Geographic Distribution of Pelagic Copepods in the Mediterranean > Discussions
 
   


 

Discussions :

In total, 590 species (389 Calanoida and 200 of other orders) are identified in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea ( see list ) on the 2691 recorded species in the world's ocean (21.9 %).

The species' distribution in this zone is done within 10 subzones that we have set.
Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea with two basins West and East, one can look at the list of species present in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean:

Calanoida
Other orders (podopleans)
Total species
 West Mediterranean basin:
   309
   166
   475
Alboran Sea (subzone 1)
156
108
SW Basin - Balearic Islands (subzone 2)
202
112
Tyrrhenian Sea (subzone 3)
191
88
Western Mediterranean (NE-NW Basin) (subzone 4)
187
94
 Adriatic Sea (subzone 7)
   184
   113
   297
 East Mediterranean basin:
   254
   151
   405
South-East and Malta (subzone 5)
101
55
Ionian Sea (subzone 6)
129
76
Egeen Sea - Rhodos (subzone 8)
110
69
Levant Basin (subzone 9)
210
131
 Black Sea (subzone 10)
   81
   47
   128

The numbers appear overestimated in favour of calanoids compared to podopleans because of the small size of the latter, given the mesh nets used.


The list of present species in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and present also in the surrounding maritime provinces (Atlantic, Red Sea and Indian Ocean) is given in the table below:

 Present species in Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea (zone 14) and also in:
Calanoida
Other orders (podopleans)
Total species
Northeast temperate cold Atlantic (zone 9)
164
57
Northeast subtropical and temperate Atlantic (zone 8)
115
273
Red Sea (zone 15)
101
116
Indian Ocean (zone 16)
136
265


The discussions then, in particular, on the following points:

1 - Species identified only in the Mediterranean or provisionally "endemic": Acartia (Acartiura) enzoi, Acartia (Hypoacartia) adriatica, Amallothrix farrani, Amallothrix sarsi, Badijella jalzici, Calanopia levantina, Calanopia metu, Calocalanus africanus, Calocalanus alboranus, Calocalanus parelongatus, Calocalanus vivesei, Candacia giesbrechti, Cymbasoma clauderazoulsi, Cymbasoma mediterranea, Cymbasoma nicolettae, Cymbasoma pseudobidentatum, Cymbasoma specchii, Cymbasoma tergestinum, Cymbasoma tumorifrons, Disco marinus, Eurytemora wolterecki, Expansophria sarda, Exumella mediterranea, Farrania lyra, Mesaiokeras hurei, Mimocalanus brodskyi, Monstrilla ghirardelli, Monstrilla pygmaea, Monstrillopsis angustipes, Oncaea africana, Oncaea alboranica, Oncaea furnestini, Oncaea minor, Oncaea neobscura, Oncaea serrulata, Pachos trispinosum, Paradisco mediterraneus, Paramisophria bathyalis, Paramisophria intermedia, Paramisophria mediterranea, Pontellina elegans, Pseudocyclops constanzoi, Pseudocyclops faroensis, Pseudocyclops giussanii, Ridgewayia marki minorcaensis, Scaphocalanus emine, Speleohvarella gamulini, Speleophria gymnesica, Speleophria mestrovi, Speleophriopsis balearicus, Speleophriopsis mljetensis, Stephos boettgerschnackae, Stephos grievae, Stephos gyrans, Stephos margalefi, Stephos vivesi, Thompsonopia mediterranea, Triconia sp..

A total of 57 species and 1 sp. (soit 9.8 %) on the 590, correspond to this situation. It is noted that most calanoida are deep species, hyperbenthic species or in a situation of refuge (submarine caves).

Note: Candacia giesbrechti, Pontellina elegans et Scaphocalanus invalidus: probably in other locations; Stephos gyrans: doubtful species; Stephos margalefi: it not sure that this species and S. balearensis are not the same species because of their location; Oncaea minima, O. minor: perhaps also in Red Sea; Oncaea prendeli: found in the Ibero-Moroccan bay; Triconia sp.: from Böttger-Schnack, 1999 (p.116).


2 - Species unique to the Black Sea: Acartia hasanii, Acartia jannetei, Acartia lamasii, Calanopia kideysi, Calanus euxinus, Centropages spinosus, Cymbasoma sinopense, Eurytemora grimmi, Monstrilla longissima, Monstrilla pontica, Monstrilla semperi, Monstrillopsis zernowi, Paracalanus quasimodo, Pleuromamma indica.


3 - Indigenous species to the Indian and/or the Red Sea: Acartia centrura, Candacia catula, Centropages calaninus (1), C. elongatus, Euchaeta concinna (2), Euchaeta paracuta, Acrocalanus gibber (3), A. monachus, Parvocalanus elegans, P. latus, Calanopia elliptica, C. mino, Labidocera madurae, Labidocera pavo, Scolecithricella marginata, S. orientalis .

Note: (1) also recorded in the SW Atlantic; (2) found in the S Atlantic; (3) noted to Bermuda (probably carried away by the Mediterranean deep-water current to the Atlantic).


4 - Species found only in the Mediterranean and Red Sea: Acartia eremeevi, Acartia mollicula, Centropages ponticus, Disco populosus, Labidocera orsinii, Calanopia media.

Nota: Disco populosus: perhaps also in South Atlantic; Calanopia media: noted by Rose in Vietnam.


5 - Relict species of glacial periods: Stephos scotti, Acartia (Acartiura) teclae, Pseudocalanus minutus (1), Chiridius obtusifrons.

Note: (1) this Arctic and subarctic species should require further confirmations.


6 - species whose presence is unwonted (very far from the near NE Atlantic): Paradisco gracilis (1), Pontellina sobrina (2), Stygocyclopia balearica (3), Corycaeus gracilis (4), Spinocalanus terranovae (5), Ctenocalanus citer (6), Oithona longispina (7).

Note: (1) found in the south Atlantic; (2) noted in the tropical east Pacific; (3) noted in Canary Is.; (4) recorded in the south-east Atlantic and Brazil, Venezuela, (5) only known from Antarctic (Lapernat, 1999); (6) only known in Antarctic and Subantarctic (Uysal et al., 2002); (7) known in S Atlantic, Indian and S tropical Pacific.


7 - Species linked with anthropic transports: Paracartia grani (1), Misophria pallida (2) .

Note: (1) Indigenous from the tropical Atlantic (doubtless with aquaculture transport); (2) by transport in the ships' ballasts through the Suez Canal.


8 - Relict species of the Tethys: Speleophria gymnesica, Speleophria mestrovi, Speleophriopsis balearicus, Pontoeciella abyssicola, Lucicutia paraclausi, and probably others to determine.


9 - For Selifonova & al. (2010), 20 Mediterranean species have been discovered for the first time in the Black Sea (May-June 2001).This was unusual for this region near the Bosphorus. This invasion could be due to a weaker surface current from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. These invasive species are also observed in the NW of the Black Sea at a great distance from the Bosphorus and very alive. However, it is possible that these species were introduced by ballasts from commercial vessels (Murina & al., 2002; Selifonova & Shmeleva, 2007; Zvyagintsev & Selifonova, 2008). As an example of such invasions we can cite Oithona brevicornis dans les ports de Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Sebastopol. Observations show that these copepods can survive at low salinities. Whatever the mode of introduction, these 33 species of Mediterranean origin confirm a process of Mediterraneanisation of the Black Sea (Pusanov, 1967).
   

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed September 24, 2021]

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