Fiche d'espèce de Copépode
Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamille )
        Candaciidae ( Famille )
            Candacia ( Genre )
Candacia varicans  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace varicans Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.424, 439, 771, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.62, figs.F,M);
Candacia sp. Pesta, 1941 (p.168, figs.M);
Cadancia boricans: Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3: lapsus calami)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.129, Rem. F,M); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.357); Rose, 1929 (p.44); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 273); Sewell, 1932 (p.338); Rose, 1933 a (p.252, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.41); Sewell, 1947 (p.248); Farran, 1948 b (n°13, p.3, figs.F,M); Marques, 1953 (p.120, fig.F); Grice, 1962 (p.234, figs.F,M); 1963 (p.179, fig.F); Crisafi, 1963 (p.129, figs.F,M, juv.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.174, Rem.); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.94, figs.F,M); Shih & al., 1971 (p.37); Razouls, 1972 (p.95, Annexe: p.88, figs.F,M); Lawson, 1977 (p.71, tab.2,3,4, fig.5); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.655, figs.F,M); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.102, figs.F); Boxshall & Huys, 1998 (p.780); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 956, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.174, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.183,193); G. Harding, 2004 (p.25, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.456, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 1 de figures morphologiquesissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.233, Pl.31, Figs.8-16].
Female (ffrom equatorial Pacific): 8-9, dorsal and lateral, respectively); 10, P5.
Long and symmetrical genital segment wihich is produced on the ventral side. P5 slightly asymmetrical and terminate in two rather long, but unequal, points.

Male: 11-12, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 13, Md (citing edge); 14, Mx2; 15, left P5; 16, right P5.
Nota: Thorax and genital segment symmetrical. The basal tooth of Md ends in 3 approximately equal cusps. Right P5 chelate.


Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 2 de figures morphologiquesissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.55, C].
Male (from Banyuls): C, right A1.


Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 3 de figures morphologiquesissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.53, F, J].
Female (from Banyuls): F, P5; J, distal portion of P5.


Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 4 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva, C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999, Vol. 2, Copepoda; [p.1066, Fig. 7.374: Candacia varicans ]. r = right leg of male P5.

Female characteristics (from key, p.956) :
- Terminal segment of P5 with 2 outer spines and 2 distal spines.
- No spine-like process present on ventral side og genital segment.
- Noinner edge setae present on terminal segment of P5.
- Urosomal segment 2 without lateral or ventral protrusion a,d without spine-like process arising from ventral surface.
- Posterior corners of prosome pointed.

Male characteristics (from key, p.956) :
- Proximal spine on Mx2 inner lobe 5 not notably thicker than distal spine.
- In dorsal view, genital segment without process or protrusion.
- Left posterior corner of the prosome pointed.


Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 5 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.176, Fig.126, A-D].
Female: A, urosome (dorsal); B, idem (ventral); C, idem (left lateral side); D, P5.


Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 6 de figures morphologiquesissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.176, Fig.126, E-G].
Male: E, urosome (dorsal); F, part of geniculate A1; G, P5. L = left leg; R = right leg.
Nota: Male left P5 with 2 terminal segments hairy in the Southwest Pacific specimens.


Espèce Candacia varicans - Planche 7 de figures morphologiquesIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf. 39, figs. 2, 23].
Female: 2, habitus (dorsal).

Male: 23, Thoracic segment 5 and abdominal segments 1 and 2.

Ref. compl.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.187); Wilson, 1942 a (p.175); Sewell, 1948 (p.346, 419, 427, 443, 457, 460, 470, 473, 477, 490); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.184); V.N.Gaudy, 1962 (p.93, 99, Rem.: p.112) ; Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.11); Mazza, 1966 (p.72); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Séguin, 1968 (p.488); De Decker, 1968 (p.45); Morris, 1970 (p.2301); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table III: occurrence); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 366); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Dessier, 1979 (p.206); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Vives, 1982 (p.294); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4); De Decker, 1984 (p.317); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1044); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.37); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Brenning, 1987 (p.30, spatial distribution, T-S diagram, Rem.); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.60); Heinrich, 1990 (p.19); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.69); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.102); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,2,3,4); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p109); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.478); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1999 (p.284, tab.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); Holmes, 2001 (p.30); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Osore & al., 2004 (p.195); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.518); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Licandro & Icardi, 2009 (p.17, Table 4); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.424); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Pagano & al., 2012 (p.538, Table 1); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.) ; Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones); Chaouadi & Hafferssas, 2018 (p.913, Table II: occurrence).
NZ: 18

Carte de distribution de Candacia varicans par zones géographiques
Espèce Candacia varicans - Carte de distribution 3issued from : T.J. Lawson in Marine Biology, 1977, 43. [Fig.5, p.82].
Distribution map for the Indian Ocean.
Espèce Candacia varicans - Carte de distribution 4issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock - 36. Jahrgang 1987. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 2. [p.27, Fig.1].
Spatial distribution for Candacia curta, C. armata, C. bipinnata, C. paenelongimana, C. varicans (= varians), C. pachydactyla, C. longimana, C. ethiopica, Paracandacia simplex ( = C. simplex) from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W, for different expeditions (V1: Dec. 1972- Jan. 1973; V2: Feb/Mar. 1973; VI: May 1974; IV: Jun./Jul. 1972).
Espèce Candacia varicans - Carte de distribution 5issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock - 36. Jahrgang 1987. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 2. [p.28, Fig.2].
T-S Diagram for Candacia curta, C. armata, C. bipinnata, C. paenelongimana, C. varicans, C. pachydactyla, C. longimana, C. ethiopica, Paracandacia simplex ( = C. simplex) from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W.
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), Namibia, Angola, Congo, off N St. Helena Is., Sao Tomé, G. of Guinea, off Lagos, off NE St. Paul Is., Cape Verde Is., off NW Cape Verde Is., Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Portugal, SW Atlant., Brazil (off Natal), off. Amazon, Venezuela, E Antilles, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Florida, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Sargasso Sea, off Nova Scotia, G. of St. Lawrence, off Newfoundland, off S Iceland, W Ireland, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Habibas Is., Sidi Fredj coast, Gulf of Annaba, NW, Banyuls, Marseille, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Strait of Messina, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin), Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Laccadive Is., Kenya, Indian, Philippines, China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Bering Sea, Pacif. (W equatorial), New Zealand (North Island N), Tasman Sea, Pacif. (equatorial), off N Hawaii, California, W Baja California, G. of California, W Costa-Rica, Pacif. (SE tropical), Galapagos-Ecuador, Tuamotu (Ahe atoll)
N: 98 (S Atlant.: 15; N Atlant.: 30; Medit.: 25; Red Sea: 1; Indian: 11; Indo-Malaysia: 1; Pacif.: 14)
Lg.:
(16) F: 2,5-2,25; M: 2,4-2,25; (46) F: 2,3; M: 2,1; (101) F: 2,55; M: 2,28-2,14; (199) F: 2,43-1,98; M: 2,13; (342) F: 2,457-1,989; M: 2,424-1,913; (909) F: 2,3-2,4; M: 2-2,3; (1110) F: 2,63-2,74; {F: 1,98-2,74; M: 1,91-2,42}

The mean female size is 2.377 mm (n = 12; SD = 0.2309), and the mean male size is 2.194 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.1665). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.936 (n = 6; SD = 0.0449).
Rem.: épi-mésopélagique.
Voir aussi les remarques en anglais
Dernière mise à jour : 28/02/2020

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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2020. - Diversité et répartition géographique chez les Copépodes planctoniques marins. Sorbonne Université, CNRS. Disponible sur http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr [Accédé le 27 septembre 2020]

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