Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Eucalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Eucalanidae ( Family )
            Pareucalanus ( Genus )
Pareucalanus parki  (Fleminger, 1973)   (F,M)
Syn.: Eucalanus parki Fleminger, 1973 (p.969, 978, 995, 998, figs.F); Geletin, 1973 (p.1786, figs.M); 1976 (p.83); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.212, figs.F,M); van der Spoel & Heyman, 1983 (p.42, fig.54);
Eucalanus attenuatus Park, 1968 (p.533, figs.F,M: large forms );
E. quadrisetosus Geletin, 1973 (p.1786: M, no F)
Ref.:
Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.80); Goetze, 2003 (p.2322 & suiv.); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.114, figs.F, Rem.); Goetze & Ohman, 2010 (p.2110, Table 1, A1, Fig.16, molecular study, biogeography)
Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Park T. in Fishery Bull. Fish Wildl. Serv. U.S., 1968, 66 (3). [p.531, Pl.1, Figs.16-17]. As Eucalanus attenuatus large form.
Female: 16, habitus (dorsal); 17, idem (lateral right side).


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Park T. in Fishery Bull. Fish Wildl. Serv. U.S., 1968, 66 (3). [p.534, Pl.2, Figs.1-16]. As Eucalanus attenuatus large form.
Female: 1, forehead (dorsal); 2, urosome (dorsal); 3, posterior part of metasome and urosome (lateral left side); 4, genital segment (ventral); 5, A2; 6, Md; 7, Mx1; 8, Mx2; 9, Mxp; 10, P1; 11, P2; 12, P3; 13, P4.

Fifth copepodid female: 14, habitus (dorsal); 15, forehead (dorsal); 16, posterior part of metasome and urosome (lateral).


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : Park T. in Fishery Bull. Fish Wildl. Serv. U.S., 1968, 66 (3). [p.535, Figs.1-13]. As Eucalanus attenuatus large form.
Male: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side); 3, forehead (dorsal); 4, posterior part of metasome and urosome (dorsal); 5, A2; 6, Md; 7, Mx1; 8, Mxp; 9, P5

Fifth copepodid male: 10, habitus (lateral right side); 11, forehead (dorsal); 12, posterior part of metasome and urosome (dorsal); 13, P5.


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.968, Fig.1, s]. As Eucalanus parki.
Female (from Pacific: 41°57'N, 165°06'W): s, genital segment (lateral right side).


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.994, Fig.18, e]. As Eucalanus parki.
Female from 41°57'N, 165°06'W): e, forehead (lateral right side). Nota: Forehead conical and rounded apex, differs from typical acutely pointed froehead of .


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.994, Fig.18, f, l, m, s, t]. As Eucalanus parki.
Male: f, forehead (dorsal); l, idem (lateral right side); m, anal segment and fused furcal rami (dorsal); s, urosome and P5 (lateral right side); t, P5.
f, l, m, specimen from 39°00N, 154°58'W; s, specimen from 25°20'N, 112°45'W.
Nota: Forehead prominent, protuding as an elongate triangle about twice as far beyond base of rostrum as in sewelli and . Mandibular basis usually with 4 setae, one specimen in 11 with 3 setae.


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.991, Fig.15 Aa, Ba]. As Eucalanus parki.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); a', idem (lateral right side).
Dots represent sites occuring at a frequency of 100% in the pooled sample of the species, open circles are sites appearing in 80 to 99%, crosses are sites occupied in from 10 to 79%. Open triangles are sites also visible in lateral view but assigned to tergal sets.


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky, N.V. Vyshkvartzeva, M.S. Kos & E.L. Markhaseva in Opred Fauna SSSR, 1983, 135. [p.211, Fig.98]. Female.
Nota: Gn, genital complex (specimen from the Pacific Ocean); other figures frm Park, 1968. (redrawn)


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky, N.V. Vyshkvartzeva, M.S. Kos & E.L. Markhaseva in Opred Fauna SSSR, 1983, 135. [p.212, Fig.99]. Male.
Nota: from Park, 1968 (redrawn). np = right leg; lb = left leg.


Species Pareucalanus parki - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.115, Fig.65].
Female (from 07°29'S, 121°05'E): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral right side); d, A2; e, Md (masticatory edge of gnathobase); f, Mx1.
Nota: A1 23-segmentred (segments 1 and 2, 8 and 9 fused). A2 exopod 8-segmented with 12 setae, reaching distal end of endopod segment 1 with 2 inner setae, 1.3 times length of endopod segment 2; endopod segment 2 with 8 long setae and 1 short seta on outer margin. Basis of Md with 4 setae; endopod 2-segmented, arising on middle basis. endopod segment 1 with 2 short setae, endopod segment 2 with 4 long setae. Mx1 with 1st inner lobe with 15 spines, 2nd and 3rd lobes each with 4 setae; 1st outer lobe rather small with 9 setae, 2nd lobe not pronounced with 1 plumose seta; basis with 5 setae; endopod 3-segmented, 1st and 2nd partially fused each with 4 setae, endopod segment 3 small with 5 setae.

Compl. Ref.:
Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker)
NZ: 5

Distribution map of Pareucalanus parki by geographical zones
Species Pareucalanus parki - Distribution map 2issued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull., 1973, 71 (4). [p.993, Fig.17]. As Eucalanus parki.

Geographical localities of the species in the attenuatus group. All identifications except those of Park (1968) and Bradford (1970) verified by examination of integumental organs.
Species Pareucalanus parki - Distribution map 3Issued from : E. Goetze & M.D. Ohman in Deep-Sea Res. II, 2010, 57. [p.2125, Fig.16].
Biogeographic distribution of Pareucalanus parki, a transition zone species in the North Pacific.
Fleminger (1973) records of this species are plotted as open suares. Lang records of 'cold-water form' specimens are plotted
Loc:
N Pacif. (California - Japan), China Seas (East China Sea), off SE Japan, Indonesian Seas (Flores Sea)
N: 7
Lg.:
(72) F: 7-6,52; M: 6; (79) F: 7,17-6,4; M: 5,96-5,2; (131) F: 6,4-7,17; (387) M: 5,34; (1122)* F: 4,32-4,36; {F: 6,40-7,17; M: 5,20-6,00}
* The body sizes found by Mulyadi in the Flores Sea (Indonesia) are very different from the north Pacific forms, but the temperatures are also very different.
Rem.: For Park (1968, p.538) the total lengths in the large form from the tropical Central North Pacific (between 30°N and 55°0°N; 155°W and 154°574W) are 6.52 to 7.00 mm. The mandibular palp has 4 setae on the basis, 2 setae on the 1st endopodal segment, and 5 setae on the second.
According to Fleminger (1973, p.995) large forms of attenuatus s.l. have been noted from the North Pacific by several authors (Tanaka, 1956, Lang, 1965 and Park, 1968).
Last update : 17/01/2020
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