Geographic Distribution of Pelagic Copepods in the Mediterranean > Discussions
 
   


 

Discussions :

In total, 561 species (382 Calanoida and 183 of other orders) are identified in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea ( see list ) on the 2587 recorded species in the world's ocean (21.7 %).

The species' distribution in this zone is done within 10 subzones that we have set.
Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea with two basins West and East, one can look at the list of species present in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean:

Calanoida
Other orders (podopleans)
Total species
 West Mediterranean basin:
   305
   164
   469
Alboran Sea (subzone 1)
151
105
SW Basin - Balearic Islands (subzone 2)
199
111
Tyrrhenian Sea (subzone 3)
187
87
Western Mediterranean (NE-NW Basin) (subzone 4)
187
93
 Adriatic Sea (subzone 7)
   181
   105
   286
 East Mediterranean basin:
   242
   135
   377
South-East and Malta (subzone 5)
98
54
Ionian Sea (subzone 6)
125
76
Egeen Sea - Rhodos (subzone 8)
110
66
Levant Basin (subzone 9)
200
118
 Black Sea (subzone 10)
   78
   45
   123

The numbers appear overestimated in favour of calanoids compared to podopleans because of the small size of the latter, given the mesh nets used.


The list of present species in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and present also in the surrounding maritime provinces (Atlantic, Red Sea and Indian Ocean) is given in the table below:

 Present species in Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea (zone 14) and also in:
Calanoida
Other orders (podopleans)
Total species
Northeast temperate cold Atlantic (zone 9)
163
55
Northeast subtropical and temperate Atlantic (zone 8)
113
272
Red Sea (zone 15)
96
110
Indian Ocean (zone 16)
129
259


The discussions then, in particular, on the following points:

1 - Species identified only in the Mediterranean or provisionally "endemic": Acartia (Acartiura) enzoi, Acartia (Hypoacartia) adriatica, Amallothrix farrani, Amallothrix sarsi, Badijella jalzici, Calanopia levantina, Calanopia metu, Calocalanus africanus, Calocalanus alboranus, Calocalanus parelongatus, Calocalanus vivesei, Candacia giesbrechti, Cymbasoma nicolettae, Cymbasoma sinopense, Cymbasoma tumorifrons, Disco marinus, Eurytemora grimmi, Eurytemora wolterecki, Expansophria sarda, Exumella mediterranea, Farrania lyra, Mesaiokeras hurei, Mimocalanus brodskyi, Monstrilla pygmaea, Monstrillopsis angustipes, Oncaea africana, Oncaea alboranica, Oncaea furnestini, Oncaea minor, Oncaea neobscura, Oncaea serrulata, Pachos trispinosum, Paradisco mediterraneus, Paramisophria bathyalis, Paramisophria intermedia, Paramisophria mediterranea, Pontellina elegans, Pseudocyclops constanzoi, Pseudocyclops faroensis, Pseudocyclops giussanii, Ridgewayia marki minorcaensis, Scaphocalanus emine, Speleohvarella gamulini, Speleophria gymnesica, Speleophria mestrovi, Speleophriopsis balearicus, Stephos boettgerschnackae, Stephos cryptospinosus, Stephos grievae, Stephos gyrans, Stephos margalefi, Stephos marsalensis, Stephos vivesi, Thompsonopia mediterranea, Triconia sp..

A total of 54 species and 1 sp. (soit 9.3 %) on the 561, correspond to this situation. It is noted that most calanoida are deep species, hyperbenthic species or in a situation of refuge (submarine caves).

Note: Candacia giesbrechti, Pontellina elegans et Scaphocalanus invalidus: probably in other locations; Stephos gyrans: doubtful species; Stephos margalefi: it not sure that this species and S. balearensis are not the same species because of their location; Oncaea minima, O. minor: perhaps also in Red Sea; Oncaea prendeli: found in the Ibero-Moroccan bay; Triconia sp.: from Böttger-Schnack, 1999 (p.116).


2 - Species unique to the Black Sea: Acartia hasanii, Acartia jannetei, Acartia lamasii, Calanopia kideysi, Calanus euxinus, Centropages spinosus, Monstrilla longissima, Monstrilla pontica, Monstrilla semperi, Monstrillopsis zernowi, Paracalanus quasimodo, Pleuromamma indica, Temora turbinata.


3 - Indigenous species to the Indian and/or the Red Sea: Acartia centrura, Candacia catula, Centropages calaninus (1), C. elongatus, Euchaeta concinna (2), Euchaeta paracuta, Acrocalanus gibber (3), A. monachus, Parvocalanus elegans, P. latus, Calanopia elliptica, C. mino, Labidocera madurae, Labidocera pavo, Scolecithricella marginata, S. orientalis .

Note: (1) also recorded in the SW Atlantic; (2) found in the S Atlantic; (3) noted to Bermuda (probably carried away by the Mediterranean deep-water current to the Atlantic).


4 - Species found only in the Mediterranean and Red Sea: Acartia eremeevi, Acartia mollicula, Centropages ponticus, Disco populosus, Labidocera orsinii, Calanopia media.

Nota: Disco populosus: perhaps also in South Atlantic; Calanopia media: noted by Rose in Vietnam.


5 - Relict species of glacial periods: Stephos scotti, Acartia (Acartiura) teclae, Pseudocalanus minutus (1), Chiridius obtusifrons.

Note: (1) this Arctic and subarctic species should require further confirmations.


6 - species whose presence is unwonted (very far from the near NE Atlantic): Paradisco gracilis (1), Pontellina sobrina (2), Stygocyclopia balearica (3), Corycaeus gracilis (4), Spinocalanus terranovae (5), Ctenocalanus citer (6), Oithona longispina (7).

Note: (1) found in the south Atlantic; (2) noted in the tropical east Pacific; (3) noted in Canary Is.; (4) recorded in the south-east Atlantic and Brazil, Venezuela, (5) only known from Antarctic (Lapernat, 1999); (6) only known in Antarctic and Subantarctic (Uysal et al., 2002); (7) known in S Atlantic, Indian and S tropical Pacific.


7 - Species linked with anthropic transports: Paracartia grani (1), Misophria pallida (2) .

Note: (1) Indigenous from the tropical Atlantic (doubtless with aquaculture transport); (2) by transport in the ships' ballasts through the Suez Canal.


8 - Relict species of the Tethys: Speleophria gymnesica, Speleophria mestrovi, Speleophriopsis balearicus, Pontoeciella abyssicola, Lucicutia paraclausi, and probably others to determine.
   

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2017. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en 
[Accessed September 24, 2017]

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