vaupel Klein, 1984 a (p.55, figs.F, Rem.); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.204, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.687, Pl.42,44: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.879, 922, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.591, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 1 de figures morphologiquesissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.205, Fig.161].
Female (from Pacif.: off SE Hawaii). CP4: coxopod of P4 (partial); Ce: forehead (dorsal and lateral, respectively).

Nota:
- Frontal spine less long than in G. pileatus and G. secundus and slightly curved to rostrum.
- A1 twice longer than body.
- Mxp protopodite with lateral plate, usually strongly cut, its shale variable.
- Exopod of P1 indistinctly 3-segmented, with 2 external spines.
- Md palp base with 1? seta; endopodal segment 1 with 1 seta; segment 2 with 9 terminal setae.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 2 de figures morphologiquesissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.206, Fig.162].
Male (from Pacif.: off SE Hawaii). Ce: forehead (lateral); Re: exopod; P;md: mandibular palp.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 3 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 86, 1980. [p.53, Fig.34].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, idem (lateral rught side); C, basipod 1 of Mxp; D, exopod of P1; E, inner border of basipod 1 of P4.

Male: F, habitus (lateral left side); G, forehead (lateral left side); H, posterior metasome (lateral left side); I, P5.
Nota: The south-west Pacific specimen has a shorter A1 than in With's (1915) description.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 4 de figures morphologiquesIssued from: G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XVII, fig.1].
Female: 1, habitus (lateral left side).


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 5 de figures morphologiquesissued from : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate VIII, FigS.1-8].
Female (from Indonesia-Malaysia): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forehead (lateral); 3, last thoracic and genital segments (left side); 4, rostrum; 5, Mxp; 6, P1; 7, P2; 8, P4 (basal portion only).
Nota: Rostrum slightly bifidat the apex. The lamella on the basal segment of Mxp, has a bluntly rounded apex, and a very slight excavation. The 'Siboga' specimens appear to differ slightly from Giesbrecht's type, in their larger size, and in possessing 12 instead 6 spines on the inner margin of the 1st basal segment of P4.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 6 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.76, Fig.14, f, k].
Female: f, accessory seta of endopod 4th segment of Mxp (left appendage from lateral) (note: the seta is long as in Undeuchaeta incisa (see p.76, fig.14d) but much more slender, and sparsely plumose); k, arrangement of spinules on the lateral tubercle of endopodite of P1 (left appendage, anterior face) (note: a single row of subequal spinules present, but this one follows the distal circumference of the tubercle).
Scale bar 0.1 mm for f; 0.067 for k.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 7 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.84, Fig.18, f].
Female: f, number and structure of spines among the lateral margin of exopodal segments 1, 2 and 3 of P1 (right appendage, posteriotr face drawn from anterior; marginal hairs on exopodal segments 2 and 3 omitted) (note: the endopodal segment 1 spine is lacking, the remaining two spines are of unequal length, and both multiserrate).


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 8 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 14, Figs.21, 24 ].
Female: 21, Mx1; 24, Mxp (anterior view; setae on endopod omitted).


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 9 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 14 , Figs.25, 27, 30 ].
Female: 25, P1; 27, exopod 3 of P4 (posterior view); 30, basipod 1 of P4.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 10 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 36 , Figs.1, 3].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 3, forehead (lateral).


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 11 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.82, Fig.17, e, f, h].
Female: e, rostrum (anterior view; showing minutely bifid apex); f, frontal region with cephalic spine (lateral view); h, basipodal segment 1 of left Mxp, showing hyaline lappet (lateral aspect).


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 12 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.80, Fig.16, o].
Female: o, arrangement of medial spines on the posterior face of basal segment 1 of right P4 .
Scale bar 0.1 mm.
Nota: 12 flattened laterally decreasing spines inserting individually.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 13 de figures morphologiquesissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.76, Fig.14, k].
Female: k, arrangement of spinules on the lateral tubercle of endopod of left P1 (anterior face).
Scale bar: 0.067 mm.
Nota: A single row of subequal spinules, but this one follows the distal circumference of the tubercle (see the same stucture in Euchirella similis)


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 14 de figures morphologiquesGaetanus miles female:
1 - Anterior part of cephalon with frontal spine.
2 - Exopodal segment 1 of A2 without seta; exopodal segment 2 with 1 seta (distal margin). 2nd internal lobe of Mx1 with 4 setae. Exopod of P1 with 2 external spines.
3 - Mxp protopodite with lateral plate.
4 - Exopodal segment 2 of A2 with 1 seta (on distal margin).
5 - Spines of last thoracic segment exceeding at least the midlength of genital segment. Frontal spine large.
6 - Frontal spine curved to rostrum by its top.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 15 de figures morphologiquesGaetanus miles male:
1 - Cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Cephalon without crest in anterior part.
3 - Exopodal segment 3 of left P5 stylet-like. Body size < 5 mm.
4 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment without spines.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 16 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Tanaka O. in Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1957, 6 (2). [p.174].
Female A1: proportional lengths of segments.
- A1 23-segmented; about 2.6 times as long as total length of body, distal 10 segments exceeds end of caudal rami.
- According to Giesbrecht, segments 8-9, 13 and 24-25 are of equal lengths, but in the present specimen they agree with the decription given by With: segment 13 is 1.1 times as long as segments 8-9, and 1.2 times as long as segments 24-25.


Espèce Gaetanus miles - Planche 17 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Tanaka O. in Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1957, 6 (2). [p.173, Fig.42, h-l].
Female (from Sagami): h, habitus (dorsal); i, forehead (lateral); j, exopodite of P1; k, inner margin of coxa of P4; l, last thoracic segment and genital segment (lateral).

Nota Female:
- Cephalic spine long.
Rostrum short.
- Cephalothorax about 4.6 times the abdomen length ( 3.25 : 0.71).
- Last thoracic segment with lateral spines divergent, and extend beyond the middle of genital segment.
- Abdomen 4-segmented; segments and caudal rami proportional lengths 41 : 15 : 13 : 13 : 18 = 100.
- Genital segment wider than long.
- Caudal rami as long as wide.
- A1 23-segmented.
- A2 exopod 1.2 times as long as endopod.
- Mx1 with 7+2 setae on the outer lobe; endopod with 11 setae; 2nd inner lobe with 4 setae; 3rd inner lobe with 4 setae and a small conical process.
- Mxp2nd basal segment 1.4 times as long zs the 1st which is furnished with rounded lamellous process on posterior margin.
- P1 outer edge spine of 2nd segment of exopodite reaches ammost the distal end of 3rd exopodal segment.- P2 endopod distinctly 2-segmented.
- Coxa of P4 with knife-shaped spines on inner margin; the number of the spines is variable, according to Giesbrecht: 6; A. Scott: 12; With: 15.
- Terminal spine of exopod of P2 to P4 with 15, 17 and 16 teeth respectively.

Ref. compl.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.191); Pearson, 1906 (p.14); Wilson, 1942 a (p.187); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.329, 500, 519, 520, 529, 539, 545, 556, 566); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.232); Wickstead, 1962 (p.549, food & feeding); Grice, 1963 a (p.495); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Oyashio/Kuroshio transitional area, Table 7); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Grice & Hulsemann, 1968 (tab.2); Morris, 1970 (p.2300); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 a (p.338); Heinrich, 1973 (p.95); Björnberg, 1973 (p.324, 386); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Vives, 1982 (p.291); Brenning, 1983 (p.3, Rem.); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Heinrich, 1990 (p.17); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1990 (p.305, fig.5: vertical distribution night/day; fig.7: cluster); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.67); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p108); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Holmes, 2001 (p.49); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.23); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.517); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Williamson & McGowan, 2010 (p.273, Table 3, Pacific central gyres: N and S); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Pillai H.U.K. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, vertical distribution); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Williams R., 2013 (p.71, figs., Table 3.7, C & N composition, trophic level); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions)
NZ: 20

Carte de distribution de Gaetanus miles par zones géographiques
Espèce Gaetanus miles - Carte de distribution 2Issued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in New Zealand Ocean. Inst. Memoir, 86, 1980. [p.87, Figs.63].
Distribution of several species of Gaetanus in the Tasman Sea and around New Zealand.
Espèce Gaetanus miles - Carte de distribution 3Issued from : M. Madhupratap & P. Haridas in J. Plankton Res., 12 (2). [p.312, Fig.5].
Vertical distribution of calanoid copepod (mean +1 SE), abundance No/100 m3. 39- Gaetanus miles.
Night: shaded, day: unshaded.
Samples collected from 6 stations located off Cochin (India), SE Arabian Sea, November 1983, with a Multiple Closing Plankton Net (mesh aperture 300 µm), in vertical hauls at 4 depth intervalls (0-200, 200-400, 400-600, 600-1000 m).
Loc:
South Africa (E), off E Tristan da Cunha, off Trinidade Is., Cape Verde Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., off W Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Brazil, off Rio de Janeiro, off Amazon, off Guyana, Barbada Is., G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda: Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), G. of Maine, off Woods Hole, off Nova Scotia E, Ireland (W & S), Bay of Baffin, S Iceland, Faroe, Arctic, North Sea, Bay of Biscay , Arabian Sea, Laccadive Is., Maldive Is., Natal, Indian, off Sri Lanka (E & SW), Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea (Batten Island); Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (S), Japan (Izu), Bering Sea, Vancouver Is., Pacif. (tropical), Pacif. (central subtropical N), Pacif. (W equatorial), Pacific (central gyres: N and S), New Zealand, Australia ( Great Barrier), California, W Baja California, G. of Tehuantepec, Costa Rica Dome, W Costa Rica, off Galapagos, off Peru, Pacif. (SE tropical), off Juan Fernandez Is., Chile (N-S).

Type locality: Pacific ( NE part).
N: 83
Lg.:
(1) F: 3,9; (5) F: 4,3; (7) F: 4,21; (10) F: 3; (31) F: 3,8-3,4; M: 3; (38) F: 4,25; (45) F: 4,3-3; (46) F: 3,5; (56) F: 3,96; (101) F: 3,52-3,4; (113) F: 4,4-4,2; (199) F: 4,18-3,72; (201) F: 4,7-3,8; M: 3,4; (866) M: 3,4-3,55; {F: 3,00-4,70; M: 3,00-3,55}
Rem.: épi-mésopélagique-?.
Du fait de confusion possible avec Gaetanus secundus certaines localisations géographiques sont peu sûres.
Voir aussi les remarques en anglais
Dernière mise à jour : 16/06/2020

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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2020. - Diversité et répartition géographique chez les Copépodes planctoniques marins. Sorbonne Université, CNRS. Disponible sur http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr [Accédé le 25 septembre 2020]

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